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Preoperative enteric screening for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae was conducted in 360 patients prospectively observed for surgical site infection (SSI). ESBL colonization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.4) and dirty wound classification (aOR, 3.6) were associated with SSI; no association between carbapenem prophylaxis and reduction in SSI was detected.
The interaction of femtosecond ultra-intense laser pulses with clusters increases absorption of the incident laser light compared with the interaction with solid targets and leads to enhanced generation of different quantum beams with unique parameters. Future investigations of such interaction urgently need detailed modeling and optimization of cluster parameters, for instance, in order to obtain the clusters with desired size, or some specific spatial configuration of the target etc. A numerical model of gas-cluster targets production by the nozzle flows of gases and binary mixtures is presented. Some previous results of the model utilization are summarized, and some new results are given. Techniques of experimental verification of the numerical results are discussed.
In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007–2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.
We report on the results of a UV-Optical spectral monitoring of the bright Seyfert 1 galactic nuclei Mkn 335. This campaign began in June, 1989, and ended in June, 1991. Ultraviolet spectra of fourteen epochs at nearly uniform sampling of 30-day intervals, except when the object was inaccessible from the IUE satellite, have been obtained, of which twelve were coordinated with quasi-simultaneous ground-based optical observations made at Lick Observatory.
The one of the possibilities concerning the cause of AGN jets is the super-Eddington luminocity around the Massive Black Hole. If the case of optically thick state is assumed, we can define the super-Eddington temperature in the optically thick case, from the following condition that
where r∗ = 2c2r/GM. The creation of electron- positron pairs and the pahse change are expected to occur in the such temperature rage around 109K, where the radiation pressure is dominant in the lower temperature and the pair pressure be in the higher one.
Research on close binary systems has continued at a high level during the past triennium, although the rate of growth is noticeably slower – probably reflecting the cutbacks in funds to which many of us are subject. There have also been changes of emphasis within the field, which are commented on in the pages that follow. These reflect both changing opportunities for observation and the natural development of the subject. In many areas, the time is ripe for a more critical look at ideas that previously seemed adequate.
This report covers the period July 1, 1996 (the closing date of the reports in the IAU Trans. 23A) through August 31, 1999. Since the reports of Commissions 27 and 42 that follow highlight the research made in the triennium, we limit ourselves here to organizational activities of the Division. The first three sections are devoted to the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), and the Archives of Unpublished Observations of Variable Stars, the important projects that serve us all. I am indebted to the authors, listed in the sections headings, for providing these summaries. The problems of naming and classifying variable stars, implicit in Sect. 2, are taken up in Sect. 5. The last section lists meetings sponsored by the Division.
A rapid and dramatic change in our views of the Universe which we have witnessed during the past two decades or so is often compared with what happened at the time of Galileo. Revolutionary role of the optical telescope then may be analogized with that of space-astronomy today which has drastically opened the new observational window to the Universe. The revolution is ongoing with a rapid pace or even being accelerated.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
To determine the characteristics of acute phase nystagmus in patients with cerebellar lesions, and to identify a useful indicator for differentiating central lesions from peripheral lesions.
Acute phase nystagmus and the appearance of neurological symptoms were retrospectively investigated in 11 patients with cerebellar stroke.
At the initial visit, there were no patients with vertical nystagmus, direction-changing gaze evoked nystagmus or pure rotatory nystagmus. There were four cases with no nystagmus and seven cases with horizontal nystagmus at the initial visit. There were no neurological symptoms, except for vertigo and hearing loss, in any cases at the initial visit. The direction and type of nystagmus changed with time, and neurological symptoms other than vertigo appeared subsequently to admission.
It is important to observe the changes in nystagmus and other neurological findings for the differential diagnosis of central lesions.