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Trail making test (TMT) was developed as a neuropsychological test evaluating frontal lobe function. However, the contribution of frontal lobe in results of TMT is still controversial because studies in patients with brain injuries suggest the role of basal ganglia rather than frontal lobe in results of TMT.
To examine the contribution of frontal lobe in the results of TMT, we measured blood flow in frontal cortex during performance of computer version TMT-A and TMT-B.
Sixteen healthy student volunteers (8 male, 25.9±5.3 year old; 8 female, 22.0±2.9 year old) was used in the study. Seven laser beam probes and 8 sensor probes were put on frontal lobe, and absorbance of 695 nm and 830 nm infrared beams were measured at 10Hz by optic topography (ETG 4000, Hitachi, Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan).
Concentration of deoxyhemoglobin was decreased while concentration of oxyhemoglobin was increased in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of TMT-A and TMT-B.
The results suggest that blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of TMT, and possible involvement of this brain region in the performance of TMT.
Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates reduced from 33.9 to 13.9 and 37.3 to 11.3 per 100 000 population, respectively. Also, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates reduced from 2.2 to 1.5 and 2.8 to 1.0 per 100 000 population, respectively. Average APC in the incidence and mortality rates showed significant decline both in men (−6.2% and −5.4%, respectively) and women (−5.7% and −4.6%, respectively). Age-specific analysis demonstrated decreases in incidence and mortality rates for every age category, except for the incidence trend in the younger population. Although trends in active TB incidence and mortality rates in Japan have favourably decreased, the rate of decline is far from achieving TB elimination by 2035.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the incretin hormones secreted from the intestine in response to enteral feeding to stimulate insulin secretion. We investigated the relationship serum GIP and GLP-1 levels with gestational age, and insulin secretion in preterm infants. Serum GIP and GLP-1 levels were measured at birth and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after birth in 30 infants, including 12 born before 30th week of gestation (early group) and 18 born after 30th week of gestation (late group). Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was also calculated. The levels of GLP-1 at 2 and 4 weeks were significantly higher in the early group than those in the late group. The levels of GIP were not significantly different between two groups. At 4 weeks, serum insulin level was significantly higher and QUICKI was significantly lower in the early group. Furthermore, GLP-1 levels were significantly correlated with QUICKI and the serum insulin levels in all infants at 4 weeks. In preterm infants, enteral feeding to premature intestine may be associated with GLP-1 secretion. GLP-1 is also related to stimulated insulin secretion in early postnatal period.
We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of filament-finding in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.
We found a molecular cloud connecting from the outer region to the “Galactic Center Mini-spiral (GCMS)” which is a bundle of the ionized gas streams adjacent to Sgr A*. The molecular cloud has a filamentary appearance which is prominent in the CS J=2-1 emission line and is continuously connected with the GCMS. The velocity of the molecular cloud is also continuously connected with that of the ionized gas in the GCMS observed in the H42α recombination line. The morphological and kinematic relations suggest that the molecular cloud is falling from the outer region to the vicinity of Sgr A*, being disrupted by the tidal shear of Sgr A* and ionized by UV emission from the Central Cluster. We also found the SiO J=2-1 emission in the boundary area between the filamentary molecular cloud and the GCMS. There seems to exist shocked gas in the boundary area.
We studied GeTe structures in topological switching random access memories (TRAMs) with a [GeTe/Sb2Te3] superlattice by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of the TRAMs deposited at different temperatures. We found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 and 240°C and that the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films.
We present new, wide, and deep images in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm continuum and the 12 CO (J = 1–0) emission toward the northern part of the Orion-A GMC. We have found evidence for interactions between molecular clouds and the external forces that may trigger star formation. Two types of possible triggers were revealed: (1) Collisions of the diffuse gas on the cloud surface, particularly at the eastern side of the OMC-2/3 region, and (2) Irradiation of UV on the pre-existing filaments and dense molecular cloud cores. Our wide-field and high-sensitivity imaging has provided the first comprehensive view of the potential sites of triggered star formation in the Orion-A GMC.
Performance on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using a titanium dioxide nanoparticle layer treated by tetrafluoromethane gas plasma was investigated through electrical properties under illumination. A 50%-increase of maximum power density was observed in the plasmatreated DSCs when RF power and processing time are 1W and 100s, respectively. We also obtain diode factor between 1 and 2 in the fabricated DSCs from a plot of short-circuit current versus open-circuit voltage and then the calculated current density-voltage curve was good agreement with the experimental data.
Patients suspected of having cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis are diagnosed using investigations such as fine needle aspiration cytology and the polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, these investigations are intended for primary tuberculosis infection. The majority of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis cases in the elderly are thought to be caused by reactivation.
The aims of this study were (1) to examine the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology, polymerase chain reaction and blood tests in the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis caused by reactivation, and (2) to clarify any differences when compared with primarily infected cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis cases.
Materials and methods:
Thirty-three elderly patients with neck lumps underwent excisional biopsy from 2003 to 2008. The efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology was examined by comparing the results of excisional biopsy with those of fine needle aspiration cytology performed at the initial medical examination for cases of suspected tuberculous disease. Furthermore, the leucocyte count and C-reactive protein concentration were compared for cases of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis versus cases of malignant lymphoma.
Although nine cases were diagnosed with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis using excisional biopsy, only one of these had been suspected based on fine needle aspiration cytology results. Three cases with tuberculous lymphadenitis were suspected of having malignant lymphoma on initial examination. There was no significant difference in the leucocyte count and C-reactive protein concentration, comparing cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis versus malignant lymphoma.
Unlike the primary infection often seen in endemic areas, the diagnosis of early stage tuberculous lymphadenitis of the swelling type caused by reactivation in elderly people is difficult to confirm unless excisional biopsy is performed. In elderly patients with neck lumps, cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
Plasmodium falciparum thymidylate kinase (PfTMK) can tolerate a range of substrates, which distinguishes it from other thymidylate kinases. The enzyme not only phosphorylates TMP and dUMP but can also tolerate bulkier purines, namely, dGMP, GMP, and dIMP. In order to probe the flexibility of PfTMK in accommodating ligands of various sizes, we developed 6 mutant enzymes and subjected these to thermodynamic, inhibitory and catalytic evaluation. Kinase activity was markedly affected by introducing a larger lysine residue instead of A111. The lack of the hydroxyl group after inducing mutation of Y107F affected enzyme activity, and had a more severe impact on dGMP kinase activity. PfTMK can be inhibited by both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, raising the possibility of developing highly selective drugs. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that enthalpic forces govern both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate binding, and the binding affinity of both substrates was highly comparable. The heat produced due to dGMP binding is lower than that attributable to TMP. This indicates that additional interactions occur with TMP, which may be lost with larger dGMP. Targeting PfTMK not only affects thymidine nucleotide synthesis but may also affect purine nucleotides, and thus the enzyme represents an attractive antimicrobial target.
The coercive field measured from ferroelectric hysteresis loop for pure and Mg:SLT (0.5 mol% doped) crystals were found to be independent of ramp rate of voltage, while it depends strongly on ramp rate for Mg:SLT (1 mol% doped) crystals. The measured coercive field decreased monotonously depending on the Mg concentration and low Ec value of 6 kV/cm is obtained for Mg(1.0 mol%)SLT crystal. Internal field of about 1 kV/cm present in pure SLT completely gets vanished in Mg(1.0 mol%)SLT. Spontaneous polarization is insensitive to the Mg addition. The origin of the internal field and large changes in switching fields appear largely to be dependent on the [Li]/[Li+Ta] ratio in crystals. On repeated cycling, the coercive field is found to have a marginal variation in pure and Mg doped SLT crystals.
Background and objective: Although midazolam is commonly given orally to infants and small children for premedication, the taste is sometimes unacceptable even when mixed with syrup. We tested the efficacy and safety of oral fentanyl compared with oral midazolam in a randomized open-label study.
Methods: Fifty-one children, aged 12–107 months and weighing 10–25 kg, were randomly assigned to fentanyl or midazolam treatment groups. Midazolam (5 mg) or fentanyl (0.1 mg) was given orally from a small bottle with a small orifice 30 min before transfer to the preoperative holding room. The excitation–sedation conditions of the patients were assessed before and after general anaesthesia.
Results: The preoperative scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. No major complications were observed in either group. Postoperative vomiting occurred in 5 of 27 (18.5%) patients treated with oral fentanyl and in none of 24 of those treated with midazolam.
Conclusions: Oral administration of fentanyl 30 min before entrance to the holding room for an operation from a bottle with a small orifice is a premedication option for children between 1 and 8 yr of age.
Haplotype analysis is important for mapping traits. Recently, methods for estimating haplotype frequencies from genotypes of unrelated individuals based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm have been developed. Our program estimates haplotype frequencies in the population and determines the posterior probability distribution of diplotype configuration (diplotype distribution) for each subject based on the estimated haplotype frequencies. Samples from three ethnic groups for the smoothelin gene (SMTN) and those from three Japanese groups for serum amyloid A genes (SAA@) were analyzed. The estimated diplotype distribution for each individual was concentrated, in most cases, in a single diplotype configuration. The diplotype configuration thus determined was the same as that determined in in vitro experiments, with one exception. Thus, the diplotype configurations determined using the estimated haplotype frequencies from unrelated individuals are reliable. Using this method, the risk of a subject developing a phenotype may be estimated from the diplotype distribution when the phenotype is associated with diplotype configurations.
Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy (SNDM) is the method for observing ferroelectric polarization distribution, and now, its resolution has become to the sub-nanometer order, which is much higher than other scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods for the same purpose. Up to now, we have studied high-density ferroelectric data storage using this microscopy. In this study, we have conducted fundamental experiments of nano-sized inverted domain formation in LiTaO3 single, and successfully formed inverted dot array with the density of 1.5 Tbit/inch2.
In this paper we review studies aiming at elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for anomalously low pressure coefficients of the light emission energy, dEE/dP, observed in quantum structures of InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN. We have established that in hexagonal InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN structures the main mechanism involved is related to the pressure induced increase of the piezoelectric field which determines also the strong red shift of the emission energy with thickness of the quantum well. To reproduce the experimental findings in InGaN/GaN case, it is necessary to take into account the dependence of the piezoelectric constants on the volume-conserving strain. Whereas the experimental results on a decrease of dEE/dP in GaN/AlGaNstructures can be fully accounted for within the linear elasticity theory. In contrast to these findings, dEE/dP magnitude measured in cubic InGaN/GaN quantum structures shows value close to changes of the InGaN bangap with pressure obtained from first principle calculations. The latter result is consistent with the absence of the built-in electric fields in the cubic nitride structures.
Optical properties of fully-strained wurtzite and zincblende InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures were compared to discuss the origin of exciton localization. In contrast to the hexagonal InGaN MQWs, the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of cubic InGaN MQWs showed a moderate blueshift with decreasing well thickness, L, and low-temperature PL decay time of the cubic MQWs did not depend strongly on L. The results imply that the wavefunction overlap in cubic InGaN MQWs was not reduced compared to the hexagonal ones, since they do not suffer from the electric field normal to the QW plane due either to spontaneous or piezoelectric polarization. Both MQWs exhibited a large and composition-dependent bandgap bowing, and time-resolved PL (TR-PL) signals showed a stretched-exponential decay even at room temperature. The exciton localization is considered to be an intrinsic property of InGaN.
The AFM technique has made a remarkable progress recently. However, relatively few studies using the UHV-AFM have been reported compared to those using atmospheric AFMs or UHV-STMs. Atomic-resolution images of the clean sample surface in ultrahigh vacuum, which is relatively active and not observable in atmosphere, have been reported only few examples. The intense reaction between the tip of the cantilever and the sample in contact mode imaging, one of the techniques used in atomic imaging in atmosphere, often damages the surface of the sample, making it difficult to acquire atomic-resolution images in UHV.
In order to reduce the strong interaction between the tip and the sample, the noncontact imaging technique for the UHV-AFM (NC-AFM: JAFM-4500XT) has been developed. However, none of the atmospheric NC-AFMs has succeeded in achieving atomic level resolution.
We measured relative positions of the 22 GHz H2O maser components toward the class 0 protostar S106FIR with the VLA. Two clusters of H2O masers were found. The separation between these clusters is approximately 50 AU at position angle = 73° and each cluster is spread over about 10–20 AU The size of the S106FIR maser clusters is unusually compact compared with other known H2O masers associated with outflows of forming stars. The maser emission appears to originate from MHD driven outflow very close to the star.