To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this work, the authors developed SiC(10 nm)/Ag/SiC(10 nm) thin films showing an electroforming-free resistive switching (RS) effect with a switching ratio of 102. The observed RS effect is attributed to charging and discharging of Ag nanoparticles in the film layer. Further, SiC/Ag/SiC film shows an excellent endurance and retention as well as a good thermal stability of RS characteristics. It is also identified that the switching ratio is invariant but the switching voltage of the device greatly depends on the Ag nanoparticles concentration and the operation temperature of the device. Therefore, SiC/Ag/SiC thin films are attractive for next-generation memory devices with enhanced durability.
Over the last decade, there have been three major developments in perioperative blood management. Firstly, the recognition of preoperative anaemia and perioperative transfusion as risk factors for perioperative morbidity and mortality. Secondly, there is much greater involvement of haematologists in preoperative planning and perioperative care. Thirdly, there has been a widespread introduction of point-of-care testing and aggressive, protocol-driven blood component use in the management of perioperative bleeding.
To compare risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery between women covered by Medicaid and private health insurance.
Cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid or private insurance and reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and state inpatient discharge databases by hospitals in California (2011–2013).
Deliveries reported to NHSN and state inpatient discharge databases were linked to identify SSIs in the 30 days following cesarean delivery, primary payer, and patient and procedure characteristics. Additional hospital-level characteristics were obtained from public databases. Relative risk of SSI by primary payer primary payer was assessed using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics, accounting for facility-level clustering.
Of 291,757 cesarean deliveries included, 48% were covered by Medicaid. SSIs were detected following 1,055 deliveries covered by Medicaid (0.75%) and 955 deliveries covered by private insurance (0.63%) (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.3; P < .0001). The adjusted odds of SSI following cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .0001) times the odds of those covered by private insurance.
In this, the largest and only multicenter study to investigate SSI risk following cesarean delivery by primary payer, Medicaid-insured women had a higher risk of infection than privately insured women. These findings suggest the need to evaluate and better characterize the quality of maternal healthcare for and needs of women covered by Medicaid to inform targeted infection prevention and policy.
Water exposures in healthcare settings and during healthcare delivery can place patients at risk for infection with water-related organisms and can potentially lead to outbreaks. We aimed to describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consultations involving water-related organisms leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
Retrospective observational study.
We reviewed internal CDC records from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017, using water-related terms and organisms, excluding Legionella, to identify consultations that involved potential or confirmed transmission of water-related organisms in healthcare. We determined plausible exposure pathways and routes of transmission when possible.
Of 620 consultations during the study period, we identified 134 consultations (21.6%), with 1,380 patients, that involved the investigation of potential water-related HAIs or infection control lapses with the potential for water-related HAIs. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were involved in the greatest number of investigations (n = 40, 29.9%). Most frequently, investigations involved medical products (n = 48, 35.8%), and most of these products were medical devices (n = 40, 83.3%). We identified a variety of plausible water-exposure pathways, including medication preparation near water splash zones and water contamination at the manufacturing sites of medications and medical devices.
Water-related investigations represent a substantial proportion of CDC HAI consultations and likely represent only a fraction of all water-related HAI investigations and outbreaks occurring in US healthcare facilities. Water-related HAI investigations should consider all potential pathways of water exposure. Finally, healthcare facilities should develop and implement water management programs to limit the growth and spread of water-related organisms.
The present study examines the influence of language proficiency and language combination on bilingual lexical access using category fluency in 109 healthy speakers. Participants completed a category fluency task in each of their languages in three main categories (animals, clothing, and food), each with two subcategories, as well as a language use questionnaire assessing their proficiency. Five language combinations were examined (Hindi–English, Kannada–English, Mandarin–English, Spanish–English, and Turkish–English). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that the average number of correct items named in the category fluency task across the three main categories varied across the different groups only in English and not the other language. Further, results showed that language exposure composite (extracted from the questionnaire using a principal component analysis) significantly affected the average number of items named across the three main categories. Overall, these results demonstrate the effects of particular language combinations on bilingual lexical access and provide important insights into the role of proficiency on access.
Traditional diagnostic capabilities (serology and culture) are not enough to monitor the poultry infections efficiently. For effective control of poultry infections, a regular program incorporating simple and cost-effective molecular diagnostics is necessary. On this rationale, it is possible to present working molecular diagnostic technology that would work equally well in field as well as in the laboratory. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has emerged as simple and inexpensive diagnostic tool for the molecular detection of various animal pathogens. To perform LAMP, no specialised instruments (e.g. thermal cycler) are required, permitting its use in developing countries. Various reliable LAMP assays have been reported for the detection of different poultry pathogens. However, still there is a need to improve the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, user-friendliness, delivery to end-user and affordability of LAMP assays. This article reviews current LAMP assays available for the molecular detection of important viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens of poultry. It focuses on the various aspects of LAMP for the diagnosis of important poultry pathogens based upon pathogen type, specimen, target genes, LAMP primer types, detection limits, fluorescent detectors and LAMP chemistry used. This paper provides updates on principle, instrumentation, basic methodology, quantification capability, reagents and kits used currently in performing LAMP.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Peripheral neuropathy is the dose limiting toxicity of paclitaxel treatment. Paclitaxel pharmacokinetics (PK), specifically the Cmax and amount of time the concentration remains above 0.05 µM (Tc>0.05), have been associated with occurrence of severe, clinician-documented neuropathy. The objective of this study was to confirm that paclitaxel PK predicts progression of patient-reported neuropathy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This observational trial enrolled breast cancer patients receiving weekly 1-hour paclitaxel infusions (80 mg/m2×12 cycles) at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. Paclitaxel concentration was measured via LC/MS in plasma samples collected at the end of (Cmax) and 16–24 hours after (Tc>0.05) first infusion. Patient-reported neuropathy was collected (EORTC CIPN20) at baseline and each cycle. The rate of neuropathy severity increase per treatment cycle is being modeled for each patient. Cmax and Tc>0.05 values will be introduced into the model to confirm that PK independently contributes to neuropathy progression. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: PK and neuropathy data have been collected from 60 patients for ongoing analysis. Our initial model will characterize the expected severity of neuropathy after each cycle of paclitaxel treatment. The PK-neuropathy model will include either PK parameter to validate their contribution to the progression of neuropathy severity during treatment. We anticipate, based on our preliminary analysis of the first 16 patients, that both PK parameters will significantly contribute to the model but Tc>0.05 will be more strongly associated with neuropathy progression. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This project will generate a model that can be used to predict a patient’s neuropathy severity throughout treatment using a single, conveniently collected and easily measured PK sample during their first cycle. The next steps of this project include identifying genetic and metabolomic biomarkers that predict which patients experienced more severe neuropathy than would be anticipated based on their paclitaxel PK, and a planned interventional trial of personalized paclitaxel dosing to enhance efficacy and/or prevent neuropathy.
Six benthic biotic indices (Shannon–Wiener H′log2, W-statistics, BOPA, BENTIX, AMBI and M-AMBI), based on different ecological principles, were applied to assess the health of variously disturbed tropical intertidal habitats of the Port Blair coastline. A total of 243 replicate samples were collected during the dry period (January, February and March) of 2014–2016. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sediment pH, total organic matter content and texture were analysed. A high mean abundance of opportunistic species (Orbinia sp. 748, Capitella singularis 237 and Armandia sp. 114 ind. m−2) was observed at Phoenix Bay, a gradual decline in diversity at Junglighat and a comparatively high diversity and moderate biomass at Wandoor, reflecting a human pressure gradient. Results showed an annual decline of benthic quality from 2014 to 2016 (good to moderate). Overall BOPA failed to distinguish the magnitude of disturbances, while the rest of the indices classified the benthic quality from undisturbed/high (WD), slightly disturbed/good (JG), to moderately disturbed/moderate to poor (PB). The subjective analysis demonstrated that the urban centres corresponded to disturbed benthic communities of dominant first and second order opportunistic species, while sensitive (EGI) and indifferent (EGII) were associated with the least disturbed or undisturbed site. The study successfully demonstrated the performance of temperate indices in intertidal habitats against the mild organic enrichment. However, for an effective assessment, setting natural reference conditions and sampling in stable dry periods (strong seasonality in tropics) is desirable. In order to test the performance of biotic indices, a long-term monitoring approach of taking abiotic and biotic descriptors into account is recommended.
Postnatal depression is known to cause disability and suffering in women and negative consequences both for their infants and their families, with huge costs globally. Several studies from low and middle income countries (LAMIC) have demonstrated that effectively delivered psychological interventions are cost effective for improving maternal and child health, but access to these interventions is limited in both the low and high income countries.
The objective of the study is to develop and test a mobile phone-based intervention (TechMotherCare), which will include components of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and child development related psychoeducation.
The aim of the study is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the TechMotherCare intervention.
A total of 36 participants will be recruited from health centers in Karachi, Pakistan for this 2-arm randomized pilot study. The TechMotherCare App intervention will be based on principles of CBT and learning-through-play (LTP) a parenting intervention and will assess the real-time depressive symptoms of participants and respond, using intelligent real time therapy (iRTT) dependent on symptoms reported by participants.
Outcome assessments will be completed after 3 months (end of intervention). In-depth qualitative interviews will also be conducted with participants pre- and post-intervention. The trial is ongoing and we will present both the qualitative and quantitative results.
The results of this pilot trial will inform the design of a larger randomised controlled trial using a mobile based technology platform to address the huge treatment gap in LAMICs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
This article features the importance of nanomaterial–protein interfaces, with a special interest on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, for next generation sensors and electronics. Graphene, the first isolated and studied 2D nanomaterial, is taken as the material of most interest and then focused on its engineering by heteroatom doping. The success of graphene engineering for sensors widened the search for better and efficient biosensor platforms of other layered materials such as boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides. But functionalization of 2D backbones with biomolecules often ends up with the disruption of the biological activities due to various reasons. This has to be fundamentally studied and corrected for the clinical implementation of these materials based novel sensing platforms in point-of-care devices and micro-fluidic chips. At the end, importance of various 2D materials–biomolecule interfaces is discussed, and MoS2 based label-free biosensor is highlighted. A method for the modification of MoS2–biomolecule interaction via covalent functionalization of oxygen functionalities in MoS2 is also proposed.
Immune mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This has lead to clinical trials of re-purposing drugs with off-target anti-inflammatory actions. They include the antibiotic minocycline and simvastatin (HMP-Co reductase inhibitor), which decrease microglial activation, and ondansetron a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist that has limited effects on cytokine production. This presentation will address their efficacy and mechanism of action.
1) Update on trials with minocycline including our own positive finding on negative symptoms (PMID: 16959472)
2) Present new results with ondansetron and simvastatin summarised below.
Ondansetron (8mg) and simvastatin (40mg) vs placebos in 2x2 design (PMID: 23782463). Patients aged 18-65, stable treatment, DSM IV schizophrenia-related diagnosis. PANSS and cognition at 0,3,6 months.
The four cells of the 2x2 design contained 302 patients. The interaction between ondansetron and simvastatin was significant at p=.006 reflecting the lower scores in the 3 active treatment groups than in the P+P group. Ondansetron improved verbal (p=.007) and visual list learning (p=.02) with no other treatment effects on cognition.
Minocycline appears to benefit negative symptoms in early psychosis with a minor effect on cognition. Simvastatin had limited effects in our patients with established schizophrenia but its anti-inflammatory effects could be worth investigating in early psychosis. Ondansetron has a significant effect on new learning, which might be expected from its 5-HT3 antagonist properties. This may underlie a benefit on negative symptoms reported by others and us.
Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.
Meat colour and tenderness are considered as two of the most important quality
attributes influencing consumer's purchasing and repurchasing decisions
respectively. This review discusses the importance of poultry meat quality with
reference to texture/tenderness. The manuscript includes different factors
affecting poultry meat texture, methods for improving tenderness, ultra
structural changes, and comparison of up-to-date tenderisation methodologies
available in the literature are discussed. The tenderising efficacy, advantages
and disadvantages of various physical, chemical, enzymatic characteristics and
their synergistic effects in poultry meat is narrated. This review provides
comprehensive information for poultry processors, retailers and consumers and
gives an overall view to researchers.
Cereals and legumes are staple foods in India and are limiting in lysine and sulphur amino acids, respectively. Available lysine loss, due to Maillard-type reactions that may occur during food preparation, exacerbates the problem of lysine deficiency particularly in cereals. Consequently, determining the contents of digestible essential amino acids, particularly lysine, is important. True ileal digestibilities of most amino acids (including total and reactive lysine) were determined for ten food ingredients and eleven foods commonly consumed in India. Semi-synthetic diets each containing either an ingredient or the prepared food as the sole protein source were formulated to contain 100 g kg− 1 protein (75 g kg− 1 for rice-based diets) and fed to growing rats. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. Digesta were collected and the amino acid content (including reactive lysine) of diets and ileal digesta determined. Available (digestible reactive) lysine content ranged from 1·9–15·4 g kg− 1 and 1·8–12·7 g kg− 1 across the ingredients and prepared foods respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibility varied widely both across ingredients and prepared foods for each amino acid (on average 60–92 %) and across amino acids within each ingredient and prepared food (overall digestibility 31–96 %). Amino acid digestibility was low for many of the ingredients and prepared foods and consequently digestibility must be considered when assessing the protein quality of poorer quality foods. Given commonly encountered daily energy intakes for members of the Indian population, it is estimated that lysine is limiting for adults in many Indian diets.
We report on the fabrication of ZnO nanosheets on Graphene and other substrates at ambient conditions. The growth mechanism and the effect of the substrate are also discussed. Our synthesis method is based on sonochemical reaction of Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine in aqueous solutions. Extensive analysis by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed crystalline ZnO composition of the ZnO nanosheets. The proposed method is a rapid, inexpensive, low-temperature, catalystfree, CMOS compatible and environmentally benign alternative to existing growth techniques.