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The Act on medical care and treatment for insane or quasi-insane person who have caused serious incidents in Japan went into effect in July, 2005. It is critical to understand the current situation and the issue concerning medical care in this legal system for revision of the Act five years later. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate and analyze the information comprehensively collected from designated inpatient medical institutions and outpatient medical institutions from a technical standpoint.
The subjects of this research are 50 cases from designated inpatient medical institutions and 4 cases from designated outpatient medical institutions who have been registered as the subject of treatment under the Act. Static information at the time of the treatment starts and dynamic information, such as treatment evaluation usually created periodically in routine work, were the specific documentation for this research. From the information, variables required for analysis of improvement of medical care and operational situation of the Act were collected through the use of a database system.
Results and Conclusion
Since the Act was enacted last year, this one year research remains as a short term monitoring targeting a few cases. In this report, evaluation and progress of treatment of the subject will be presented with the information relevant to the mental illness and the judicial system exposed by collected various kinds of data. From this information, we outline the current situation and issues in this legal system and shows the usability of the result from this monitoring research.
Lead-free, piezoelectric (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films were epitaxially grown onto (100) SrTiO3 substrate via pulsed laser deposition. The effects of post-annealing temperature on the crystal phases, mosaic spread, and chemical composition of the deposited (Na,K)NbO3 and (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films were analyzed. Results indicate the epitaxial growth of (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films deposited at an oxygen pressure (PO2) of ≥40 Pa and substrate temperature (Ts) of 800°C. The alkaline-deficiency could be suppressed in the (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films deposited at PO2 ≥ 70 Pa. AFM profile of the (Na,K)NbO3 post-annealed at 1000°C indicates the epitaxial growth of film with atomically flat step-terrace structure, while that of the (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 film post-annealed at 1200°C shows relatively smooth surface with step-terrace structure and several cubic crystals. It was also found that the preferential evaporation of alkaline components could be suppressed by annealing under covered substrate condition.
Studies of the feeding behaviour of aquatic species in their natural environment are difficult, since direct observations are rarely possible. In this study, a newly developed animal-borne underwater sound recorder (AUSOMS-mini) was applied to captive Amazonian (Trichechus inunguis) and Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) manatees in order to directly record their feeding sounds. Different species of aquatic plants were offered to the manatees separately. Feeding sounds were automatically extracted using a custom program developed with MATLAB. Compared to ground truth data, the program correctly detected 65–79% of the feeding events, with a 7.3% or lower false alarm rate, which suggests that this methodology is a useful recorder of manatee feeding events. All manatees foraged during both the daytime and night-time. However, manatees tended to be less active and masticated slower during the night than during the day. The manatee mastication cycle duration depended on plant species and individual. This animal-borne acoustic monitoring system could greatly increase our knowledge of manatee feeding ecology by providing the exact time, duration and number of feeding events, and potentially the plant species being fed on.
Organised haematomas of the maxillary sinus are rare, non-neoplastic, haemorrhagic lesions which can extend into the nasal cavity and/or the other paranasal sinuses. This study aimed to investigate the pathology of maxillary sinus organised haematoma, and also proposes a new aetiological hypothesis based on the observed pathology.
Biopsies, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and post-surgical histopathological examination of resected specimens were carried out.
Distinct pathological differences were observed between the basal and peripheral portions of organised haematomas. We propose that an organised haematoma originates from the exudation of blood components between vascular endothelial cells. As a result, the basal portion consists of aggregated, dilated vessels around the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus. In addition, pseudovessels, without endothelial cells, arise from endocapillary vessels within the haematoma. Exudation of additional blood components from the pseudovessels advances the growth of the organised haematoma.
The feasibility of using a photoconductor with a Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction for visible light sensors was investigated. CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. However, their dark current is too high for image sensors. In this study, we applied gallium oxide (Ga2O3) as a hole-blocking layer for CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. Experimental results showed that the dark current was drastically reduced, and an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 6 V. However, this structure had sensitivity only in the ultraviolet light region because its depletion region was almost completely spread in the Ga2O3 layer since the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer was much lower than that of the CIGS layer. These results indicate that the Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction has potential for use in visible light sensors but that we also need to increase the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer to shift the depletion region to the CIGS film.
(Na,K)NbO3 is a promising candidate for lead-free piezoelectric materials. (Na1-xKx)NbO3 films (x = 0.3–0.7) were epitaxially grown on a (100)SrTiO3 substrate via pulsed laser deposition. The effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure during deposition on the crystallinity of the films were examined: both parameters affected the mosaic spread of the crystallites and the formation of an impurity phase. In this study, the optimum conditions for the preparation of highly crystalline films were a substrate temperature of 800 °C and oxygen pressure of ∼60 Pa. The lattice constants parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface responded differently to changes in x: the constant parallel to the surface increased with increasing x, while the constant perpendicular to the surface was maximized at x = 0.5. The difference in the dependence of the lattice constants could be explained by the elastic distortion of the lattice.
An aqueous magnetic suspension was prepared by dispersing amphiphilic co-polymer (ACP) coated monodispersed magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) synthesized through thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in a mixture of oleic acid and oleylamine. ACP composed of poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) and polyethylene glycol methyl ether was applied to disperse MNPs in water and buffer solution. The average diameter of MNPs increased from 6.6 to 12.5 nm with increasing reaction temperature from 200 to 250°C. Infrared spectra and elemental analysis revealed that the surface modified MNPs contain carboxyl groups originated from oleic acid and ACP. The conjugation of MNPs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibody was examined. As a result, the as-synthesized MNPs adsorbed BSA antibody effectively than the surface modified MNPs: the BSA antibody adsorption decreased with increasing cross-linker concentration.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
Compound formation properties of very finely layered Mg/Al laminate composite (“super laminate composite”) were investigated. Almost uniform Mg17Al12 compound was obtained by heat treatment of the super laminate at 673K in less than 0.6ks(10 minutes). The rate control process of the compound formation is thought to be the diffusion of Mg in Al. Hydrogenation properties of thus obtained Mg17Al12 compound were also studied and its absorption capacity and dissociation pressure were almost the same as those previously reported material, which was prepared by a longer time heat treatment.
We have prepared Mg/Pd laminate composites with (Mg/Pd)=6, 3 and 2.5 atom ratios, by a super lamination technique. The homogeneous Mg-Pd intermetallic compounds, Mg6Pd, Mg3Pd and Mg5Pd2, are formed during the initial activation process. We investigated the hydrogen storage properties of these materials. The compounds can reversibly absorb and desorb a large amount of hydrogen, up to 1.46˜0.9 H/M, at 573 K. Except for the Mg5Pd2-hydrogen system, the pressure composition-isotherms show two plateaux. The mechanism of the phase transition during hydrogenation/dehydrogenation was analyzed by in-situ XRD measurements. These intermetallic compounds absorb and desorb hydrogen through reversible multistage disproportionation and recombination processes.
The fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in whole, unbroken eggs was monitored during storage at fixed or changing temperatures after inoculation with 20–47 c.f.u. of SE. Eggs stored at 10°C and 20°C showed little or no bacterial growth over 6 weeks, while egg storage at 30°C increased the percentage of the eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 3 weeks. Egg storage at 20°C for 5 days followed by 10°C caused only a few eggs with >106 c.f.u. after 2 weeks, whereas storage at 22–30°C or 27–35°C for 5 days followed by 25°C induced a rapid increase of eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Therefore, egg storage at 10°C and 20°C can control SE growth, although the temperature during egg storage and transportation from farm to table should also be taken into consideration.
Successful offspring production after intracytoplasmic injection of freeze-dried sperm has been reported in laboratory animals but not in domesticated livestock, including pigs. The integrity of the DNA in the freeze-dried sperm is reported to affect embryogenesis. Release of endonucleases from the sperm is one of the causes of induction of sperm DNA fragmentation. We examined the effects of chelating agents, which inhibit the activation of such enzymes, on DNA fragmentation in freeze-dried sperm and on the in vitro and in vivo developmental ability of porcine oocytes following boar sperm head injection. Boar ejaculated sperm were sonicated, suspended in buffer supplemented with (1) 50 mM EGTA, (2) 50 mM EDTA, (3) 10 mM EDTA, or (4) no chelating agent and freeze-dried. A fertilization medium (Pig-FM) was used as a control. The rehydrated spermatozoa in each group were then incubated in Pig-FM at room temperature. The rate of DNA fragmentation in the control group, as assessed by the TUNEL method, increased gradually as time after rehydration elapsed (2.8% at 0 min to 12.2% at 180 min). However, the rates in all experimental groups (1–4) did not increase, even at 180 min (0.7–4.1%), which were all significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the control group. The rate of blastocyst formation after the injection in the control group (6.0%) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those in the 50 mM EGTA (23.1%) and 10 mM EDTA (22.6%) groups incubated for 120–180 min. The average number of blastocyst cells in the 50 mM EGTA group (33.1 cells) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the 10 mM EDTA group (17.8 cells). Finally, we transferred oocytes from 50 mM EGTA or control groups incubated for 0–60 min into estrous-synchronized recipients. The two recipients of the control oocytes became pregnant and one miscarried two fetuses on day 39.
The results suggested that fragmentation of DNA in freeze-dried boar sperm is one of the causes of decreased in vitro developmental ability of injected oocytes to the blastocyst stage. Supplementation with EGTA in a freeze-drying buffer improves this ability.
This paper is motivated by an observation: in the nascent state of vortex breakdown before it develops into a full-grown radial expansion, an initially straight vortex core first swells, and does so even in a straight pipe for no apparent reason. Although this initial swelling may be explained in many ways according to the perspectives chosen, we offer our own interpretation framed solely within vorticity dynamics: the radial swelling as well as the subsequent growth are induced by the azimuthal vorticity gradient decreasing downstream. The negative azimuthal vorticity gradient first appears at start-up and moves eventually into the region where the circulation reaches its steady-state value. The vorticity gradient can become negative without necessarily being accompanied by a sign-switch of the azimuthal vorticity itself.
The key point – that the negative azimuthal vorticity gradient induces initial radial swelling and its growth – is demonstrated in two analyses. First, a kinematic analysis results in an equation for the radial velocity where the azimuthal vorticity gradient appears as a source term. Its solution shows, in general and explicitly, that the negative azimuthal vorticity gradient does induce radially outward velocity. Two heuristic examples serve to illustrate this point further. In the second analysis, using the equation of motion in the streamline coordinates, the negative azimuthal vorticity gradient is shown to diverge the meridional streamlines radially. A numerical simulation using a modified vortex filament method not only corroborates this role of the azimuthal vorticity gradient in initiating and promoting the radial expansion, but also adds details to track the formation process. Both analyses and simulation support our interpretation that the initial radial swelling and its subsequent growth are induced by the negative azimuthal vorticity gradient.