Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The brittle-to-ductile transition (BDT) and the strain-rate dependence of the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) have been recently investigated in single crystals of TiAl . It was found that the activation energy associated with the BDTT is 1.4 eV when the slip is dominated by ordinary dislocations and 4.9 eV when it is dominated by superdislocations. Despite this difference in the activation energies, the BDTT, while varying with the strain-rate, remains in the same temperature range, viz., between 516–750C and 635–685C for ordinary and superdislocations, respectively. In this paper, we examine how the activation energy of the BDTT can vary with the type of dislocation activity and explain why it can attain values which are clearly much larger than the activation energy for dislocation motion. We describe a strain-rate dependent mechanism of cooperative dislocation generation in loaded solids above a critical temperature and use it to explain the characteristics of the BDT in TiAl. We show that the activation energy associated with the BDTT is a composite value determined by two or more inter-dependent thermally activated processes and its magnitude can be much larger than the activation energy for dislocation motion in certain materials. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with observations in TiAl.
Twinning modes in topologically close-packed A-15 compounds are examined from a geometrical viewpoint. The crystallographically possible twinning modes with a shear less than a certain maximum are tabulated along with the percentage of shuffles involved for each of the modes. Based on some simple criteria, two of the most likely modes for deformation twinning are discussed in detail. The shuffle parameters usually employed to determine the percentage of lattice shuffles for a given mode have not been found to be useful in these structures because the primitive unit cell typically contains more than one formula unit. One has to examine the distribution of atoms in detail in order to determine the percentage of shuffles involved.
We investigate the structures of dislocation cores in a model DO22 type intermetallic alloy in the absence of external stresses. The tetragonal distortion produces sessile configurations of superpartial dislocations even when the energies of planar faults are reasonably low. The influence of the core configurations on the mechanical behavior at low temperatures is discussed.
A systematic geometrical procedure for predicting favored boundaries in the structural unit model is presented. The method is applicable to both symmetric and asymmetric tilt boundaries. The predictions are confirmed by modeling the structures of tilt boundaries belonging to low symmetry ( and ) axes in f.c.c. and b.c.c. structures. The results confirm the applicability of the structural unit model for relatively high-index tilt axes.
The characteristic features of the brittle-to-ductile transition are explained using a model of cooperative dislocation generation. In two dimensions, the onset of the ductile behavior corresponds to a thermally-driven, stress-assisted dissociation of many atomic-size dislocation dipoles in the vicinity of the crack tip above a critical temperature Tc. The instability is caused by thermally induced screening of dislocation interactions as in the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. However, the critical temperature is well below the melting temperature in the presence of a stress. The nature of dislocation dynamics in the vicinity of the crack tip is also described and its role in the onset of the cooperative instability is examined. The origin of the correlation between the strain-rate dependence of the transition temperature and the temperature dependence of dislocation mobility is explained.
The relationship between atomic structure and elastic properties of grain boundaries is investigated from both discrete and continuum points of view. A heterogeneous continuum model of the boundary is introduced where distinct phases are associated with individual atoms and possess their atomic level elastic moduli determined from the atomistic model. The complete fourth-order tensors of both the atomic-level and the effective elastic moduli are determined, where the latter are defined for sub-blocks from an infinite bicrystal and are calculated here for a relatively small number of atom layers above and below the grain boundary. These effective moduli are determined exactly for the discrete atomistic model, while only estimates from upper and lower bounds can be determined for the continuum model. Comparison between the atomistic results and those for the continuum model establishes the validity of this definition of elastic properties for heterogeneous structures at these scales. Furthermore, these comparisons as well as algebraic properties of the fourth-order tensor of moduli lead to criteria to assess the stability of a given grain boundary structure.
An investigation of the brittle-to-ductile transition (BDT) in silicon has been conducted on essentially dislocation-free silicon test specimens made by photolithography. No pre-cracks or additional dislocation sources were introduced into the samples. Three-point bending tests of the samples reveals a well defined transition from brittle fracture of the specimens to complete yielding near 732°C at a crosshead displacement rate of 0.1 mm/min. Limited plasticity is observed below 732°C but is insufficient to prevent crack propagation suggesting that yielding is not dislocation mobility limited. Instead the transition may be controlled by the nucleation of a sufficient density of dislocations. Further support comes from the results of experiments conducted at temperatures below 732°C in which samples were rapidly pre-loaded within the linearly elastic regime, then immediately retested. This rapid pre-loading results in a lower transition temperature. This would not be expected if dislocation mobility controlled the BDT. Instead, it is believed that the transition only occurs when a sufficient density of dislocations has nucleated within the sample. In these experiments, the pre-loading event may increase the dislocation nucleation rate. The source of the dislocations in these defect free samples is still under investigation.
We present a model for the anomalous increase of the yield stress exhibited by many L12 compounds. It is based on two thermally activated processes that describe respectively the pinning and unpinning of  screw dislocations in the (111) plane. The model explains all the important characteristic features observed in the anomalous regime. We discuss the applications of the model to Ni3Ga and Ni3(Al,Ta).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.