To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Innovation Concept: The Orange Book (OB) identifies drugs approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the FDA and serves as the gold standard reference for correct pharmacological therapies. It ties in closely with Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) modelling good stewardship in antimicrobial prescriptions. The book focuses on passive didactic learning instead of active learning, which was shown to have a greater influence on prescribing behaviour. Educational video games, a form of active learning, have been shown to improve clinical skills in medical training. Contagion is a role-playing video game providing an active way of teaching antimicrobial components of the OB and CWC guidelines. Method: Phase I of Contagion was qualitatively tested on students and physicians at McMaster University for teaching effectiveness, applicability to real-life scenarios, and enjoyability. Post-game play 12 participants scored different aspects of the game on a Likert scale. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The player is a rural physician treating infections in various communities. Each round, the player is given a crate of antibiotics. As communities are infected, the player is provided with clinical symptoms the patients present with. The player must identify the pathology and then correctly treat the communities. The player can treat empirically or order tests to identify the infectious organism. The player strategically navigates which communities to treat as there are limited actions per turn and the player must prevent communities from dying or infecting neighboring regions. Communities tend to build antibiotic resistance over time making first-line treatments unviable, thus careful strategizing and stewardship is essential. Active learning will occur when players are tasked with finding the correct answer to different presentations. After each turn, players will learn about the infecting organism, its phenotypes, and common infectious symptoms. This is considered passive learning. Conclusion: Contagion was well-received by physicians and medical students as an active learning tool to teach the OB and CWC guidelines. On preliminary user testing Contagion scored 5 in effectiveness in teaching treatments and 4.6 in teaching stewardship. An objective of this project is to perform large scale testing across schools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the learning components of the game. We hope to eventually create a tool that can be incorporated in continuing medical education for physicians.
Antisocial behaviour is common among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) requiring hospitalisation.
To determine whether differential treatments and services are provided to patients with SMI who engage in antisocial behaviour.
A random sample of 161 inpatients with SMI were recruited from general adult wards and assessed at baseline and two years later. Information on symptoms, aggressive behaviour, substance misuse, and service use was obtained from patients and clinical files.
Past antisocial behaviours were not associated with type or intensity of treatments and services. Severity of positive symptoms, aggressive behaviour, and illicit drug use were positively associated with the frequency of CMHT contact, but not with the type of CMHT, type of medication, or other treatments and benefits.
While the frequency of meetings with CMHTs increased with the severity of antisocial behaviours, no specific treatments were provided to patients with SMI engaging in antisocial behaviours.
Ego defense mechanisms, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. Vaillants’ proposed Hierarchy of Defenses states that mature defenses are associated with better adaptive functioning and health, as opposed to immature defense which are correlated negatively with measures of adaptive adult functioning.
This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population.
A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire(DSQ-40) individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors.
Neurotic defenses had a higher mean score(5.62) than Mature(5.60) and Immature(4.78) mechanisms. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p< 0.05).
Neurotic mechanisms are more commonly encountered than Mature or Immature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi, and this could reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.
Multiculturalism has become a powerful force in Canada in recent years. Approximately 25% of physicians are International Medical Graduates (IMGs). In psychiatry, cultural variations affect the symptomatic manifestations of mental illness. Psychiatric trainees need to develop cultural competence since cultural knowledge is an important determinant of treatment outcome.
The Mental Health Commission of Canada in its Framework for Mental Health Strategy included addressing issues of race, ethnicity, national origin, citizenship, gender, creed, sexual orientation, class/socioeconomic status, age and disability. The Royal College Objectives for Psychiatry state ‘the resident must be able to address issues of gender, sexual orientation, age, culture, ethnicity, spirituality, and ethics in a professional manner.’
To teach residents components of cultural competency; to measure change in attitudes before and after the module; and to increase awareness of link of cultural competency to professionalism and communicator role.
The Queen's University Department of Psychiatry designed an innovative Cultural Competency Module for its residents. Queen's staff from Human Rights Office, International Center and Dept. of Psychiatry provided: a) a full day workshop on cultural self-awareness; b) modules on Sexual and Gender Diversity and c) Race/Ethnicity. Each section included didactics, case vignettes, small group discussions, and role plays of culturally sensitive interviews. Gain in knowledge and attitude change was measured by pre and post questionnaires. Residents also participated in an online version of the Intercultural Developmental Inventory to find out their group score.
Residents had shift in attitudes/knowledge of cultural competency after the module.
Psychotherapy is one of the most widely investigated and practiced forms of treatment used in the treatment of different mental health problems. However, there are some barriers in delivering this treatment, including long waiting lists, therapist shortage and lack of access to therapists in remote areas. Therefore, using alternative methods to overcome these barriers seems necessary.
The division of psychiatry at Queen's university provides different psychotherapy groups for individuals suffering from different kinds of mental health problem. We gave the participants the opportunity to choose online psychotherapy through an online clinic or the live group sessions. All the patients were assessed by different questionnaires for evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment. The online clinic was designed to facilitate the communication between patients and clinicians and the material was delivered in PowerPoint format through the online platform. All user activities were logged for security purposes.
Statistical analysis showed that this method of delivering psychotherapy significantly reduced patients’ symptoms and also decreased the number of people on the waiting list and increased the amount of compliance in patient's taking part in psychotherapy and number of people who were able to receive psychotherapy.
Despite the proven short and long-term efficacy of psychotherapy, there are some barriers in delivering this treatment. It is an unequivocal public health needs to overcome these barriers through alternative methods of therapy. With Internet use ever rising, developing an online clinic could be a new way in delivering different kinds of psychotherapy.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Adolescence is an important period for cognitive maturation and emotional regulation, and this age group is particularly vulnerable to developing depression. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with decreased risk of developing depressive disorders across the lifespan, maybe due to the high flavonoid content of these foods. Previously, we have shown increases in transient positive affect (PA) in both children and young adults 2 h after administration of a wild blueberry (WBB) intervention. Here, using a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of 4 weeks, daily WBB supplementation (containing about 253 mg anthocyanins) on transient and chronic mood in adolescents. Healthy 12–17-year old (n 64, thirty-five females) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a WBB or matched placebo supplementation. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention period using the Mood and Feeling Questionnaire and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Transient affect was assessed before, 2 weeks and at 4 weeks using PA and negative affect. Following the intervention period, there were significantly fewer self-reported depression symptoms in participants who were supplemented with WBB compared with placebo (P = 0·02, 95 % CI –6·71, –5·35). There was no between-group effect on anxiety symptoms or on transient affect. Further investigation is required to identify specific mechanisms that link flavonoids consumption and mood. If replicated, the observed effects of WBB supplementation may be a potential prevention strategy for adolescent depression and may have benefits for public mental health.
Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty is the treatment of choice for patients with moderate to severe pulmonary valve stenosis.
An observational retrospective cross-sectional study including neonates, small infants, and children who underwent balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in the period from 2007 to 2016 in the cardiac catheterisation unit of the paediatric cardiology department in Cairo University. Multivariable models were built to report the predictors of the outcome of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and its complications.
A total of 1200 patients were included in the study and divided according to age into 3 groups: neonates and early infants (n = 282), infants (n = 362), and children (n = 556). Procedural success, defined as a drop pressure gradient across the pulmonary valve to less than or equal to 50% of the baseline measurements, was achieved in 82.7% of the patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that only infundibular pulmonary stenosis (p value 0.032), supravalvular in association with valvular pulmonary stenosis (p value <0.001), and pulmonary valve diameter by angiogram (p value <0.001) were significant predictors of success. The presence of supravalvular in association with valvular pulmonary stenosis (p value <0.001) was associated with a lower weight (p value 0.007) and higher right ventricular pressure before the intervention (p value <0.001), and a minor immediate drop in the pressure gradient post-intervention (p value <0.001) was found to be the most significant predictor of the occurrence of complications.
The absence of infundibular and supravalvular stenosis and a large pulmonary valve diameter were the most significant predictors of success.
The aim of this work was to study the acceptability of plans prepared for prostate patients treated by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the vision to evaluate the quality of plans and test pre-treatment quality assurance (QA).
VMAT plans of 35 patients, planned on the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Aria 15), were included in the study. Plan acceptability was checked using statistical analysis, which includes homogeneity index, radical and median homogeneity index, coverage and uniformity index. Dose–volume histograms (DVH) of the plans were also studied to check prescribed dose (PD), Dmax, Dmin, D5 and D95. Portal dosimetry was also done by gamma analysis using 3%/3 mm criterion. SD and mean SD error were also calculated and analysed.
Statistical analysis showed a mean HI of 1·054, coverage 0·959, UI 1·055, mDHI 0·962 and rDHI 0·866. SD of HI, coverage, UI, mDHI and rDHI was 0·019, 0·019, 0·014, 0·013 and 0·030, respectively. From the DVHs, mean of D5, D95, Dmin and Dmax was calculated at 6,252·9, 5,757·4, 6,413·3 and 5,657·7 cGy, respectively, with a prescribed dose of 6,000 cGy. According to gamma analysis, area gamma < 1 was 99·12% with a tolerance limit of 95%, maximum gamma was 1·466 with a tolerance limit of 3·5, average gamma was 0·388 with a tolerance limit of 0·5, area gamma > 1·2 was 0·242% with a tolerance limit of 0·5%, maximum dose difference was 0·6 with a tolerance limit of 1·0 and average dose difference was 0·029 with a tolerance limit of 0·2.
All three computations showed the results to be within acceptable limits. VMAT possesses a unique feature of delivering the whole treatment with only two rotations of the gantry. VMAT has an improved efficiency of delivery for equivalent dosimetric quality.
This chapter addresses key questions about the basis of cancer susceptibility in African people, as well as the uniqueness of the population genetics and genotype–phenotype relationship that resulted during social transition. Social transition encompasses the change of lifestyle from a rural subsistence one into an urban market-oriented, technology dependent, and predominantly sedentary mode of life, as well as changes that occur in the population genetics as a result of changes from ethnically defined structured populations into panmictic populations of an urban nature, as currently seen in megacities. Although humans passed through several periods of transition in history, the current one is the most profound.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
A numerical simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of leading edge blowing upon heat alleviation on the surface of hypersonic vehicles. The initial phase of this work deals with the ability of the present CFD-based techniques to solve hypersonic flow field past blunt-nosed vehicles at hypersonic speeds. Towards this end, the authors selected three re-entry vehicles with published flow field data against which the present computed results could be measured. With increasing confidence on the numerical simulation techniques to accurately resolve the hypersonic flow, the boundary condition at the solid blunt surface was then equipped with the ability to blow the flow out of the solid boundary at a rate of at least 0.01–0.1 times the free stream (ρ∞u∞) mass flow rate. The numerical iterative procedure was then progressed until the flow at the surface matched this new ‘inviscid like’ boundary condition. The actual matching of the flow field at the ejection control surface was achieved by iterating the flow on the adjacent cells until the flow conformed to the conditions prescribed at the control surface. The conditions at the surface could be submitted as a ρ∞u∞ at the surface or could be equipped as a simple static pressure condition providing the desired flow rate. The comparison between the present engineering approach and the experimental data presented in this study demonstrate its ability to solve complex problems in hypersonic.
The current research paper addresses the hypothesis that management system (grazing vs. stabling) and/or stage of lactation (early- to late-lactation) can influence the lactation performance and milk fatty acid (MFA) profile in dromedary camels. The results obtained revealed that milk and protein yields of stabled camels were higher, while milk fat content was lower compared to grazing camels. In addition, stabled camels produced milk richer in short- and medium-chains fatty acids but lower in long-chain fatty acids and fatty acids linked with possible health benefits such as oleic acid, vaccenic acid (VA) and rumenic acid (RA), when compared to grazing camels. Moreover, atherogenicity index was higher, while overall Δ9-desaturase and health-promoting indices were lower in stabled camels. In a similar way, results demonstrated an increase in milk fat and protein contents as lactation advanced. In fact, camels at mid-lactation produced milk richer in short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as total saturated fatty acids but poorer in oleic acid, VA, RA, long-chain fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids, when compared to milk samples collected at early stage of lactation. Moreover, compared to early- and late-lactations, atherogenicity index was higher while overall-Δ9-desaturase and health promoting indexes were lower at mid-lactation. In conclusion, the intensive stabling system and mid-lactation stage can alter lactation performance and MFA profile in dairy dromedary camels.
Zirconium thin films were irradiated at room temperature with an 800 keV Zr+ beam using a 6 MV HVE Tandem accelerator to 1.36 displacement per atom damage. Freestanding tensile specimens, 100 nm thick and 10 nm grain size, were tested in situ inside a transmission electron microscope. Significant grain growth (>300%), texture evolution, and displacement damage defects were observed. Stress–strain profiles were mostly linear elastic below 20 nm grain size, but above this limit, the samples demonstrated yielding and strain hardening. Experimental results support the hypothesis that grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals act as very effective defect sinks.