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The range and number of educational and networking events that are available for fellows, trainees, and junior faculty to attend grows every year. Each meeting useful in its own way; each adding value to the development and the growth of an interventionist. Within paediatric, congenital, and structural heart disease, three of the standout meetings are: Pediatric and Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS-AICS), Congenital and Structural Interventions (CSI), and International Workshop on Interventional Pediatric and Adult Congenital Cardiology (IPC). All of these were started by leaders in our field; people known to be passionate educators and innovators. International congresses focusing more broadly on congenital cardiac disease in children and adults are rare. These forums allow more interdisciplinary discussions between the interventionist, surgeon, and non-invasive specialists. Purely interventional meetings are essential to allow colleagues to debate and explore the nuances and intricacies of technique and approach, developing concepts to be challenged in wider forums. During the recent 21st PICS-AICS meeting Prof. Ziyad M. Hijazi, Shakeel A. Qureshi, Mario Carminati, and Dr Damien Kenny shared their time to engage in frank, recorded conversations which provide a unique insight in to the process and concepts behind three of our most important educational congresses.
Breastfeeding may reduce obesity risk, but this association could be confounded by breastfeeding families’ characteristics. We investigated if body composition differs at birth among infants who were either exclusively breast- or formula-fed. We hypothesized the two groups would differ in body composition, even at birth, prior to their post-natal feeding experience. Healthy primiparous carrying singleton pregnancy were recruited at 15 weeks’ gestation. PEA POD® measured body composition within 72 hours of delivery and infant feeding was prospectively captured. Out of the 1,152 infants recruited, 117 (10.2%) and 239 (20.7%) went on to be either exclusively breast- or formula-fed, respectively. Breastfed infants were heavier at birth, but their percentage fat mass (FM) was lower than that of exclusively formula-fed infants (covariate adjusted β = −1.91 percentage points of FM; 95% CI −2.82 to −1.01). Differences in intra-uterine exposures, irrespective of early diet, may partly explain an infant’s obesity risk.
The Stac Fada Member of the Stoer Group, within the Torridonian succession of NW Scotland, is a melt-rich, impact-related deposit that has not been conclusively correlated with any known impact structure. However, a gravity low approximately 50 km east of the preserved Stac Fada Member outcrops has recently been proposed as the associated impact site. We investigate the location of the impact structure through a provenance study of detrital zircon and apatite in five samples from the Stoer Group. Our zircon U–Pb data are dominated by Archaean grains (> 2.5 Ga), consistent with earlier interpretations that the detritus was largely derived from local Lewisian Gneiss Complex, whereas the apatite data (the first for the Stoer Group) display a single major peak at c. 1.7 Ga, consistent with regional Laxfordian metamorphism. The almost complete absence of Archaean-aged apatite is best explained by later heating of the > 2.5 Ga Lewisian basement (the likely source region) above the closure temperature of the apatite U–Pb system (c. 375–450°C). The U–Pb age distributions for zircon and apatite show no significant variation with stratigraphic height. This may be interpreted as evidence that there was no major change in provenance during the course of deposition of the Stoer Group or, if there was any significant change, the different source regions were characterized by similar apatite and zircon U–Pb age populations. Consequently, the new data do not provide independent constraints on the location of the structure associated with the Stac Fada Member impact event.
Fundamental parameters calculations are used for the analysis of europium in the concentration range of 0.1 WT% to 30.0 WT% in the oxidic catalyst supports alumina, calcia, magnesia lanthania, and thoria. The precision and accuracy of this method is dependent on how the sample matrix is defined in the fundamental parameters program and the number and concentration of the standards used. Results comparable to the multiple regression method are obtained when the matrix stoichiometry is defined as Eu2O3 and the catalyst oxide (i.e. Al2O3 etc). It is also necessary to use standards which bracket the europium concentration in the samples. When these conditions are met, the results are comparable to those obtained from a ten point multiple regression calibration curve but with a considerable saving of standard preparation time. The precision is better than ±2% relative. The % relative difference between the fundamental parameters and multiple regression results is also 2%. Data is presented which illustrates the effect of defining the sample stoichiometry in the XRF11 computer program.
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is usually not considered a surface technique in the same sense as ESCA or Auger spectroscopies. However, it can be a useful tool in studying the “surface” and bulk concentrations of elements in heterogeneous catalysts. The “surface” is defined by the effective penetration depth of the analyte line of the element of interest in a specific matrix. In the example which is presented, silver on alumina, the “surface” using the Ag KB1,3 is defined by a shell 3000 microns deep while for the Ag LAI it is 15 microns. Two methods of sample preparation are discussed and data obtained using three different calculation methods is presented. Data from the x-ray fluorescence method is compared to the silver depth profile in the alumina pellets obtained by electron microprobe analysis. The XRFS method allows rapid screening of many catalyst samples for the fraction of the cost of the microprobe technique.
Animal’s feed efficiency in growing cattle (i.e. the animal ability to reach a market or adult BW with the least amount of feed intake), is a key factor in the beef cattle industry. Feeding systems have made huge progress to understand dietary factors influencing the average animal feed efficiency. However, there exists a considerable amount of animal-to-animal variation around the average feed efficiency observed in beef cattle reared in similar conditions, which is still far from being understood. This review aims to identify biological determinants and molecular pathways involved in the between-animal variation in feed efficiency with particular reference to growing beef cattle phenotyped for residual feed intake (RFI). Moreover, the review attempts to distinguish true potential determinants from those revealed through simple associations or indirectly linked to RFI through their association with feed intake. Most representative and studied biological processes which seem to be connected to feed efficiency were reviewed, such as feeding behaviour, digestion and methane production, rumen microbiome structure and functioning, energy metabolism at the whole body and cellular levels, protein turnover, hormone regulation and body composition. In addition, an overall molecular network analysis was conducted for unravelling networks and their linked functions involved in between-animal variation in feed efficiency. The results from this review suggest that feeding and digestive-related mechanisms could be associated with RFI mainly because they co-vary with feed intake. Although much more research is warranted, especially with high-forage diets, the role of feeding and digestive related mechanisms as true determinants of animal variability in feed efficiency could be minor. Concerning the metabolic-related mechanisms, despite the scarcity of studies using reference methods it seems that feed efficient animals have a significantly lower energy metabolic rate independent of the associated intake reduction. This lower heat production in feed efficient animals may result from a decreased protein turnover and a higher efficiency of ATP production in mitochondria, both mechanisms also identified in the molecular network analysis. In contrast, hormones and body composition could not be conclusively related to animal-to-animal variation in feed efficiency. The analysis of potential biological networks underlying RFI variations highlighted other significant pathways such as lipid metabolism and immunity and stress response. Finally, emerging knowledge suggests that metabolic functions underlying genetic variation in feed efficiency could be associated with other important traits in animal production. This emphasizes the relevance of understanding the biological basis of relevant animal traits to better define future balanced breeding programmes.
It has been suggested that cattle have a greater ability to digest fibrous feeds and a lower ability to digest non-fibrous feeds than sheep (Mc Donald et al., 1995). This statement applies mainly to forages and few direct comparisons have been conducted using concentrate ingredients. The digestibility of concentrate ingredients may be influenced by the level of consumption since an increase in intake of a complete diet resulted in a decrease in digestibility (El Khidir and Vestergaard Thomsen, 1983). The aims of this study were (a) to determine the effect of level of consumption by cattle and (b) to examine the effect of animal species (sheep and cattle) on the digestibility of concentrate ingredients.
Important differences exist between various databases in the digestibility of ruminant feed ingredients (INRA, 1989; MAFF, 1992). The objective of this experiment was to measure the digestibility of some the more important ruminant feed ingredients and the variation associated with them.
Mandatory fortification of staple grains with folic acid and/or vitamin B12 (B12) is under debate in many countries including Ireland, which has a liberal, but voluntary, fortification policy. Older adults can be at risk of both deficiency and high folate status, although little is known on the actual prevalence and the major predictors. Population prevalence estimates from older adults (n 5290 ≥50 years) from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (Wave 1) are presented here. Measures included plasma total vitamin B12 and folate, whereas predictors included detailed demographic, socio-economic, geographic, seasonal and health/lifestyle data. The prevalence of deficient or low B12 status (<185 pmol/l) was 12 %, whereas the prevalence of deficient/low folate status was 15 %. High folate status (>45 nmol/l) was observed in 8·9 %, whereas high B12 status was observed in 3·1 % (>601 pmol/l). The largest positive predictor of B12 concentration was self-reported B12 injection and/or supplement use (coefficient 51·5 pmol/; 95 % CI 9·4, 93·6; P=0·016) followed by sex and geographic location. The largest negative predictor was metformin use (−33·6; 95 % CI −51·9, −15·4; P<0·0001). The largest positive predictor of folate concentration was folic acid supplement use (6·0; 95 % CI 3·0, 9·0 nmol/l; P<0·001) followed by being female and statin medications. The largest negative predictor was geographic location (−5·7; 95 % CI −6·7, −4·6; P<0·0001) followed by seasonality and smoking. B-vitamin status in older adults is affected by health and lifestyle, medication, sampling period and geographic location. We observed a high prevalence of low B12 and folate status, indicating that the current policy of voluntary fortification is ineffective for older adults.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Neurological injury remains as the main limiting factor for overall recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). Currently available indicators of neurological injury are inadequate for early prognostication after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). High diversification of brain mitochondrial cardiolipins (CL) makes them unique candidates to quantify brain injury and to predict prognosis early after ROSC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: CL content in plasma in 39 patients within 6 hours of ROSC and 10 healthy subjects as well as CL content in human heart and brain specimens were quantified using a high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method. The quantities of brain-type CL species were correlated with clinical parameters of brain injury severity permitting derivation of a cerebral CL score (C-score) using linear regression. C-score and a single CL species (70:5) were evaluated in patients with varying neurological injury and outcome. Using a rat model of CA, CL was quantified in the plasma and brain of rats using similar methods and results compared with the controls. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that brain and the heart fell on extreme ends of the CL diversity spectrum with 26 species of CL exclusively present in human brain not heart. Nine of these 26 species were present in plasma within 6 hours of ROSC with quantities correlating with greater brain injury. The C-score correlated with early neurologic injury and predicted discharge neurologic/functional outcome. CL (70:5) emerged as a potential point-of-care marker that alone was predictive of injury severity and outcome nearly as well as C-score. Using a rat CA model we showed a significant reduction in hippocampal CL content corresponding to CL released from the brain into systemic circulation. C-score was significantly increased in 10 minute Versus 5 minute no-flow CA and naïve controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: CA results in appearance and accumulation of CL in plasma, proportional to injury severity. Quantitation of brain-type CL species in plasma can be used to prognosticate neurological injury within 6 hours after ROSC.
Improvements in feed efficiency of beef cattle have the potential to increase producer profitability and simultaneously lower the environmental footprint of beef production. Although there are many different approaches to measuring feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice. Defined as the difference between an animal’s actual and predicted feed intake (based on weight and growth), RFI is conceptually independent of growth and body size. In addition, other measurable traits related to energy expenditure such as estimates of body composition can be included in the calculation of RFI to also force independence from these traits. Feed efficiency is a multifactorial and complex trait in beef cattle and inter-animal variation stems from the interaction of many biological processes influenced, in turn, by physiological status and management regimen. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarise and interpret current published knowledge and provide insight into research areas worthy of further investigation. Indeed, where sufficient suitable reports exist, meta-analyses were conducted in order to mitigate ambiguity between studies in particular. We have identified a paucity of information on the contribution of key biological processes, including appetite regulation, post-ruminal nutrient absorption, and cellular energetics and metabolism to the efficiency of feed utilisation in cattle. In addition, insufficient information exists on the relationship between RFI status and productivity-related traits at pasture, a concept critical to the overall lifecycle of beef production systems. Overall, published data on the effect of RFI status on both terminal and maternal traits, coupled with the moderate repeatability and heritability of the trait, suggest that breeding for improved RFI, as part of a multi-trait selection index, is both possible and cumulative, with benefits evident throughout the production cycle. Although the advent of genomic selection, with associated improved prediction accuracy, will expedite the introgression of elite genetics for feed efficiency within beef cattle populations, there are challenges associated with this approach which may, in the long-term, be overcome by increased international collaborative effort but, in the short term, will not obviate the on-going requirement for accurate measurement of the primary phenotype.
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) manifests as a latent viral infection putatively affecting bovines. Understanding its effect on cattle herds is critical to maintaining sustainable beef and dairy production systems, as well as aiding in the development of herd health policies. The primary objective of the current study was, therefore, to use a whole-farm bio-economic model to evaluate the effect of herd seroprevalence to BHV-1 on the productive and economic performance of a spring calving beef cow herd. As part of a wider epidemiological study of herd pathogen status, a total of 4240 cows from 134 spring calving beef cow herds across the Republic of Ireland were blood sampled to measure the seroprevalence to BHV-1. Using data from a national breeding database, productive and reproductive performance indicators were used to parameterize a single year, static and deterministic whole-farm bio-economic model. A spring-calving, pasture-based suckler beef cow production system with an emphasis on calf-to-weanling production was simulated. The impact of BHV-1 seropositivity on whole-farm technical and economic performance was relatively small, with a marginal drop in the net margin of 4% relative to a baseline seronegative herd. Subsequent risk factors for increased pathogenicity were considered such as total herd size, percentage of intra-herd movements and vaccination status for BHV-1. In contrast to all others, scenarios representing herds that were either small in size or those which indicated an active vaccination policy for BHV-1 had no reduction in net margin against the baseline as a result of seropositivity to BHV-1.
Special needs patients often require specific dental treatments and modified restorative materials that reduce clinical discomfort. Starting from glass ionomer cements (GICs), some different fillers were added to improve their mechanical and clinical performances. The effect of nanohydroxyapatite, antibiotic, and mucosal defensive agent on the mechanical and thermal properties of GICs was investigated. Compressive tests, calorimetric analysis, and morphological investigation were conducted. The middle percentages of fillers increased the elastic modulus while the highest decreases are recorded for highest percentages. Filler and environment also influence the compressive strengths and toughness. The introduction of fillers led to a reduction of the enthalpy with a maximum decrease with the middle percentage. The morphological characterization showed a good dispersion of the fillers. The filler percentages should be selected with a compromise between the elastic modulus, the compressive strength, and the curing time. Obtaining new materials with good clinical and mechanical properties can represent an innovative aspect of this work with positive implication in clinical practice, mainly in uncollaborative patients in which the use of traditional protocols is problematic.
Transitioning from administration of monthly palivizumab to a single dose at discharge was associated with substantial pharmacy cost savings. With the concurrent adoption of private hospital rooms and visitor restriction policies, hospital-wide and neonatal intensive care unit healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus infections decreased following these changes.
CHD affects millions of patients worldwide. Interventional therapies for CHD goes back to the mid-1960s when Bill Rashkind performed balloon atrial septostomy on a cyanotic baby with transposition of the great vessels. This was followed by development of balloon catheters to perform balloon valvuloplasties and angioplasties in the early to late 1980s. Although King and Mills performed the first transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect in the mid-1970s, this procedure was better realised in the mid-1990s. More intracardiac defect closures were performed in the late 1990s and early 2000. This brings us to the current era of percutaneous valve implantation as developed by Bonhoeffer. In this paper, we will discuss the past, present, and future of interventional cardiac catheterisation for CHD patients.
The interventional cardiology track at the 7th World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery reflects the pivotal position of transcatheter interventions in the future of our speciality. The highlights of the week are outlined in this review.
Cull cows comprise about 44% of all cattle slaughtered at Irish meat factories in 2006; which was an increase of 6% from 2005. Between September and December 2006, 18% of cull cows failed to achieve P+3 carcass classification compared with 12% for the remainder of the year (DAF, 2006). There is a large proportion of cows slaughtered in November, which suggests that unfit (low bodyweight and condition score) cows are being presented for slaughter at the end of lactation without finishing prior to slaughter. Farmers who are finish feeding cull cows have an interest in alternative feeding regimes i.e. pasture and/or forage use for a more economical beef supply due to increasing concentrate costs, however present farm practice and culling decisions made by the dairy farmer often excludes this as a real possibility. The objective of this study was to compare days to slaughter, average daily gain, and final live and carcass of cull dairy cows subjected to four over-wintering strategies prior to a pasture based finishing diet.