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The leading explanation for the underrepresentation of women in American politics is that women are less likely to run for office than men, but scholars have given less attention in recent years to the gender makeup of the pipeline to elected office. We examine the gendered pipeline to power across three potential candidate pools: lower-level officeholders, those named in newspapers as likely candidates, and lawyers who made political contributions. We find some evidence that women are less likely to seek elected office; however, the dearth of women in the pipeline plays a much greater role in the lack of women candidates. For the gender disparity in candidates to close, women have to be far more likely to run for office than men, particularly on the Republican side. Our results highlight the need to consider the gendered pipeline to power alongside rates of entry in studies of women’s underrepresentation.
The thickness of glaciers in High-Mountain Asia (HMA) is critical in determining when the ice reserve will be lost as these glaciers thin but is remarkably poorly known because very few measurements have been made. Through a series of ground-based and airborne field tests, we have adapted a low-frequency ice-penetrating radar developed originally for Antarctic over-snow surveys, for deployment as a helicopter-borne system to increase the number of measurements. The manoeuvrability provided by helicopters and the ability of our system to detect glacier beds through thick, dirty, temperate ice makes it well suited to increase greatly the sample of measurements available for calibrating ice thickness models on the regional and global scale. The Bedmap Himalayas radar-survey system can reduce the uncertainty in present-day ice volumes and therefore in projections of when HMA's river catchments will lose this hydrological buffer against drought.
Abnormal body mass index (BMI) has been associated with development of psychopathology. This association in children is well documented, for both overweight and underweight children. However, the association between change in BMI and the development of psychopathology has been less investigated.
To investigate the association between change in BMI between childhood and adolescence and psychopathology in adolescence.
Data from the Growing Up in Ireland cohort were used. We investigated the ’98 cohort (also known as the child cohort) at age 9/13. BMI, defined using internationally recognised definitions as underweight, healthy or overweight, was used as the exposure, and abnormal Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were used as the outcome. Logistic regression was undertaken for the analysis. All analyses were adjusted for confounders.
A change to overweight from healthy BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of psychopathology (adjusted OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.19–2.32). Both change from underweight to healthy (adjusted OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.03–0.43) or from overweight to healthy (adjusted OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.79–0.8) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing psychopathology.
As a child’s BMI returns to within the healthy range, their risk of adolescent psychopathology is reduced. Interventions to restore healthy BMI, in both underweight and overweight, children may reduce their risk of adolescent psychopathology.
Critics charge President Donald Trump with racism, but he insists he opposes bigotry and is an American nationalist, not a white nationalist. We use analysis of Trump’s campaign rhetoric, his administration’s policies, and their reception to assess these rival claims. In his campaign, Trump narrated American identity as a tale of lost greatness in which a once-unblemished America gave way to globalist elites who have victimized many Americans, particularly traditionalist, predominantly white Christian Americans. His policies have systematically expanded protections for such Americans and sought to increase their share of the American electorate and citizenry, while reducing or eliminating initiatives designed to assist and increase the numbers of non-white, non-Christian American voters and citizens. The evidence thus shows that although Trump does not explicitly endorse white nationalism, his rhetoric and policies articulate not a consistent race-blind nationalism, but a vision of white protectionism.
Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.
To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.
Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. The baseline survey measured important distal and proximal risk factors and the follow-up assessed mental health and well-being. Surveys were linked to academic grades. Multivariable models of risk factors and mental health and academic outcomes were fit and adjusted for confounders.
In 1530 students surveyed at entry to university 28% and 33% screened positive for clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, which increased to 36% and 39% at the completion of first year. Over the academic year, 14% of students reported suicidal thoughts and 1.6% suicide attempts. Moreover, there was persistence and overlap in these mental health outcomes. Modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors at entry were associated with positive screens for mental health outcomes at completion of first year, while anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower grades and university well-being.
Clinically significant mental health symptoms are common and persistent among first-year university students and have a negative impact on academic performance and well-being. A comprehensive mental health strategy that includes a whole university approach to prevention and targeted early-intervention measures and associated research is justified.
Right cerebellar-left frontal (RC-LF) white matter integrity (WMI) has been associated with working memory. However, prior studies have employed measures of working memory that include processing speed and attention. We examined the relationships between the RC-LF WMI and processing speed, attention, and working memory to clarify the relationship of RC-LF WMI with a specific cognitive function. Right superior longitudinal fasciculus II (SLF II) WMI and visual attention were included as a negative control tract and task to demonstrate a double dissociation.
Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors [n = 29, age: M = 22 years (SD = 5), 45% female] and demographically matched controls were recruited (n = 29). Tests of auditory attention span, working memory, and visual attention served as cognitive measures. Participants completed a 3-T MRI diffusion-weighted imaging scan. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) served as WMI measures. Partial correlations between WMI and cognitive scores included controlling for type of treatment.
A correlational double dissociation was found. RC-LF WMI was associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .42, p = .03; RD: r = −.50, p = .01) and was not associated with visual attention (FA: r = −.11, p = .59; RD: r = −.11, p = .57). SLF II FA WMI was associated with visual attention (FA: r = .44, p = .02; RD: r = −.17, p = .40) and was not associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .24, p = .22; RD: r = −.10, p = .62).
The results show that RC-LF WMI is associated with auditory attention span rather than working memory per se and provides evidence for a specificity based on the correlational double dissociation.
To develop a toolkit (QuIRC) for assessing the living conditions, care and human rights of people with long term mental illness in psychiatric and social care facilities.
The QuIRC was developed by research partners across ten countries: UK; Germany; Spain; Czech Republic; Bulgaria; Italy; Netherlands; Poland; Greece and Portugal. Its content was informed by triangulation of the evidence on critical components of care collated from: a review of care standards in each country; an international literature review; and Delphi exercises with service users, carers, advocates and mental health professionals in each country. Its final format was agreed by an international panel of rehabilitation and recovery experts.
The toolkit includes 154 questions which assess seven domains of care provided in units for people with longer term mental health problems (living environment; therapeutic environment; treatments and interventions; self-management and autonomy; social inclusion; human rights; Recovery-orientated practice). It is completed by a senior clinician and takes around 90 minutes. Domain ratings can be used to assess and review the quality of care provided locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. A web-based version is under development that provides the unit with a report of its performance on these domains, compared to similar units in the same country. This will increase its accessibility for the review of care standard performance.
Les troubles dépressifs concernent près de deux fois plus de femmes que d’hommes . Cette prévalence pourrait être due à une sensibilité accrue des femmes aux émotions négatives . Peu d’études d’imagerie cérébrale ont comparé l’activité cérébrale des hommes et des femmes lors de la présentation de stimuli émotionnels.
Objectif et hypothèse
Notre objectif était d’étudier les activations cérébrales des hommes et des femmes lors d’une tâche émotionnelle. Nous avons émis l’hypothèse que le pattern d’activations cérébrales diffère selon le sexe des individus et la valence des stimuli.
Nous avons mené une étude en imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle (IRMf) chez 30 participants sains (15 hommes et 15 femmes). Des stimuli à valence positive, négative et neutre étaient présentés aux sujets. Les participants ont évalué subjectivement la valence et l’intensité des stimuli.
Nous observons une activité plus importante chez les femmes que chez les hommes dans plusieurs régions clés du traitement des émotions lors de la présentation de stimuli négatifs. Aucune différence significative entre les hommes et les femmes n’a été relevée concernant l’évaluation subjective des stimuli en termes de valence et d’intensité.
Les résultats suggèrent qu’il existe bien une différence de patterns d’activation entre les hommes et les femmes lors de la perception des émotions négatives, qui irait dans le sens d’une sensibilité accrue chez les femmes. Celle-ci pourrait expliquer leur plus grande vulnérabilité aux troubles dépressifs. Il pourrait être intéressant de répliquer cette étude chez des patients qui souffrent de troubles de l’humeur.
WHILE Edward's place among the more successful of England's medieval monarchs has remained secure since the above lines were penned in the aftermath of his death in 1307, his reputation among scholars of medieval England has to some extent waxed and waned. Bishop Stubbs, the leading English medieval historian of the late nineteenth century, had no doubt of Edward's greatness; and for the ‘Whig’ school of history, his reign represented the pinnacle of English constitutional achievement in the Middle Ages (a characterisation accurately skewered by Sellar and Yeatman's chapter on Edward, headed ‘A Strong King’). Edward's work, Stubbs argued:
was crowned with the success that patience, wisdom, and faith amply deserve, and his share in the result is that of the direction of national growth and adaptation of the means and design of government to the consolidation and conscious exercise of national strength. He saw what was best for his age and his people; he led the way and kept the faith.
Edward's reputation remained high in the early twentieth century, though Frederick Tout was less forgiving of the king's autocratic tendencies than was Stubbs.5 His standing reached its zenith, however, under the admiring gaze of Maurice Powicke, who had been taught by Tout in Manchester before working alongside him there in the 1920s, though it was during his time in Oxford that he began to write extensively on the thirteenth century. Both Henry III and the Lord Edward (1947) and The Thirteenth Century (1953) saw Powicke describe Edward in glowing terms:
He lived intensely in conformity with the ideas and tendencies of his time, and found independence in applying them with vigour and precision. He was autocratic not in opposition to them but in full accordance with them … considering how busy he was, how incessant were the calls on his judgement, and how much self-seeking and conflicts of interest lay beneath the discipline of daily routine in every form of the life about him, he was a very great king.
Dysregulation of motivation and altered processing of reward represent important diagnostic criteria of bipolar disorder and have been proposed as a trait marker of the disorder. Until now, only few studies investigated the processing of reward and learning through reward and punishment in euthymic bipolar patients (BP).
Two studies were conducted to investigate mechanisms of reward learning and processing in euthymic BP and healthy individuals (HC).
In the first study, 23 euthymic BP, 15 remitted patients with Major depression (MD) and 16 HC participated in an associative learning task, assessing the efficiency of contingency learning as well as the preference to learn through positive or negative feedback. In the second study, a probabilistic reversal learning task was conducted during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Here, the neural correlates of reward and punishment were assessed in 22 euthymic BP and 21 HC.
We observed no group differences for the efficiency of contingency learning. However, euthymic BP with a manic episode prior to remission learned better from positive feedback whereas euthymic BP with a depressed episode prior to remission and remitted MD patients learned better from negative feedback. HC did not show such preferences in learning. In addition, bipolar patients exhibited increased orbitofrontal and parahippocampal activity in response to reward but no differences in response to punishment.
Interestingly, the last episode seems to differentially affect emotional and learning processes during euthymia. On a neural level, euthymic BP seem to be more sensitive to reward than healthy individuals.
Psychiatric morbidity was assessed in 55 HIV seropositive women who were attending either an HIV centre in Paris (n = 30) or a genitourinary clinic in London (n = 25). Demographic data and information concerning HIV disease, openness about diagnosis, counselling received, social and family support, sexual behaviour and attitudes towards fertility and pregnancy were recorded using a semi-structured interview. Moderate or severe levels of psychiatric distress were found in 60% of the women in Paris and 28% of those in London. Overall, these rates are higher than those found in comparable studies of HIV seropositive men. Psychiatric disorder was associated with a past history of intravenous drug use and older age. Over half of the women were in regular sexual relationships but safe sex precautions were frequently not used. Sixteen subjects among those of child bearing age were prepared to consider having children.
To describe with prospective methodology the therapeutic response to clonazepam or paroxetine in a 3-year treatment of panic disorder (PD).
A total of 120 PD outpatients (DSM-IV) were openly treated with clonazepam or paroxetine for 8 weeks. Those who responded entered a 3-year follow-up. Demographic and clinical features were compared in the two groups.
Efficacy was evaluated by Intent to treat, last value carried forward. The Hamilton Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) did not differ between the groups at baseline and during the first two months. In the acute treatment phase and at the end of the long-term follow-up both groups had a significant and similar response - 86.8% of the clonazepam group and 73.0% of the paroxetine group had a complete remission of panic attacks. The mean dose for clonazepam was 1.9 ± 0.2 mg/day and for paroxetine 33.8 ± 9.8 mg/day. There was no difference in the scale scores, and the reduction in panic attacks from baseline to end-point did not differ significantly between the groups. The most common adverse events during treatment were tremor/shaking, nausea/vomiting, sexual dysfunction and appetite/weight change in the paroxetine group and drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and memory/concentration complains in the clonazepam group.
PD patients using clonazepam or paroxetine had an equivalent response during acute and long term treatment. The patients using clonazepam had significantly less side effects than the paroxetine group.
Acknowledgements: Brazilian Council for scientific and technological development (CNPq).
To develop a toolkit to assess the quality of institutionalised care, in both hospital and community settings, for individuals with long-term mental illness.
The toolkit was developed by the UK research teams. Items were included to assess the six domains (Living Environment; Therapeutic Environment; Treatments and Interventions; Self-management and Autonomy; Social Policy, Citizenship and Advocacy; Clinical Governance) and three cross-cutting themes (Social Inclusion; Human Rights; Recovery-based Model) which emerged from the international literature review, Delphi exercises and cross-country care standards. Following translation and piloting in each country, the toolkit was refined and tested for reliability in 20 units in each country (a total of 200 units).
Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations and Cohen's Kappa coefficients. Factors with low reliability or extreme response biases were dropped. Remaining items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to test the allocation of items to domains and cross-cutting themes and improve their internal consistency. Correlations between domains were explored to determine whether or not domains could be combined.
In the next phase of the study,the toolkit domain ratings will be analysed for associations with standardised assessments of service users' quality of life, autonomy and markers of recovery to investigate whether the toolkit can provide a proxy measurement of the institution's promotion of human rights and recovery.