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After a population of laser-driven hot electrons traverses a limited thickness solid target, these electrons will encounter the rear surface, creating TV/m fields that heavily influence the subsequent hot-electron propagation. Electrons that fail to overcome the electrostatic potential reflux back into the target. Those electrons that do overcome the field will escape the target. Here, using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code EPOCH and particle tracking of a large population of macro-particles, we investigate the refluxing and escaping electron populations, as well as the magnitude, spatial and temporal evolution of the rear surface electrostatic fields. The temperature of both the escaping and refluxing electrons is reduced by 30%–50% when compared to the initial hot-electron temperature as a function of intensity between
. Using particle tracking we conclude that the highest energy internal hot electrons are guaranteed to escape up to a threshold energy, below which only a small fraction are able to escape the target. We also examine the temporal characteristic of energy changes of the refluxing and escaping electrons and show that the majority of the energy change is as a result of the temporally evolving electric field that forms on the rear surface.
The Epilogue returns us to Gilbert White’s The Natural History of Selborne (1789) to illuminate the last novel in Anthony Trollope’s The Last Chronicle of Barset (1867). We can better grasp Trollope’s novel of a geographically bounded fictional reality by remembering the way White established reverent natural history as a local and bounded subject deep into the nineteenth-century. Trollope’s Barsetshire Chronicles are likewise local and devoted to capturing an ecology: for Trollope the ecology is social, for White it is natural. Trollope’s provincial realism dilates upon the ordinary that is typical of natural history informed by a natural theological worldview, but is a distinctly different iteration of English provincial realism than Austen, Eliot, Kingsley, or Gaskell in that there is little description of nature; instead, Trollpe focuses on the human world of Barsetshire. The epilogue focuses on the novel’s absence of event or plotlessness as an extreme example of the focus on the everyday; in the form of the novel there is a persistent religiosity that is reflected as well in the thematic focus on Rev. Crawley’s marginality as expressed in scenes of walking and weather.
The Introduction theorizes the relationship between natural history, the theology of nature, and the novel of English provincial realism. The chapter theorizes the idea of “reverent empiricism,” a term that describes the way in which observation and description in a strain of English natural history (from Gilbert White to Philip Henry Gosse) blended scientific observation with religious reverence. Providing an overarching account of how natural-theologically informed natural histories share with the novel of English provincial realism “reverent form,” this alters our understanding of the Victorian novel as increasingly secular and demonstrates that the theological heritage persists far longer than we sometimes think. The introduction lays out the idea that the twin reverence for minute details and for the commonplace in popular natural histories finds its cognate expression in literary realism, which likewise focuses on the commonplace thing and event. The Introduction lays out a historical and formalist argument that is specific to the English context, and demonstrates the connections between natural history, the theology of nature, and English literary realism.
Chapter 4 focuses on Charles Kingsley and Margaret Gatty, two mid-Victorian figures who wrote in multiple genres, including novels, parables, and seashore natural histories. The chapter centers on Kingsley’s novel of English provincial realism Two Years Ago (1857) and Gatty’s Parables of Nature (1855-71), both of which offer a clear discursive bridge between natural history and imaginative fictions at mid-century. Two Years Ago is the lost link between the more canonical provincial realism of Jane Austen’s Emma and those of George Eliot and Elizabeth Gaskell. The chapter considers the novel alongside Kingsley’s seashore natural history Glaucus: The Wonders of the Shore (1855). The chapter analyzes a section of Gatty’s Parables from Nature (in which a zoophyte, a seaweed, and a bookworm converse) alongside her British Sea-Weeds (1863). These texts explore the thematic and formal connections between reverent natural history and fiction at mid-century.
Chapter 2 considers early Victorian natural history in monograph and periodical form, tracing the growing importance of Gilbert White as a foundational example for early nineteenth-century natural history. The persistence of the theology of nature creates an “aesthetic of the commonplace” in the early Victorian moment. Natural histories focused on nature’s most quotidian aspects and were shot through with religious reverence for the natural world; the chapter demonstrates that they were a mode of realism that relied upon reverent empiricism to capture the truths they sought to represent. Reverent natural histories demonstrated the wonder in the everyday (especially small, commonplace, or insignificant) natural object. The chapter focuses on natural history monographs from the 1830s and two common object texts from the 1850s by James Drummond, Edward Jesse, J. L. Knapp, Rev. J. G. Wood, and Anne Pratt. The second half of the chapter focuses on natural history from The Saturday Magazine and The Penny Magazine in the 1830s and 1840s.
Chapter 5 focuses on the “paranaturalist realism” of George Eliot’s early career, including her journal sketches “Recollections of Ilfracombe” and “Recollections of Scilly Isle & Jersey” as forerunners of her early fiction: Scenes of Clerical Life (1857) and Adam Bede (1859). Situating Eliot’s emerging turn to realism and fiction amidst two summers of seashore naturalizing with George Henry Lewes, who was writing Sea-Side Studies, the chapter argues that the most resonant connections between Eliot’s fiction and a persistent theology of nature from natural history is her choice to a) write about commonplace everyday human subjects and ordinary particulars, and b) employ descriptive amplitude to appropriate reverence to those subjects. Eliot realizes the aesthetic potential of paranaturalism, borrowing the capacious descriptive practice of reverent natural history in the service of a realist delineation of a human community and natural world. The period 1856-1859 constitutes what I term Eliot’s “naturalist phase”; the chapter deeply explores the biography by way of illuminating the formal elements of Eliot’s emergent realism.
Chapter 6 focuses on Elizabeth Gaskell’s late long novels Sylvia’s Lovers (1863) and Wives and Daughters: An Everyday Story (1866). Our accounts of English provincial realism occasionally short-circuit these fictions because of Gaskell’s sometimes subtle and sometimes overt presentation of Christian theology; this chapter claims them within the genre of realism by focusing on their formal commonality with other realist novels and reverent natural history: the reverence for minute details and for the commonplace subject. Like natural history, Gaskell’s novels focus on, and show reverence for, the quotidian world and event; the chapter argues that behind the observation and rendering of the details of everyday reality there is reverence, and that the form of the novel (its “reverent form”) demonstrates a persistent religiosity. The chapter connects Gaskell to Charles Kingsley and explores her Unitarianism as illuminative of the presentation of the Quakerism and the overt natural theological references in Sylvia’s Lovers.
Chapter 1 puts Gilbert White’s The Natural History of Selborne in conversation with Mary Russell Mitford’s Our Village and Jane Austen’s Emma. White’s natural history is the seminal text of English reverent natural history, establishing for much of the nineteenth century a model for reverent observation of the ordinary and local natural world. The chapter considers the formal commonalities and broad theoretical underpinnings of a naturalist, a novelist, and a sketch/prose artist. These three genres – reverent natural history, sketch narrative, novel of English provincial realism – offer sustained and reverent attention to the everyday aspects of their natural and social ecologies. Divided into three sections, the chapter considers White, Mitford, and Austen on their own terms, but also as modes of English realism, with Emma as an important predecessor the mid-nineteenth century novels of English provincial realism.
Chapter 3 examines the formal realism of “reverent natural history,” describing the formal properties of natural histories in ways that we have assumed were the sole province of the realist novel’s descriptive operations. The focus is on P. H.Gosse’s seashore trilogy, including A Naturalist’s Rambles on the Devonshire Coast, The Aquarium, and Tenby. These formal properties include: the prevalence of detail that the inductive process and theological orientation that the texts encourage; the quality of dilation as a function of reverence; and how detail, dilation, and minuteness are formal and thematic attributes of these natural histories, which reflect a religiosity that goes beyond the overt references to design arguments. The chapter’s second half focuses on two natural environments of the seashore naturalist: the aquarium and the tide-pool. These environments are read as literary figures, as heightened sites of metonymic display.
Realism has long been associated with the secular, but in early nineteenth-century England a realist genre existed that was highly theological: popular natural histories informed by natural theology. The Divine in the Commonplace explores the 'reverent empiricism' of English natural history and how it conceives observation and description as a kind of devotion or act of reverence. Focusing on the texts of popular natural historians, especially seashore naturalists, Amy M. King puts these in conversation with English provincial realist novelists including Austen, Gaskell, Eliot, and Trollope. She argues that the English provincial novel has a 'reverent form' as a result of its connection to the practices and representational strategies of natural history writing in this period, which was literary, empirical, and reverent. This book will appeal to students and scholars of nineteenth-century literature, science historians, and those interested in interdisciplinary connections between pre-Darwinian natural history, religion, and literature.
In this work, a poly-Si0.35Ge0.65 microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based actuator was designed and fabricated using a CMOS compatible standard process to specifically strain a bi-layered (2L) MoS2 flake and measure its electrical properties. Experimental results of the MEMS-TMDC device show an increase of conductivity up to three orders of magnitude by means of vertical actuation using the substrate as the body terminal. A force balance model of the MEMS-TMDC was used to determine the amount of strain induced in the MoS2 flake. Strains as high as 3.3% is reported using the model fitted to the experimental data.
It is commonplace to equate the arrival of a new conservative administration in Washington, DC, with the “rolling back” of the federal activities. We disagree with this conventional perspective, and seek to demonstrate that the equation of conservative Republicanism and retrenchment elides a critical change in the relationship between party politics and State power—a relationship that Donald Trump seems determined to nurture. Drawing on primary research, we argue that partisanship in the United States is no longer a struggle over the size of the State; rather it is a contest to control national administrative power. Since the late 1960s, conservative administrations have sought to redeploy rather than dismantle or roll back state power. Through “redeployment,” conservative presidents have sustained previous levels of State spending or State activity, but in a way reflecting a new administration’s ideology.
Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of depression in adolescence; the mediating neurobiological mechanisms, however, are unknown. In this study, we examined in early pubertal youth the associations among ELS, cortisol stress responsivity, and white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the fornix, two key frontolimbic tracts; we also tested whether and how these variables predicted depressive symptoms in later puberty. A total of 208 participants (117 females; M age = 11.37 years; M Tanner stage = 2.03) provided data across two or more assessment modalities: ELS; salivary cortisol levels during a psychosocial stress task; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; and depressive symptoms. In early puberty there were significant associations between higher ELS and decreased cortisol production, and between decreased cortisol production and increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus. Further, increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus predicted higher depressive symptoms in later puberty, above and beyond earlier symptoms. In post hoc analyses, we found that sex moderated several additional associations. We discuss these findings within a broader conceptual model linking ELS, emotion dysregulation, and depression across the transition through puberty, and contend that brain circuits implicated in the control of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function should be a focus of continued research.