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The combination of advances in knowledge, technology, changes in consumer preference and low cost of manufacturing is accelerating the next technology revolution in crop, livestock and fish production systems. This will have major implications for how, where and by whom food will be produced in the future. This next technology revolution could benefit the producer through substantial improvements in resource use and profitability, but also the environment through reduced externalities. The consumer will ultimately benefit through more nutritious, safe and affordable food diversity, which in turn will also contribute to the acceleration of the next technology. It will create new opportunities in achieving progress towards many of the Sustainable Development Goals, but it will require early recognition of trends and impact, public research and policy guidance to avoid negative trade-offs. Unfortunately, the quantitative predictability of future impacts will remain low and uncertain, while new chocks with unexpected consequences will continue to interrupt current and future outcomes. However, there is a continuing need for improving the predictability of shocks to future food systems especially for ex-ante assessment for policy and planning.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode known to infect humans through the ingestion of third stage larvae which can cause inflammation and damage to the central nervous system. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most reliable diagnostic methods for detecting A. cantonensis in humans as well as in gastropod hosts, but requires expensive and specialized equipment. Here, we compare the sensitivity and accuracy of a recombinase polymerase amplification Exo (RPA-EXO) assay, and a recombinase polymerase amplification lateral flow assay (RPA-LFA) with a traditional quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay currently available. The three assays were used to test 35 slugs from Hawai‘i for the presence of A. cantonensis DNA. Consistent results among the three tests were shown in 23/35 samples (65.7%), while 7/35 (20%) were discordant in low infection level samples (<0.01 larvae per mg tissue), and 5/35 (14.3%) were equivocal. To evaluate sensitivity, a partial ITS1 gene was cloned, and serial plasmid dilutions were created ranging from 100 copies μL−1 to ~1 copy μL−1. All three assays consistently detected 50–100 copies μL−1 in triplicate and qPCR was able to detect ~13 copies μL−1 in triplicate. RPA-EXO was able to detect 25 copies μL−1 in triplicate and RPA-LFA was not able to amplify consistently below 50 copies μL−1. Thus, our RPA-EXO and RPA-LFA assays do not appear as sensitive as the current qPCR assay at low DNA concentrations; however, these tests have numerous advantages that may make them useful alternatives to qPCR.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is a tropical and subtropical parasitic nematode, with infections in humans causing angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Hawaii has been identified as a global hotspot of infection, with recent reports of high infection rates in humans, as well as rat definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This study investigated variation in A. cantonensis infection, both prevalence and intensity, in wild populations of two species of rats (Rattus exulans and R. rattus) and one species of snail (Parmarion martensi). An overall infection prevalence of 86.2% was observed in P. martensi and 63.8% in rats, with R. exulans (77.4%) greater than R. rattus (47.6%). We found infections to vary with environmental and host-related factors. Body mass was a strong predictor of infection in all three species, with different patterns seen between sexes and species of rats. Infection prevalence and intensity for R. exulans were high in May 2018 and again in February 2019, but generally lower and more variable during the intervening months. Information on sources of variability of infection in wild host populations will be a crucial component in predicting the effectiveness of future disease surveillance or targeted management strategies.
Prolonged survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment may lead to these surfaces transmitting this pathogen to others. We sought to determine the effectiveness of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection system in reducing the load of SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators.
Chamber slides and N95 respirator material were directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and were exposed to different durations of PX-UV.
For hard surfaces, disinfection for 1, 2, and 5 minutes resulted in 3.53 log10, >4.54 log10, and >4.12 log10 reductions in viral load, respectively. For N95 respirators, disinfection for 5 minutes resulted in >4.79 log10 reduction in viral load. PX-UV significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators.
With the potential to rapidly disinfectant environmental surfaces and N95 respirators, PX-UV devices are a promising technology to reduce environmental and personal protective equipment bioburden and to enhance both healthcare worker and patient safety by reducing the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
A range of decision-makers, including policy-makers, NGOs and local communities, have a stake in developing conservation interventions that are to be implemented on the ground. In order to ensure that decision-making is evidence-informed, the science community needs to engage these communities of policy and practice effectively. This chapter brings together work which explores how scientists can work effectively with decision-makers, using global case studies from South America, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere to identify what works. It identifies 10 key tips for successful engagement : (1) know who you need to talk to, (2) engage early, (3) make it easy to engage, (4) include multiple knowledges, perspectives and worldviews, (5) think hard about power, (6) build trust, (7) good facilitation is key, (8) learn new engagement skills, (9) make use of existing spaces of collaboration, and (10) don't give up. While executing these tips will not guarantee successful engagement in every case, it will improve the chances for mutually beneficial relationships and hence better conservation outcomes.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Establishing the role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) during the formation of galaxies remains one of the greatest challenges of galaxy formation theory. Towards addressing this, we summarise our recent work investigating: (1) the physical drivers of ionised outflows and (2) observational signatures of the impact by jets/outflows on star formation and molecular gas content in AGN host galaxies. We confirm a connection between radio emission and extreme ionised gas kinematics in AGN hosts. Emission-line selected AGN are significantly more likely to exhibit ionised outflows (as traced by the [O iii] emission line) if the projected linear extent of the radio emission is confined within the spectroscopic aperture. Follow-up high resolution radio observations and integral field spectroscopy of 10 luminous Type 2 AGN reveal moderate power, young (or frustrated) jets interacting with the interstellar medium. We find that these sources live in highly star forming and gas rich galaxies. Additionally, by combining ALMA-derived dust maps with integral field spectroscopy for eight host galaxies of z ≈ 2 X-ray AGN, we show that Hα emission is an unreliable tracer of star formation. For the five targets with ionised outflows we find no dramatic in-situ shut down of the star formation. Across both of these studies we find that if these AGN do have a negative impact upon their host galaxies, it must be happening on small (unresolved) spatial scales and/or an observable galaxy-wide impact has yet to occur.
Radio observations allow us to identify a wide range of active galactic nuclei (AGN), which play a significant role in the evolution of galaxies. Amongst AGN at low radio-luminosities is the ‘radio-quiet’ quasar (RQQ) population, but how they contribute to the total radio emission is under debate, with previous studies arguing that it is predominantly through star formation. In this talk, SVW summarised the results of recent papers on RQQs, including the use of far-infrared data to disentangle the radio emission from the AGN and that from star formation. This provides evidence that black-hole accretion, instead, dominates the radio emission in RQQs. In addition, we find that this accretion-related emission is correlated with the optical luminosity of the quasar, whilst a weaker luminosity-dependence is evident for the radio emission connected with star formation. What remains unclear is the process by which this accretion-related emission is produced. Understanding this for RQQs will then allow us to investigate how this type of AGN influences its surroundings. Such studies have important implications for modelling AGN feedback, and for determining the accretion and star-formation histories of the Universe.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
Commentary on the introduction of the Australian Curriculum (AC) has reflected a tension for educators of students with disabilities (SWD) between in-principle support for a curriculum that is inclusive of all students and the challenge of translating a general framework into relevant, individualised learning experiences appropriate for all SWD. In this paper, we report on findings from the second part of a national online survey in which we explored the perceptions and practices of 151 educators of SWD in specialist settings (special schools, disability units co-located at mainstream schools, special classes within mainstream schools) in relation to the AC. Specifically, these findings relate to the professional learning (PL) experiences and perceived needs of educators of SWD related to the AC and their advice to policymakers about the AC for SWD. Consistent with previous research, participants expressed a preference for PL experiences delivered on site, facilitated by content experts over extended periods, with opportunities for demonstration and targeted feedback, and in the context of collegial learning communities. In addition, participants raised concerns about the extent to which the AC is fully inclusive of all SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Despite aspirations to be a world-class national curriculum, the Australian Curriculum (AC) has been criticised as ‘manifestly deficient’ (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2014 p. 5) as an inclusive curriculum, failing to meet the needs of all students with disabilities (SWD) and their teachers. There is a need for research into the daily attempts of educators to navigate the tension between a ‘top-down’ system-wide curriculum and a ‘bottom-up’ regard for individual student needs, with a view to informing both policy and practice. This article is the first of two research papers in which we report the findings from a national online Research in Special Education (RISE) Australian Curriculum Survey of special educators in special schools, classes, and units regarding their experience using the AC to plan for and teach SWD. Survey results indicated (a) inconsistent use of the AC as the primary basis for developing learning objectives and designing learning experiences, (b) infrequent use of the achievement standards to support assessment and reporting, and (c) considerable supplementation of the AC from other resources when educating SWD. Overall, participants expressed a lack of confidence in translating the AC framework into a meaningful curriculum for SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Over the years, the legal problems posed by absentees and returnees have attracted the attention of scores of law review authors. Their work is difficult to access, however, because it is scattered across time and place. This is particularly problematic for a field that has no current organizing text. Accordingly, this bibliography collects and annotates the more notable pieces, dividing them into three principal categories: General Works, State-Specific Works, and Subject-Specific Works.
The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was independently domesticated in Mesoamerica and the Southwest, the latter as the only case of Native American animal domestication north of Mexico. In the upland (non-desert) portion of the American Southwest, distinctive closely related mtDNA lineages belonging to haplogroup H1 (thought to indicate domestication) occur from ca. 1 A.D. (Basketmaker II period) through early historic times. At many sites, low frequencies of lineages belonging to haplogroup H2 also occur, apparently derived from the local Merriam’s subspecies. We report genetic, stable isotope, and coprolite data from turkey remains recovered at three early sites in SE Utah and SW Colorado dating to the Basketmaker II, III, and early Pueblo II periods. Evidence from these and other early sites indicates that both the H1 and H2 turkeys had a predominantly maize-based diet similar to that of humans; prior to late Pueblo II times, the birds were kept primarily to provide feathers for blankets and ritual uses; and ritualized burials indicate turkeys’ symbolic value. We argue that viewing individuals from the H1 and H2 haplogroups as “domestic” versus “wild” is an oversimplification.
To improve wildlife conservation incentives in community-based natural resource management programs, a better understanding of rural communities' willingness to engage in wildlife conservation jobs is needed. We implement a discrete choice model explaining reservation wages for nine conservation jobs using contingent behavior data from rural Botswana residents. We present a model in which the conditional indirect utility function incorporates a more general value of time than has previously been used, and this specification outperforms the standard model. Sample estimates indicate that reservation wages are modestly higher for women than for men, and that residents have higher reservation wages for jobs requiring more exertion or involving more danger.
In this paper, we examine the increasing global attention being given to the German organizational form of the Mittelstand over the past decade. We do so, especially, in consideration of the construction of Australian analogues to the Mittelstand. Such translations have been posited as a solution to the current crisis facing Australian manufacturing. Translation out of context always poses problems: can a specifically national form of organization, such as the German Mittelstand, be something that can, potentially, be translated to other nations and industrial contexts? The Australian case offers an empirical setting in which to explore understandings of transnational translation of management innovations. Our findings demonstrate how globally theorized models subject to translation align abstract value orientations with local templates. Our discussion focuses on the translation of a Bavarian model of organization into very different locations, such as Geelong, Australia.