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This article describes a CDI outbreak in a long-term care (LTC) facility that used molecular typing techniques and whole-genome sequencing to identify widespread dissemination of the clonal strain in the environment which was successfully removed after terminal cleaning.
This study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Texas.
A recently hospitalized LTC patient was diagnosed with CDI followed shortly thereafter by 7 subsequent CDI cases. A stool specimen was obtained from each patient for culturing and typing. An environmental point-prevalence study of the facility was conducted before and after terminal cleaning of the facility to assess environmental contamination. Cultured isolates were typed using ribotyping, multilocus variant analysis, and whole-genome sequencing.
Stool samples were available for 5 of 8 patients; of these specimens, 4 grew toxigenic C. difficile ribotype 027. Of 50 environmental swab samples collected throughout the facility prior to the facility-wide terminal cleaning, 19 (38%) grew toxigenic C. difficile (most commonly ribotype 027, 79%). The terminal cleaning was effective at reducing C. difficile spores in the environment and at eradicating the ribotype 027 strain (P<.001). Using multilocus variance analysis and whole-genome sequencing, clinical and environmental strains were highly related and, in some cases, were identical.
Using molecular typing techniques, we demonstrated reduced environmental contamination with toxigenic C. difficile and the eradication of a ribotype 027 clone. These techniques may help direct infection control efforts and decrease the burden of CDI in the healthcare system.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic C. difficile are common in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). However, whether C. difficile is frequently acquired in the LTCF versus during acute-care admissions remains unknown.
To test the hypothesis that LTCF residents often acquire C. difficile colonization and infection in the LTCF
This 5-month cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of acquisition of C. difficile colonization and infection in asymptomatic patients transferred from a Veterans Affairs hospital to an affiliated LTCF.
Rectal swabs were cultured for toxigenic C. difficile at the time of transfer to the LTCF and weekly for up to 6 weeks. We calculated the proportion of LTCF-onset CDI cases within 1 month of transfer that occurred in residents colonized on admission versus those with new acquisition in the LTCF.
Of 110 patients transferred to the LTCF, 12 (11%) were asymptomatically colonized with toxigenic C. difficile upon admission, and 4 of these 12 patients (33%) developed CDI within 1 month, including 3 recurrent and 1 initial CDI episode. Of 82 patients with negative cultures on transfer and at least 1 follow-up culture, 22 (27%) acquired toxigenic C. difficile colonization, and 4 developed CDI within 1 month, including 1 recurrent and 3 initial CDI episodes.
LTCF residents frequently acquired colonization with toxigenic C. difficile after transfer from the hospital, and 3 of 4 initial CDI cases with onset within 1 month of transfer occurred in residents who acquired colonization in the LTCF.
Conflicting reports have been published on the association between Clostridium difficile ribotypes and severe disease outcomes in patients with C. difficile infection (CDI); several so-called hypervirulent ribotypes have been described. We performed a multicenter study to assess severe disease presentation and severe outcomes among CDI patients infected with different ribotypes.
Stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile toxin were collected and cultured from patients who presented to any of 7 different hospitals in Houston, Texas (2011–2013). C. difficile was characterized using a fluorescent PCR ribotyping method. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical characteristics and ribotype association with severe CDI presentation (ie, leukocytosis and/or hypoalbuminemia) and severe CDI outcomes (ie, ICU admission, ileus, toxic megacolon, colectomy, and/or in-hospital death).
Our study included 715 patients aged 61±18 years (female: 63%; median Charlson comorbidity index: 2.5±2.4; hospital-onset CDI: 45%; severe CDI: 36.7%; severe CDI outcomes: 12.3%). The most common ribotypes were 027, 014-020, FP311, 002, 078-126, and 001. Ribotype 027 was a significant independent predictor of severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53–3.29; P<.001) and severe CDI outcomes (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02–2.85; P=.041) compared with all other ribotypes in aggregate. However, in an analysis using all common ribotypes as individual variables, ribotype 027 was not associated with severe CDI outcomes more often than other ribotypes.
Ribotype 027 showed virulence equal to that of other ribotypes identified in this endemic setting. Clinical severity markers of CDI may be more predictive of severe CDI outcomes than a particular ribotype.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1318–1323
Diarrhoeal disease is one of the five leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children aged between zero and five years. Global estimates show that deaths due to diarrhoea have declined from 4.6 million in the 1980s (Snyder and Merson, 1982) to 3.3 million in the 1990s (Bern et al., 1992) and to 2.5 million in 2000 (Kosek et al., 2003). Much of the improvement is possibly due to improvement in health treatment and management and increased use of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in the developing countries (WHO, 2004). However, morbidity has not shown a parallel decline despite the improvement in infrastructural facilities in developing countries. This is possibly because of limited changes in behavioural factors such as hand washing and low levels of awareness. The incidence of diarrhoea attacks among the children per year was at 3.2 episodes per child in 2000 in developing countries (Kosek et al., 2003).
In Bangladesh diarrhoeal diseases cotinue to play a significant role among the causes of death among children below five years of age according to the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) published by the Government of Bangladesh in 2002. These children are malnourished and therefore vulnerable to diarrhoea related deaths. Around 125,000 children under five die each year from diarrhoea, i.e. 342 children per day as per the PRSP repot.
As Bangladesh is a riverine country, floods are a common natural hazard.
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