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Black and White dual-purpose cattle (DSN) are kept in diverse production systems, but the same set of genetic parameters is used for official national genetic evaluations, neglecting the herd or production system characteristics. The aim of the present study was to infer genetic (co)variance components within and across defined herd descriptor groups or clusters, considering only herds keeping the local and endangered DSN breed. The study considered 3659 DSN and 2324 Holstein Friesian (HF) cows from parities one to three. The 46 herds always kept DSN cows, but in most cases, herds were ‘mixed’ herds (Mixed), including both genetic lines HF and DSN. In order to study environmental sensitivity, we had a focus on the naturally occurring negative energy balance in the early lactation period. In consequence, traits were records from the 1st official test-day after calving for milk yield (Milk-kg), somatic cell score (SCS) and fat-to-protein ratio (FPR). Genetic parameters were estimated in bivariate runs (separate runs for the three genetic lines Mixed, HF and DSN), defining the same trait from different herd groups or clusters as different traits. Additive-genetic variances and heritabilities were larger in herd groups that indicated superior herd management, implying that cow records from these herds allow a better genetic differentiation. Superior herd management included larger herds, low calving age, high herd production levels and low intra-herd somatic cell count. Herd descriptor group differences in additive-genetic variances for Milk-kg were stronger in HF than in DSN, indicating environmental sensitivity for DSN. Similar variance components and heritabilities across groups, clusters and genetic lines were found for data stratification according to geographical descriptors altitude and latitude. Considering 72 bivariate herd group runs, 29 genetic correlations were very close to 1 (mostly for Milk-kg). Somatic cell score was the trait showing the smallest genetic correlations, especially in the DSN analyses, and when stratifying herds according to genetic line compositions (rg=0.11), or according to the percentage of natural service sires (rg=0.08). For estimations based on the results of a cluster analysis considering several herd descriptors simultaneously, indications for genotype × environment interactions could be found for SCS, but genetic correlations were larger than 0.80 for Milk-kg and FPR. In conclusion, we suggest multiple-trait animal model applications in genetic evaluations, in order to select the best sires for specific herd environments or herd clusters.
Searching for materials with improved or perhaps completely novel properties involves an iterative process intended to successively narrow the gap between some initial starting point and the desired design target. This can be viewed as an optimization problem in a high-dimensional search space, often with many dozens of material parameters that need to be tuned. To tackle this, the evolutionary process in biology has been a source of inspiration in developing effective search algorithms. However, reaping the full benefits of bioinspired searches for materials design requires some thought. Here, we go beyond traditional black box algorithms and take a broader view of computational evolution strategies. We discuss recent strategies that exploit knowledge about the material configuration statistics and we highlight the advantages when time-varying environments are considered. Throughout, we emphasize that the search strategies themselves can be viewed as a nonequilibrium dynamical process in design space.
Cyber Operational Risk: Cyber risk is routinely cited as one of the most important sources of operational risks facing organisations today, in various publications and surveys. Further, in recent years, cyber risk has entered the public conscience through highly publicised events involving affected UK organisations such as TalkTalk, Morrisons and the NHS. Regulators and legislators are increasing their focus on this topic, with General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) a notable example of this. Risk actuaries and other risk management professionals at insurance companies therefore need to have a robust assessment of the potential losses stemming from cyber risk that their organisations may face. They should be able to do this as part of an overall risk management framework and be able to demonstrate this to stakeholders such as regulators and shareholders. Given that cyber risks are still very much new territory for insurers and there is no commonly accepted practice, this paper describes a proposed framework in which to perform such an assessment. As part of this, we leverage two existing frameworks – the Chief Risk Officer (“CRO”) Forum cyber incident taxonomy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) framework – to describe the taxonomy of a cyber incident, and the relevant cyber security and risk mitigation items for the incident in question, respectively.Summary of Results: Three detailed scenarios have been investigated by the working party:
∙Employee leaks data at a general (non-life) insurer: Internal attack through social engineering, causing large compensation costs and regulatory fines, driving a 1 in 200 loss of £210.5m (c. 2% of annual revenue).
∙Cyber extortion at a life insurer: External attack through social engineering, causing large business interruption and reputational damage, driving a 1 in 200 loss of £179.5m (c. 6% of annual revenue).
∙Motor insurer telematics device hack: External attack through software vulnerabilities, causing large remediation / device replacement costs, driving a 1 in 200 loss of £70.0m (c. 18% of annual revenue).
Limitations: The following sets out key limitations of the work set out in this paper:
∙While the presented scenarios are deemed material at this point in time, the threat landscape moves fast and could render specific narratives and calibrations obsolete within a short-time frame.
∙There is a lack of historical data to base certain scenarios on and therefore a high level of subjectivity is used to calibrate them.
∙No attempt has been made to make an allowance for seasonality of renewals (a cyber event coinciding with peak renewal season could exacerbate cost impacts)
∙No consideration has been given to the impact of the event on the share price of the company.
∙Correlation with other risk types has not been explicitly considered.
Conclusions: Cyber risk is a very real threat and should not be ignored or treated lightly in operational risk frameworks, as it has the potential to threaten the ongoing viability of an organisation. Risk managers and capital actuaries should be aware of the various sources of cyber risk and the potential impacts to ensure that the business is sufficiently prepared for such an event. When it comes to quantifying the impact of cyber risk on the operations of an insurer there are significant challenges. Not least that the threat landscape is ever changing and there is a lack of historical experience to base assumptions off. Given this uncertainty, this paper sets out a framework upon which readers can bring consistency to the way scenarios are developed over time. It provides a common taxonomy to ensure that key aspects of cyber risk are considered and sets out examples of how to implement the framework. It is critical that insurers endeavour to understand cyber risk better and look to refine assumptions over time as new information is received. In addition to ensuring that sufficient capital is being held for key operational risks, the investment in understanding cyber risk now will help to educate senior management and could have benefits through influencing internal cyber security capabilities.
Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (P<0.01) the intake and digestibility of ether extract and decreased the non-fiber carbohydrates; however, there were no influences on the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN). The digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were not influenced by licuri cake addition. There was a decrease trend on TDN digestibility (P=0.08). Licuri cake replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate did not affect the intake; fecal, urinary and mammary excretions; N balance; and triglycerides concentrations. However, the blood urea nitrogen (P=0.04) concentration decreased with the licuri cakes inclusion in cow supplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (P<0.1) presented a linear increase with partial replacement of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cakes. The addition of licuri cake did not alter the time spent feeding, ruminating or idling. There was an increasing trend in NDF feeding efficiency (P=0.09). The replacing of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake up to 600 g/kg decreased the concentrate cost by US$0.45/cow per day. Licuri cake replacing corn and soybeans (400 g/kg) in concentrate promoted a profit of US$0.07/animal per day. Licuri cake is indicated to concentrate the supplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat without negative effects on productive parameters.
Introduction / Innovation Concept: Insertion of an internal jugular (IJ) central venous catheter (CVC) under ultrasound guidance (USG) is a complex skill that requires considerable practice in order to achieve technical proficiency. Simulation allows novices to engage in structured and high volume repetitive practice of USG IJ CVC insertion and to work through a predictable pattern of errors prior to real patient encounters. Based on earlier work on learning curves for CVC insertion, this curriculum uses a model of simulation-based high volume deliberate practice of the fundamental skills of USG CVC insertion, and was designed with careful consideration of the conditions associated with optimal learning and improvement of performance. Methods: Eight residents (post graduate year 2) from the Departments of Emergency Medicine and Anesthesiology engaged in deliberate practice of USG CVC insertion during three two-hour sessions, at 2-week intervals. Progress of the residents was monitored with direct observation and regular hand motion analysis (HMA), which was compared to performance metrics set by a local expert. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: Students reviewed online introductory ultrasound video and articles outlining internal jugular (IJ) and femoral CVC insertion prior to the first session. Session 1 focused on ultrasound skills including knobology, transducer movement, and needle tracking. This was followed by 60 minutes of deliberate practice of the skills of USG CVC insertion on both femoral and IJ models. During sessions 2/3, students practiced complete gowning and draping using sterile technique. This was followed again by deliberate practice of the skills of USG CVC insertion on both femoral and IJ models. Students received coaching and feedback throughout all sessions, with HMA assessment of USG IJ CVC insertion at the beginning and end of each session. After three training sessions, consisting of 85 total attempts, 5/8 residents surpassed the expert benchmark for probe hand motion, 6/8 for needle hand motion, and 1/8 for total procedure time, with the remaining residents approaching the expert benchmark for each metric. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a simulation-based curriculum for USG IJ CVC placement. Residents demonstrated continuous improvement in each session, approaching or exceeding the expert benchmarks by the end of the third session.
The behaviour of a single droplet in an immiscible external fluid, submitted to shear flow is investigated using numerical simulations. The surface of the droplet is modelled by a Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive law involving the interfacial viscosities and a constant surface tension. A numerical method using Loop subdivision surfaces to represent droplet interface is introduced. This method couples boundary element method for fluid flows and finite element method to take into account the stresses due to the surface dilational and shear viscosities and surface tension. Validation of the numerical scheme with respect to previous analytic and computational work is provided, with particular attention to the viscosity contrast and the shear and dilational viscosities characterized both by a Boussinesq number
. Then, influence of equal surface viscosities on steady-state characteristics of a droplet in shear flow are studied, considering both small and large deformations and for a large range of bulk viscosity contrast. We find that small deformation analysis is surprisingly predictive at moderate and high surface viscosities. Equal surface viscosities decrease the Taylor deformation parameter and tank-treading angle and also strongly modify the dynamics of the droplet: when the Boussinesq number (surface viscosity) is large relative to the capillary number (surface tension), the droplet displays damped oscillations prior to steady-state tank-treading, reminiscent from the behaviour at large viscosity contrast. In the limit of infinite capillary number
, such oscillations are permanent. The influence of surface viscosities on breakup is also investigated, and results show that the critical capillary number is increased. A diagram
of breakup is established with the same inner and outer bulk viscosities. Additionally, the separate roles of shear and dilational surface viscosity are also elucidated, extending results from small deformation analysis. Indeed, shear (dilational) surface viscosity increases (decreases) the stability of drops to breakup under shear flow. The steady-state deformation (Taylor parameter) varies nonlinearly with each Boussinesq number or a linear combination of both Boussinesq numbers. Finally, the study shows that for certain combinations of shear and dilational viscosities, drop deformation for a given capillary number is the same as in the case of a clean surface while the inclination angle varies.
Birds play a central role in the epidemiology of several flaviviruses of concern for public and veterinary health. Seabirds represent the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the western Indian Ocean and may play an important role as host reservoirs and spreaders of arthropod-borne pathogens such as flaviviruses. We report the results of a serological investigation based on blood samples collected from nine seabird species from seven islands in the Indian Ocean. Using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay directed against the prototypic West Nile flavivirus, antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in the serum of 47 of the 855 seabirds tested. They were detected in bird samples from three islands and from four bird species. Seroneutralization tests on adults and chicks suggested that great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) from Europa were infected by West Nile virus during their non-breeding period, and that Usutu virus probably circulated within bird colonies on Tromelin and on Juan de Nova. Real-time polymerase chain reactions performed on bird blood samples did not yield positive results precluding the genetic characterization of flavivirus using RNA sequencing. Our findings stress the need to further investigate flavivirus infections in arthropod vectors present in seabird colonies.
A cylindrical vesicle under tension can undergo a pearling instability, characterized by the growth of a sinusoidal perturbation which evolves towards a collection of quasi-spherical bulbs connected by thin tethers, like pearls on a necklace. This is reminiscent of the well-known Rayleigh–Plateau instability, where surface tension drives the amplification of sinusoidal perturbations of a cylinder of fluid. We calculate the growth rate of perturbations for a cylindrical vesicle under tension, considering the effect of both inner and outer fluids, with different viscosities. We show that this situation differs strongly from the classical Rayleigh–Plateau case in the sense that, first, the tension must be above a critical value for the instability to develop and, second, even in the strong tension limit, the surface preservation constraint imposed by the presence of the membrane leads to a different asymptotic behaviour. The results differ from previous studies on pearling due to the consideration of variations of tension, which are shown to enhance the pearling instability growth rate, and lower the wavenumber of the fastest growing mode.
The genus Leontopodium (Pers.) R.Br. (Asteraceae, Compositae) is economically important for both pharmaceutical and horticultural purposes. This importance, however, has not led to a good understanding of species coherence and the delimitation of species. One fundamental aspect of a good understanding of a species is how many chromosomes it has and any possible indication of polyploidy. Here we present somatic chromosome numbers for 16 Leontopodium species, of which six are new for science. The results indicate basic chromosome numbers of x = 6, 8, 9 and 11, with x = 8 being most frequent among the species examined. While obviously including several distantly related lineages, the x = 8 species have distributions that are concentrated in the centre of diversity of the genus in southwest China. We identified two ‘species-pairs’ (Leontopodium dedekensii–L. sinense and L. souliei–L. calocephalum) in which the tetraploid species has more vigorous growth, but is confined geographically to the centre of diversity. The diploid species ascend to generally higher elevations and extend more towards the Tibetan Plateau. In contrast, our data also suggest range expansions in other polyploid species, such as the hexaploid Leontopodium ochroleucum extending into the mountains of Central Asia. Deviations from x = 8 are found at the edges of the wide Eurasian distribution of the genus. These may relate to subsequent range expansions into the Himalayas, northern Asia, the Far East, and a far disjunctive expansion to the mountains of Europe. This implies an increased ability of these species to colonise mountain floras and adapt to different environmental conditions. Thus, formation of higher ploidy levels in general might be significant for a successful radiation process.
The USA is experiencing a prolific invasion of the wood-boring emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis. Native to Asia, this beetle completes its life cycle on ash trees and results in nearly complete mortality of all infested trees. In the present study, we examined the levels of genetic diversity and differentiation among eight populations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash) using five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic information was used to design guidelines for the establishment of a seed collection sampling strategy to conserve the genetic diversity of ash trees. We found high levels of genetic diversity, as indicated by the allelic richness, both across the populations (16.4 ± 5.18 alleles per locus) and within them (8.03 ± 1.21 alleles per locus). The expected and observed heterozygosity was also high (0.805 ± 0.38 and 0.908 ± 0.04, respectively), and there was moderate genetic differentiation among the populations (FST= 0.083) with members of these eight populations grouped into three distinct clusters. We examined the relationship between the number of individuals sampled and the number of alleles captured in a random sample taken from a population of 10,000 individuals. Only sample sizes of 100 individuals captured most of the alleles (average = 78.74 alleles), but only seven of 50 samples effectively captured all the 82 alleles. Smaller samples did not capture all alleles. A probabilistic model was used to determine an optimal sampling strategy, and it was concluded that a collection of 200 seeds from each of five mother trees would have the highest likelihood of capturing all alleles in a population.
We present optical photometry and spectrosopy of the transient SN 2011A. Our data spans 140 days after discovery including BVRIu'g'r'i'z' photometry and a sequence of 11 spectra. First classified as a type IIn supernova due to the presence of narrow Hα emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. Firstly, the light curve shows a double plateau; a property only before observed in the impostor object SN 1997bs. Secondly SN 2011A has a very low luminosity for a type IIn supernova placing it between the type IIn supernovae and impostor classes in terms of luminosity. Thirdly, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width sodium doublet absorption which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change of line profile. When the absorption becomes stronger, a P-Cygni profile appears.
Vesicles are drops of radius of a few tens of micrometres bounded by an impermeable lipid membrane of approximately 4 nm thickness in a viscous fluid. The salient characteristics of such a deformable object are a membrane rigidity governed by flexion due to curvature energy and a two-dimensional membrane fluidity characterized by a local membrane incompressibility. This provides unique properties with strong constraints on the internal volume and membrane area. Yet, when subjected to external stresses, vesicles exhibit a large deformability. The deformation of a settling vesicle in an infinite flow is studied theoretically, assuming a quasispherical shape and expanding all variables of the problem onto spherical harmonics. The contribution of thermal fluctuations is neglected in this analysis. A system of equations describing the temporal evolution of the shape is derived with this formalism. The final shape and the settling velocity are then determined and depend on two dimensionless parameters: the Bond number and the excess area. This simultaneous study leads to three stationary shapes, an egg-like shape already observed in an analogous experimental configuration in the limit of weak flow magnitude (Chatkaew, Georgelin, Jaeger & Leonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett, 2009, vol. 103(24), 248103), a parachute-like shape and a non-trivial non-axisymmetrical shape. The final shape depends on the initial conditions: prolate or oblate vesicle and orientation compared with gravity. The analytical solution in the small deformation regime is compared with numerical results obtained with a three-dimensional code. A very good agreement between numerical and theoretical results is found.
High mobility channel materials and new device structures will be needed to meet the power and performance specifications in future technology nodes. Therefore, the use of Ge and III/V materials and novel devices such as heterojunction TunnelFET’s is investigated for future CMOS applications. High-performance CMOS can be obtained by combining Ge pMOS devices with nMOS devices made on III/V compounds such as InGaAs. In all cases the key challenge is the electrical passivation of the interface between the high-k dielectric and the alternative channel materials.
Recent studies have demonstrated good electrical properties of the GeO2/Ge interface. Since the GeO2 layer is very hygroscopic, full in-situ processing of GeO2 formation and high-k deposition must be performed or other methods must be employed to stabilize the GeO2 layer. One of the most successful passivation techniques for Ge MOS gate stacks is a thin, epitaxial layer of Si. A lot of attention went into better understanding of this passivation and the effects of its optimization on various device characteristics. It was found that mobility and Vt trends in both pMOS and nMOS transistors can be explained based on defects located at the Si/SiO2 interface.
Unfortunately, III-V/oxide interfaces are not quite as robust and most interfaces present rather high densities of interface states. Although, considerable improvements have been realized in the reduction of the interface state density, further developments are required to obtain high performance MOS devices. To this purpose various passivation methods were critically evaluated. Simulations using Density Functional Theory reveal the possibility of using a thin amorphous layer made of GeOX to obtain an electrically unpinned gap. The major challenge resides in the control of the c-Ge thickness and the oxidation of this layer to avoid the diffusion of oxygen atoms at the Ge/GaAs(001) interface. Promising results are obtained by optimizing the surface preparation, high-k deposition and annealing cycle on In0.53Ga0.47As-Al2O3 interfaces. Self-aligned inversion channel n-MOSFETs fabricated on p-type In0.53Ga0.47As demonstrate inversion-mode operation with high drive current and a peak electron mobility of 3000 cm2/Vs.
Since ultimately the major showstopper on the scaling roadmap is not device speed, but rather power density, the introduction of these advanced materials will have to go together with the introduction of new device concepts. Novel structures such as heterojunction TunnelFET’s can fully exploit the properties of these new materials and provide superior performance at lower power consumption by virtue of their improved subthreshold behaviour. Vertical surround gate devices produced from nanowires allow the introduction of a wide range of materials on Si. This illustrates the possibilities that are created by the combination of new materials and devices to allow scaling of nanoelectronics beyond the Si roadmap.
For the first time, we discuss the compatibility of stress proximity technique (SPT) with dual stress liner (DSL) in high-κ/metal gate (HK/MG) technology. The short-channel mobility enhancement and the drive current improvement brought by SPT have been demonstrated at 32nm technology node. With maintained short channel control and threshold voltage roll-off characteristics, SPT has achieved 7% drive current improvement for both nFET and pFET from the optimization of SPT with DSL.
Science centers and museums have long been at the forefront of communicating the wonder of science to the general public and the K-12 school community. Interactions between the Exploratorium Museum (San Francisco, CA) and the University of Chicago MRSEC are described in this paper. The Exploratorium-organized NEO program—part of the NSF-sponsored NISE network—has greatly influenced the Univ. of Chicago's approach to its materials science course for teachers and helped them incorporate inquiry more deliberately into their after-school science clubs. Also, Exhibit Developers at the Exploratorium collaborate with scientists at the Univ. of Chicago to design exhibits that explain contemporary cutting-edge research in materials. These exhibits emphasize the wonder and beauty of common phenomena that one rarely stops to notice but which leads to deep scientific inquiry.