To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Epidemiological evidence supports a relationship between vitamin D and
mental well-being, although evidence from large-scale placebo-controlled
intervention trials is lacking.
To examine if vitamin D supplementation has a beneficial effect on mood
in community-dwelling older women; if a single annual large dose of
vitamin D has a role in the prevention of depressive symptoms; and if
there is an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and
A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of women aged 70 or
older (the Vital D Study: ISRCTN83409867 and ACTR12605000658617).
Participants were randomly assigned to receive 500 000 IU vitamin
D3 (cholecalciferol) orally or placebo every autumn/winter
for 3–5 consecutive years. The tools utilised at various time points were
the General Health Questionnaire, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey,
the Patient Global Impression–Improvement scale and the WHO Well-Being
Index. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in a subset of 102
In this non-clinical population, no significant differences between the
vitamin D and placebo groups were detected in any of the measured
outcomes of mental health. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the
vitamin D group were 41% higher than the placebo group 12 months
following their annual dose. Despite this difference, scores from the
questionnaires did not differ. Furthermore, there was no interaction
between those on antidepressant/anxiety medication at baseline and the
The lack of improvement in indices of mental well-being in the vitamin D
group does not support the hypothesis that an annual high dose of vitamin
D3 is a practical intervention to prevent depressive
symptoms in older community-dwelling women.
To evaluate the incidence of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and blood glucose (BG) variability in brain-injured patients and their association with clinical outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study of brain-injured patients admitted to an 11- bed neurosciences intensive care unit (ICU) from January 1 to December 31, 2003.
We included 606 patients. Mean age was 52.3 years, 60.6% were male, 11.9% had diabetes mellitus, and 64% were post-operative. Seventy-five (12.4%) received intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for a median (IQR) 72 (24-154) hours. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia occurred in 4.6% (96.4% receiving IIT) and 9.6% (77.6% receiving IIT). Median number of episodes per patient was 3 (75% with ≥2) and 4 (81% with ≥2) for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Variable glycemic control occurred in 3.8% (100% receiving IIT) with median number of 13 episodes per patient. In-hospital mortality was 16.7%, median (IQR) ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 2 (1-5) and 8 (3-19) days. Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and BG variability showed non-significant but consistent associations with hospital mortality and prolonged lengths of ICU and hospital stay. The rate of recurrence of episodes showed stronger and significant associations with outcome, in particular for BG variability and hyperglycemia.
Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and BG variability are relatively common in brain-injured patients and are associated with IIT. An increased frequency of episodes, in particular for BG variability and hyperglycemia, was associated with greater risk of both hospital death and prolonged duration of stay.
Ice-sheet basal ice is warmer than that above because of the heat from the Earth’s interior. The stresses acting on the basal ice are greatest. In addition, the basal ice often contains debris consisting of silt and small stones picked up from the rock over which the ice flows. Because the base is the warmest part of an ice sheet and the stress there is greatest, flow rates in the basal ice are large and often contribute most of the ice movement. It is therefore important, for accurate modelling of the ice sheets, to know whether the debris within the basal ice enhances or retards the flow of the ice. In this paper, we describe laboratory deformation tests in uniaxial compression and in simple shear, on sand-laden ice. We find no significant dependence of flow rate on sand content (up to 15% volume) in the stress range 0.13–0.5 MPa and temperature range –0.02 to –18.0°C. Further work needs to include laboratory tests on debris-laden ice extracted from the polar ice sheets. This work is underway.
Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of opioids administered for pain control. This double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated the anti-emetic efficacy and tolerability of single intravenous (i.v.) doses of ondansetron 8 mg, ondansetron 16 mg and metoclopramide 10 mg in the treatment of opioid-induced emesis. Adult patients undergoing low emetogenic surgical procedures, using a standardized anaesthesia regimen were assessed for 24 h following administration of study anti-emetic to treat established post-surgical opioid-induced emesis. A total of 4511 patients were enrolled of whom 1366 experienced opioid-induced emesis and received randomized study medication. Ondansetron 8 mg and 16 mg were significantly better than metoclopramide 10 mg (P < 0.05) for both complete control of emesis, complete control of nausea and other efficacy measures. There were no significant differences between the two ondansetron groups. All three treatments were well tolerated. In conclusion, this large, multicentre study demonstrates that ondansetron is more effective than metoclopramide in the treatment of opioid-induced emesis following administration of post-surgical opioids to control pain.
The major results from a comprehensive study of the Amery Ice Shelf are presented, following the work of a wintering expedition in 1968 and supplemented by further measurements during the summer seasons of 1969 to 1971. The Programme included ice-core drilling, oversnow surveys for ice movement and optical levelling, ice-thickness sounding, and measurements of snow accumulation. The new data obtained provide the basis for a more accurate assessment of the mass balance and dynamics of the ice shelf than was possible from the earlier surveys.
The results indicate a substantial growth of basal ice under the ice shelf inland where the ice thickness is greater than 450 m. Further towards the ice front the high strain thinning is approximately balanced by the horizontal ice advection.
The velocity distribution over the ice shelf is primarily governed by a substantial surface slope towards the ice front and high restraining shear stress along the sides.