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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
This Research Communication describes the efficacy of etamsylate to reduce haemolactia in dairy cows. A dairy cow with haemolactia produces milk that is reddish or pinkish due to the presence of blood. Haemolactia causes economic loss because bloody milk is rejected by the industry and the consumers. A total of 58 dairy cows with haemolactia were included in the study and randomly divided into treated (n = 31) and control (n = 27) groups. Treatment consisted of three consecutive daily doses of etamsylate at 15 mg/kg, delivered intramuscularly. Milk production was recorded daily for 7 d, whether or not blood was detected in milk. The mean number of days with the presence of blood in milk in the treatment group was significantly lower (3·4 d) than in the control group (4·9 d). Treatment with etamsylate did not significantly affect milk yield. In conclusion, treatment with etamsylate reduces the number of days blood is observed in milk and it does not have any negative effect on milk production.
In this work, we study the hard-magnetic properties and its influence on the microstructure of MnBi-based glass-coated microwires obtained by Taylor-Ulitovsky process, as well as their magnetic and thermal dependence in the range of 200 K-360 K. We obtained glass-coated microwires pieces trough of the Taylor-Ulitovsky process. Glass-coated microwires exhibited the formation of Low-Temperature Intermetallic Phase (LTIP)-MnBi, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental chemical composition analysis showed LTIP regions interspersed within Bi- and Mn-rich areas. Magnetic properties were determined by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), for which a considerable intrinsic coercivity field (iHc) up to 6000 Oe at 360 K, together with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 57.49 emu/cm3. Therefore, this combination of properties renders LTIP is a promising precursor with potential for applications at high temperatures.
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of SiO2- and Al2O3-NPs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld bead (WB) created by a process of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) between two AISI 1025 steel plates. Also it was necessary consider the chemical compositions of slags and burned fluxes, in order to determine the elements that are deposited and contribute in the final microstructure of WB. The welding materials to form each WB were a M12K electrode, a commercial fused flux (CFF) and AISI 1025 steel plates bevelled at 45°. In addition SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs an ethylic alcohol mixture were applied directly to the beveled surfaces, just before the SAW process, which was carried out according to the AWS A5.17 norm. Microstructural and phase changes at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Welding Zone (WZ) were analysed by metallographic Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopies. The mechanical properties of the WBs were determined through Tensile, Charpy impact and Vickers Hardness tests. By means of metallography of WBs, it was determined that the length of the AF needles increases in 113 and 183 % when adding SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs, respectively. Related to the mechanical properties of the WB, the tensile and yield strength decreases with both additions, SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs. The microhardness at WZ was found to decrease by adding such oxide-NPs. Moreover, the impact energy absorbed by the WBs increases approximately by 83 or 57% due to SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs addition, respectively.
High unemployment is a hallmark of psychotic illness. Individual placement and support (IPS) may be effective at assisting the vocational recoveries of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
To examine the effectiveness of IPS at assisting young people with FEP to gain employment (Australian and Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000094370).
Young people with FEP (n = 146) who were interested in vocational recovery were randomised using computer-generated random permuted blocks on a 1:1 ratio to: (a) 6 months of IPS in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) TAU alone. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), 12 months and 18 months post-baseline by research assistants who were masked to the treatment allocations.
At the end of the intervention the IPS group had a significantly higher rate of having been employed (71.2%) than the TAU group (48.0%), odds ratio 3.40 (95% CI 1.17–9.91, z = 2.25, P = 0.025). However, this difference was not seen at 12- and 18-month follow-up points. There was no difference at any time point on educational outcomes.
This is the largest trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of IPS in FEP. The IPS group achieved a very high employment rate during the 6 months of the intervention. However, the advantage of IPS was not maintained in the long term. This seems to be related more to an unusually high rate of employment being achieved in the control group rather than a gross reduction in employment among the IPS group.
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2.A.12 and 2.F.3. In particular, MABs 2.F.3 and 2.G.4 were secreted during early invasion, proliferation and egress phases. MABs 3.10.8 and 5.5.11 labelled the tachyzoite surface, whilst MABs 1.17.8, 8.9.2 and 2.G.A recognized the apical tip, which is reminiscent for microneme localization. Besides, the epitopes recognized by the latter two (MABs 8.9.2 and 2.G.A) exhibited a redistribution from the anterior part across the parasite surface towards the posterior end during invasion. Most MABs developed were genus-specific. Indeed, the MABs cross-reacted neither with T. gondii nor with N. caninum tachyzoites. In summary, we have generated MABs that will be useful to study the key processes in the lytic cycle of the parasite and with additional promising diagnostic value. However, the molecular identity of the antigens recognized remains to be elucidated.
Phenological and aerobiological research into major crops is of great value in adapting traditional processes to the new conditions prompted by global climate change. Data on flowering phenology and airborne pollen have also proved useful for harvest forecasting purposes. The current paper reports on an agrometeorological study carried out in the Montilla-Moriles Protected Designation of Origin area (Córdoba, southern Spain) in 2015 and 2016. The study focused on four grape cultivars produced at seven local vineyards (Pedro Ximénez, the most widely grown in the area; Verdejo; Muscat blanc à petits grains; and Chardonnay, which has been recently introduced). Phenological observations were performed on a weekly basis using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie scale adapted for grapevine. Airborne pollen concentrations were monitored using one Hirst-type volumetric sampler and seven passive samplers. Airborne pollen was mainly detected in vineyards during inflorescence emergence and flowering. Year-on-year differences in climatic conditions led to differences in airborne pollen levels. The main variables affecting pollen concentrations were dew point and temperature. The life-cycles recorded here were shorter than in temperate climates but longer than in tropical climates. In terms of flowering period, the cultivars studied here were classed as ‘early cultivars’. Data obtained using local passive samplers located directly in the vineyard confirmed that the airborne pollen concentrations recorded by the volumetric sampler were representative of the study area.
We provide novel characterizations of multivariate normality that incorporate both the characteristic function and the moment generating function, and we employ these results to construct a class of affine invariant, consistent and easy-to-use goodness-of-fit tests for normality. The test statistics are suitably weighted L2-statistics, and we provide their asymptotic behavior both for i.i.d. observations as well as in the context of testing that the innovation distribution of a multivariate GARCH model is Gaussian. We also study the finite-sample behavior of the new tests and compare the new criteria with alternative existing tests.
Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG Si) solar cells with different ranges of efficiencies were characterized through electroluminescence imaging (ELi) and light-beam induced current (LBIC) measurements. The results showed a good correlation between the EL intensity and the efficiency of the solar cells. ELi images gave a bright contrast at the defects, grain boundaries and intragrain defects, and dark contrast inside the grain bodies. Metallic impurities are much more present in some cells due to the directional solidification of the Si ingot. Local short-circuit current mapping with LBIC measurements revealed a bright zone in the neighborhoods of the defects due to the depletion of impurities. Internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) and effective diffusion lengths (Leff) were calculated using different excitation wavelengths. High resolution LBIC measurements revealed micrometric clusters of impurities around intragrain defects.
The eclipsing supersoft X-ray binary CAL 87 has been observed with Chandra on August 13/14, 2001 for nearly 100 ksec, covering two full orbital cycles and three eclipses. The shape of the eclipse light curve derived from the zeroth-order photons indicates that the size of the X-ray emission region is about 1.5 R⊙. The ACIS/LETG spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines without any noticeable continuum. The brightest emission lines are significantly redshifted and double-peaked, suggestive of emanating in a 2000 km/s wind. We model the X-ray spectrum by a mixture of recombination and resonant scattering. This allows us to deduce the temperature and luminosity of the ionizing source to be kT ~ 50 — 100 eV and Lx ~ 5 x 1037 erg/s.
Adults of Hysteromorpha triloba (Rudolpi, 1819), Lutz, 1931 inhabit primarily the intestine of cormorants across the globe, whereas metacercariae have been found in the body cavity of freshwater fishes of the families Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae, Ariidae, Pimelodidae and Catostomidae. In this study, adults and metacercariae identified as H. triloba were collected from the Neotropical cormorant (Nannopterum brasilianus) and from the Mexican tetra fish (Astyanax mexicanus) from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean slopes in the Neotropical region. Partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were generated for both developmental stages, and were compared with available sequences of H. triloba from the Nearctic region. The genetic divergence between metacercariae and adults of H. triloba from the Neotropical and Nearctic region (Canada) associated with the double-crested cormorant (Nannopterum auritus), ranged from 0 to 5.5% for cox 1 and from 0 to 0.2% for ITS. Phylogenetic analyses inferred with both molecular markers using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference placed the adults and metacercariae in a single clade, confirming that both stages are conspecific. Our data confirmed that H. triloba is a widely distributed species across the Americas, parasitizing both the Neotropical and Nearctic cormorants in Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, USA and Canada.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
Members of the genus Uvulifer are distributed worldwide and infect aquatic snails and freshwater fishes as first and second intermediate hosts, respectively, and fish-eating birds (kingfishers) as definitive hosts. Metacercariae of Uvulifer spp. were collected from the fins and skin of 20 species of freshwater fishes in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and the adults were recovered from the intestine of kingfishers in four localities of Mexico. The genetic divergence among 76 samples (64 metacercariae and 12 adults) was estimated by sequencing the 28S and 5.8S nuclear genes, as well as the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2, and one mitochondrial gene (cox1). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses inferred with each dataset showed a high genetic diversity within the genus Uvulifer across Middle America, revealing the existence of four genetic lineages that exhibit some level of host specificity to their second intermediate hosts. The metacercariae of lineage 1 were associated with characids and cyprinids in central and northern Mexico. Metacercariae of lineages 2 and 3 were associated with cichlids distributed widely across Middle America. The lack of adults of these lineages in kingfishers, in lineages 2 and 3, or the fact that just a few adult specimens were recovered, as in lineage 1, prevented a formal description of these species. The metacercariae of lineage 4 were found in poeciliids, across a distribution range comprising Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and the adult was found in the green kingfisher in Mexico. The number of specimens sampled for lineage 4, for both gravid adults and metacercariae, allowed us to describe a new species, Uvulifer spinatus n. sp. We describe the new species herein and we discuss briefly the genetic diversity in Uvulifer spp. and the importance of using DNA sequences to properly characterize parasite diversity.
With 30 threatened species (14 categorized as Critically Endangered and 16 as Endangered, sensu IUCN), Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its centre of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic species. We present a conservation framework for the 14 Critically Endangered species, found in Cuba, Haiti or the Dominican Republic. Only two species (C. jimenezii, C. montana) occur in more than one country (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Immediate threats include oil drilling and nickel mining, intrusion of saline water into soil, urban and agricultural development, low population recruitment, uncontrolled fires, interspecific hybridization, and unsustainable ethnobotanical practices. Coccothrinax bermudezii, C. borhidiana, C. crinita ssp. crinita, C. leonis and C. spissa are not conserved in protected areas. Coccothrinax bermudezii, C. jimenezii, C. leonis and C. nipensis are not part of ex situ collections. Based on results from a conservation project targeting C. jimenezii, we recommend international cooperation between the three range states to implement integrative conservation management plans, plant exploration initiatives, taxonomic revisions, outreach, and fundraising. The ultimate aim of this review is to provide baseline information that will develop conservation synergy among relevant parties working on Coccothrinax conservation in Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Such collaborations could also benefit through partnerships with botanists working in other countries.
TiO2 nanotubular structures were formed on titanium foils through anodic oxidation using an electrolyte of Ethyleneglycol-H2O (97:3 Vol %)+0.25 M NH4F at a constant voltage of 60V. The anodized samples were analyzed in a FE-SEM obtaining the geometric parameters of the nanotubular arrays. The diameter and the length of the nanotubes were 112 nm and 65µm |respectively, whereas the wall thickness was 44 nm. Crystalline phase of TiO2 nanotubular films (TNTF) were determined by XRD after annealing at 500°C for 2 h, resulting high intensity peaks of anatase and low intensity peaks of rutile. Then, the crystallized samples were characterized from an optical, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic point of view. The photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out in 0.5 M Na2SO4 solution using an 8 W UV lamp at a λ= 365 nm, which results were recorded at 0 bias during 10 min under darkness and illumination intervals of 1 min each. Photocatalytic performance of the TNTF was explored with a 10 mg/L methyl orange solution using an UV light at a wavelength of 365 nm. The changes in the concentration of the MO solution was determined from the calibration curve determined from the absorption spectra at different concentrations of MO (from 0.1 mg/L to 20 mg/L). It was observed an efficiency yield of 99.8% in the photocatalytic performance in presence of the TNTF.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
The protein kinase R (PKR, also called EIF2AK2) is an interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA protein kinase with multiple effects on cells that plays an active part in the cellular response to numerous types of stress. PKR has been extensively studied and documented for its relevance as an antiviral agent and a cell growth regulator. Recently, the role of PKR related to metabolism, inflammatory processes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases has gained interest. In this review, we summarise and discuss the involvement of PKR in several cancer signalling pathways and the dual role that this kinase plays in cancer disease. We emphasise the importance of PKR as a molecular target for both conventional chemotherapeutics and emerging treatments based on novel drugs, and its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several pathologies. Finally, we discuss the impact that the recent knowledge regarding PKR involvement in metabolism has in our understanding of the complex processes of cancer and metabolism pathologies, highlighting the translational research establishing the clinical and therapeutic potential of this pleiotropic kinase.
In Spain, the use of annual cover crops is a crop management practice for irrigated vineyards that allows controlling vineyard vigor and yield, which also leads to improve the crop quality. Recently, Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) has been reported to infest those cover crops and colonize the grapevine rows, resulting in significant yield and economic losses due to the competition for water and nutrients. From timely unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, the objective of this research was to map C. dactylon patches in order to provide an optimized site-specific weed management. A quadrocopter UAV equipped with a point-and-shoot camera was used to collect a set of aerial red-green-blue (RGB) images over a commercial vineyard plot, coinciding with the dormant period of C. dactylon (February 2016). Object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques were used to develop an innovative algorithm for early discrimination and mapping of C. dactylon, which had the ability to solve the limitation of spectral similarity of this weed with cover crops or bare soil. As a general result, the classified maps of the studied vineyard showed four main classes, i.e. vine, cover crop, C. dactylon and bare soil, with 85% overall accuracy. These weed maps allow developing new strategies for site-specific control of C. dactylon populations in the context of precision viticulture.
Biomass production is a diagnosis tool for the evaluation of the effect of climate, crop genomic and management. The differences in biomass accumulation are necessary for the assessment of the fertilization necessities in the strategies for variable nitrogen doses. Remote sensing-based data provide a direct observation of the differences in canopy development across time and space and can be integrated into the physiological basis of crop growth models to provide estimates of biomass production at fine scales. The proposed approach was applied in a wheat field in Albacete, Spain and the results were compared with measurements of aboveground biomass and yield maps obtained by a combined-mounted grain yield monitor.