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Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome-related diseases in offspring. According to epidemiological studies, father’s transmission of environmental effects in addition to mother’s can influence offspring health. Moreover, maternal prenatal dietary folic acid (FA) may beneficially impact offspring health. The objective is to investigate whether prenatal FA supplementation can overcome the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to POPs on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in three generations of male rat descendants through the paternal lineage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) were exposed to a POPs mixture (or corn oil) +/− FA supplementation for 9 weeks before and during gestation. F1 and F2 males were mated with untreated females. Plasma and hepatic lipids were measured in F1, F2, and F3 males after 12-h fast. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was determined by qPCR in epididymal adipose tissue. In F1 males, prenatal POPs exposure increased plasma lipids at 14 weeks old and hepatic lipids at 28 weeks old and prenatal FA supplementation decreased plasma total cholesterol at 14 weeks old. Prenatal POPs exposure decreased plasma triglycerides at 14 weeks old in F2 males. No change was observed in inflammatory markers. Our results show an impact of the paternal lineage on lipid homeostasis in rats up to the F2 male generation. FA supplementation of the F0 diet, regardless of POPs exposure, lowered plasma cholesterol in F1 males but failed to attenuate the deleterious effects of prenatal POPs exposure on plasma and hepatic lipids in F1 males.
Background: Motor evoked potentials (MEP’S) measure myelin/axonal integrity of the central nervous system. MEP’s reliability and correlation to conventional clinical measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have yet to be demonstrated. Alemtuzumab is a high efficacy therapy used in patients with MS. Its longitudinal impact on electrophysiological measures has yet to be examined. Methods: This is a single center, observational study. 10 patients with MS who received their first cycle of alemtuzumab within less than 3 months were evaluated with both clinical and MEP’s measures at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 36 months. MEP’s were repeated two weeks after every time point. We report our preliminary analyses. Results: Patient follow-up ranges from 6 to 36 months. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between two consecutive time points were good with values of 0.774 for the biceps and 0.867 for the tibialis anterior with p values less than 0.0005 for both. The correlation for the biceps MEP’s to the 9 hole peg test (9HPT) was 0.51 with p less than 0.0005 and for the tibialis anterior MEP’s to the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) was -0.411 with p=0.01. Conclusions: Our preliminary analyses demonstrate that MEP results are reproducible and correlate with clinical measures.
Mothers’ return to work and childcare providers’ support for feeding expressed human milk are associated with breast-feeding duration rates in the USA, where most infants are regularly under non-parental care. The objective of the present study was to explore Florida-based childcare centre administrators’ awareness and perceptions of the Florida Breastfeeding Friendly Childcare Initiative.
Semi-structured interviews were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and analysed using applied thematic analysis.
Childcare centre administrators in Tampa Bay, FL, USA, interviewed in 2015.
Twenty-eight childcare centre administrators: female (100 %) and Non-Hispanic White (61 %) with mean age of 50 years and 13 years of experience.
Most administrators perceived potential implementation of the Florida Breastfeeding Friendly Childcare Initiative as simple and beneficial. Tension for change and a related construct (perceived consumer need for the initiative) were low, seemingly due to formula-feeding being normative. Perceived financial costs and relative priority varied. Some centres had facilitating structural characteristics, but none had formal breast-feeding policies.
A cultural shift, facilitated by state and national breast-feeding-friendly childcare policies and regulations, may be important for increasing tension for change and thereby increasing access to breast-feeding-friendly childcare. Similar to efforts surrounding the rapid growth of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, national comprehensive evidence-based policies, regulations, metrics and technical assistance are needed to strengthen state-level breast-feeding-friendly childcare initiatives.
To make pragmatic recommendations on best practices for the engagement of patients in emergency medicine (EM) research.
We created a panel of expert Canadian EM researchers, physicians, and a patient partner to develop our recommendations. We used mixed methods consisting of 1) a literature review; 2) a survey of Canadian EM researchers; 3) qualitative interviews with key informants; and 4) feedback during the 2017 Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Symposium.
We synthesized our literature review into categories including identification and engagement, patients’ roles, perceived benefits, harms, and barriers to patient engagement; 40/75 (53% response rate) invited researchers completed our survey. Among respondents, 58% had engaged patients in research, and 83% intended to engage patients in future research. However, 95% stated that they need further guidance to engage patients. Our qualitative interviews revealed barriers to patient engagement, including the need for training and patient partner recruitment.
Our panel recommends 1) an overarching positive recommendation to support patient engagement in EM research; 2) seven policy-level recommendations for CAEP to support the creation of a national patient council, to develop, adopt and adapt training material, guidelines, and tools for patient engagement, and to support increased patient engagement in EM research; and 3) nine pragmatic recommendations about engaging patients in the preparatory, execution, and translational phases of EM research.
Patient engagement can improve EM research by helping researchers select meaningful outcomes, increase social acceptability of studies, and design knowledge translation strategies that target patients’ needs.
In a saturated solution with dispersed clusters of a second phase, the mechanism by which the larger clusters grow at the expense of the smaller ones is called Ostwald ripening. Although the mechanism is well understood in situations where multiple clusters of gas exist in a liquid solution, evolution is much more complicated to predict when the two phases interact with a solid matrix, since the solid plays a significant role in determining the shape of the interface. In this paper, we study capillary dominated regimes in porous media where the driving force is inter-cluster diffusion. By decomposing the Ostwald ripening mechanism into two processes that operate on different time scales – the diffusion of solute gas in the liquid and the readjustment of the shape of the gas–liquid interface to accommodate a change in mass – we develop a sequential algorithm to solve for the evolution of systems with multiple gas ganglia. In the absence of a solid matrix, thermodynamic equilibrium is reached when all of the gas phase aggregates to form one large bubble. In porous media on the other hand, we find that ripening can lead to equilibrium situations with multiple disconnected ganglia, and that evolution is highly dependent on initial conditions and the structure of the solid matrix. The fundamental difference between the two cases is in the relationship between mass and capillary pressure.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased incidence of pathogens transmitted by the oro-fecal route. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of acute hepatitis and fecal shedding is observed during primary infection. We investigated whether MSM are at increased risk of HEV infection. Subjects who attended a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Brussels and had an HIV test performed between 1 June 2014 and 15 January 2016 were identified. A total of 576 samples were retrospectively screened for both total HEV IgG and HEV RNA. Samples positive for IgG were tested for IgM. MSM proportion was 31·1% (179/576). Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 9·03% (52/576) and was identical in MSM and heterosexual subjects. Among the IgG positive samples, 2/52 (3·84%) samples (both women) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. No sample was positive for HEV RNA. Age over 35 was the only risk factor significantly associated with HEV seropositivity (OR 2·07; 95% CI 1·16–3·67). In conclusion, MSM were not found to have an increased prevalence of HEV as previously reported in other European countries suggesting distinct dynamics of HEV infection in this group across Europe and increased age was associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.
This paper presents radiocarbon results from a single Diploastrea heliopora coral from Vanuatu that lived during the Younger Dryas climatic episode, between ca. 11,700 and 12,400 calendar yr bp. The specimen has been independently dated with multiple 230Th measurements to permit calibration of the 14C time scale. Growth bands in the coral were used to identify individual years of growth. 14C measurements were made on each year. These values were averaged to achieve decadal resolution for the 14C calibration. The relative uncertainty of the decadal 14C data was below 1% (2σ). The data are in good agreement with the existing dendrochronology and allow for high-resolution calibration for most years. Variations in the fine structure of the 14C time series preserved in this specimen demonstrate sporadic rapid increases in the Δ14C content of the surface ocean and atmosphere. Certain sharp rises in Δ14C are coincident with gaps in coral growth evidenced by several hiatuses. These may be related to rapid climatic changes that occurred during the Younger Dryas. This is the first coral calibration with decadal resolution and the only such data set to extend beyond the dendrochronology-based 14C calibration.
The following date list includes archaeologic and geologic samples dated by Gif Radiocarbon Laboratory mostly from 1973 to 1975. Volcanic samples reported here were dated up to 1981. Measurements were made in the same manner as previously reported (R, 1972, v 14, p 280). For undersized samples, a 0.1L CO2 proportional counter was used with 5000-minute standard measurements. Ages listed are conventional 14C ages based on the 5568-year Libby half-life; uncertainties are 1σ statistical standard error. Results are based on 95% of NBS oxalic acid activity. Some dates have been calibrated using the correction curve of Klein et al (1982).
We present near-infrared spectroscopy of low-mass companions in the HD 130948 system (Goto et al. 2002a). Adaptive optics on the Subaru Telescope allowed for spectroscopy of the individual components of the 0″.13 binary system. Based on a direct comparison with a series of template spectra, we determined the spectral types of HD 130948B and C to be L4 ± 1. We find they are most likely a binary brown dwarf system.
We report the direct detection of cyclic diameter variations in the Mira variable χ Cygni. Interferometric observations made between 1997 July and 1998 September, using the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope (COAST) indicate periodic changes in the apparent angular diameter with amplitude 45 per-cent of the smallest value.
The measurements were made in a 50 nm bandpass centred on 905 nm, which is only moderately contaminated by molecular absorption features. To assess the effects of atmospheric stratification on the apparent diameter measured in this band, we have also measured near-infrared diameters for a sample of five Miras, in both the J-band (1.3 μm) and Wing's (1971) 1.04 μm band, which is expected to isolate essentially pure continuum emission. We present J-band visibility curves which indicate that the intensity profiles of the stars in the sample differ greatly from each other.
On the sun we can identify many of the motions derived from stellar spectral analysis. A summary is given of the observed solar velocity phenomena. Many of these (e.g. meridional flow, giant cells, solar differential rotation, supergranulation) are of great interest in astrophysics especially for interior structure and chromospheric and coronal structuring but contribute virtually nothing to the velocities derived from a solar irradiance spectrum analysis. Others (granulation, very small scale motions and to a lesser extent, oscillations) do contribute substantially to the integrated sun velocity analysis. Some of the properties of these motion fields are described.
We describe recent progress with interferometric imaging using the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT). All six telescopes can now be phased over a wide field of view simultaneously resulting in a (u, v) plane coverage corresponding to that of a 686 cm aperture telescope. We describe the open-loop phasing control of the MMT for gravitational changes and we describe a concept of an internal cophasing/coalignment system for MMT type telescopes.
We propose to develop a technique to achieve submillisecond of arc resolution on stellar objects. It uses the fact that the spectrum of the light emitted by such an object often changes across its surface either because of Doppler shifts, Zeeman splitting, abundance anomalies or changes in the stellar atmosphere. By an appropriately designed experiment using narrow band (0.5 – 1 Å) filters, it is then possible to obtain differences between the position of speckles in the stellar image when viewed in slightly different wavelengths. It is possible to determine these differences in the position of the speckles with an accuracy much higher than the speckle size itself using techniques which are already developed for binary star-speckle research. We propose to use the technique of “Differential Speckle Interferometry” to study stellar rotation, evolution of stellar systems, spectroscopic binaries, the mass-luminosity relation, and peculiar A stars.
The MMT utilizes a number of most unusual features many of which will probably be included in future advanced technology telescopes. We report here on the performance of these unconventional functions as we have determined them until now.
During the Middle Paleolithic period, carnivores and hominids periodically occupied the same areas at different times and each predator generated significant palimpsests, rendering difficult their archaeological interpretation. Teixoneres Cave, a carnivore den site, located in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula, demonstrates that it is possible to overcome these problems by using a careful strategy in selecting samples for radiocarbon dating, in order to produce an accurate chronology of the site in question and certainly attest the human occupation.