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Whole grain cereal breakfast consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism as well as satiety. Pearl millet is a popular ancient grain variety that can be grown in hot, dry regions. However, little is known about its health effects. This study investigated the effect of a pearl millet porridge (PMP) compared with a well-known Scottish oats porridge (SOP) on glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetitive responses. In a randomized, two way crossover trial, 26 healthy participants consumed two iso-energetic/volumetric PMP or SOP breakfast meals, served with a drink of water. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP and PYY, gastric volumes and appetite ratings were collected for two hours postprandially, followed by an ad libitum meal and food intake records for the remainder of the day. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC2h) for blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (p ˃ 0.05). The iAUC2h gastric volume was larger for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.045). The iAUC2h GIP concentration was significantly lower for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.001). Other hormones and appetite responses were similar between meals. In conclusion, this study reports, for the first time, data on glycaemic and physiological responses to a pearl millet breakfast, showing that this ancient grain could represent a sustainable, alternative, with health-promoting characteristics comparable to oats. GIP is an incretin hormone linked to triacylglycerol absorption in adipose tissue, therefore the lower GIP response for PMP may be an added health benefit.
Background: For adolescents with epilepsy, there is often a poor system in place to meet their individualized transition needs. Our objectives were 1) to develop epilepsy-specific transition care management plans (TCMPs) to ensure access, and attachment to adult healthcare providers, and 2) to identify strategies for providing support during the transition period, including through the development of physician and patient (or caregiver) navigated web-based tools, resources and recommendations for health system improvements. Methods: Physicians and nurses with expertise in areas including adult and pediatric epilepsy, family medicine, psychiatry, and varied allied health professionals were engaged to generate epilepsy-related TCMPs. Results: Through an iterative process spanning the course of over a year, TCMPs were developed to cover areas including: treatment responsive and resistant epilepsy, ketogenic diet, epilepsy surgery, women’s issues, mental health, and psychosocial aspects of epilepsy. The TCMPs referenced established guidelines and best practices in the literature wherever possible. Caregiver roles and responsibilities were outlined, remaining cognoscent of available provincial resources. Conclusions: Epilepsy specific TCMPs can be developed through a collaborative approach between pediatric and adult healthcare providers, easing the patient experience, creating educated accountability, and providing a forum to identify and address gaps of care in adolescents with epilepsy.
The Early Iron Age enclosures and associated sites on Sutton Common on the western edge of the Humberhead Levels contain an exceptional variety of archaeological data of importance not only to the region but for the study of later prehistory in the British Isles. Few other later prehistoric British sites outside the East Anglian fens and the Somerset Levels have thus far produced the quantity and quality of organically preserved archaeological materials that have been found, despite the small scale of the investigations to date. The excavations have provided an opportunity to integrate a variety of environmental analyses, of wood, pollen, beetles, waterlogged and carbonised plant remains, and of soil micromorphology, to address archaeological questions about the character, use, and environment of this Early Iron Age marsh fort. The site is comprised of a timber palisaded enclosure and a succeeding multivallate enclosure linked to a smaller enclosure by a timber alignment across a palaeochannel, with associated finds ranging in date from the Middle Bronze Age to the Roman and medieval periods. Among the four adjacent archaeological sites is an Early Mesolithic occupation site, also with organic preservation, and there is a Late Neolithic site beneath the large enclosure. Desiccation throughout the common is leading to the damage and loss of wooden and organic remains. It is hoped that the publication of these results, of investigations between 1987 and 1993, will lead to a fuller investigation taking place.
Genistein and daidzein are isoflavones which are reported to influence the reproductive system in a variety of mammalian species. This pilot study aimed to determine if dietary isoflavones could potentially influence reproductive parameters in domestic cats, when consumed during the postnatal development period. Cats (n = 12) were maintained on either a treatment (150 µg/g DM genistein and 150 µg/g DM daidzein, n = 4) or control (isoflavone free, n = 8) diet from weaning, up to 414 (±17.2) days post-weaning. Vaginal smears were taken thrice weekly and examined for oestrogen-induced cellular degradation in all cats. Behavioural indicators of oestrous were routinely scored for the presence or absence of six key behaviours. Genistein and daidzein did not alter puberty onset or oestrous cycle parameters in these cats (P > 0.05). Behavioural scores were higher in cats in the treatment group than control. Incidence of apparent spontaneous ovulation (inferred from extended inter-oestrous periods) was greater in treated cats than control cats, although serum hormone profiles were not available to confirm this observation. Further testing is warranted.
Genistein and daidzein are isoflavones which are reported to influence the reproductive system in a variety of mammalian species. This pilot study aimed to determine if dietary isoflavones could potentially influence reproductive tract histology or morphology in domestic cats, when consumed during the postnatal development period. Cats were maintained on either treatment (150 µg/g DM genistein and 150 µg/g DM daidzein, n = 4) or control (isoflavone free, n = 8) diets from weaning, up to 414 (±17.2) days post-weaning. Reproductive tissues were collected during routine ovario-hysterectomy and examined for histology and sex steroid receptor expression. Findings indicate that these dietary isoflavones influenced the expression of oestrogen receptor α (ERα) and oestrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor in feline reproductive tissues. One cat in the treatment group developed suppurative endometritis, but no evidence of uterotrophic or histological changes were found in any other cats. The potential to alter expression of hormone receptors in the reproductive tract of domestic cats exposed to genistein and daidzein warrants further investigation.
Dietary isoflavones have been hypothesised to play a role in hepatic veno-occlusive disease in captive exotic felids, although empirical evidence is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the effect of long-term (>1 year) dietary genistein and daidzein exposure on the hepatic biochemistry and histology of domestic cats. Individual cats were assessed for hepatic enzyme and bile acid production before and after the removal of isoflavones from their diet in the treatment group (n = 4), and at the same times in unexposed control animals (n = 7). No significant differences were detectable in hepatic biochemistry between treatment and control groups, and all serum values were within the normal reference ranges for domestic cats. Additionally, treatment animals demonstrated slightly greater areas of fibrosis surrounding hepatic venules than control animals, but this difference was not statistically significant. On the basis of the results presented, dietary isoflavones, at the current dose and duration of exposure do not appear to modulate hepatic enzyme production or histological parameters.
The basement of the island of Nordaustlandet, northeastern Svalbard, consists of a complex of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks, granites and augen gneisses, unconformably overlain by the Neoproterozoic Murchisonfjorden Supergroup. Earlier U-Pb dating of the Laponiafjellet and Kontaktberget granites has shown them to be late Grenvillian, with ages of c. 960 Ma and 940 Ma, respectively. Here, we present conventional U-Pb zircon and monazite data, single zircon Pb-evaporation data and ion microprobe data from the Kapp Hansteen Group and Svartrabbane Formation volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, and from the Fonndalen and Ringåsvatnet augen gneisses of central Nordaustlandet. The combined evidence suggests late Grenvillian magmatic ages of 940–970 Ma for all these rocks, with inherited zircons ranging in age from c. 1200 Ma to 2600 Ma. The investigated rocks vary in chemical composition from andesites to rhyolites and granites, and show generally similar trace and rare earth element patterns, with trace element compositions suggesting a volcanic arc or syn-collisional tectonic setting, and major element compositions suggesting a large sedimentary input to the magmas. Contributions from older crustal material are also supported by Nd isotope data and the presence of inherited zircons.
The Grenvillian magmatic rocks thus originated in a series of magmatic events along a continental margin over a time span not longer than 30 Ma. The volcanic rocks were extruded onto folded strata of the Brennevinsfjorden Group–Helvetesflya Formation, which must have been deposited in the time interval 1200–960 Ma. Folding of the metasediments preceded the volcanism, but was synchronous with intrusion of the augen gneiss protolith, and was followed by crustal stabilisation, uplift and erosion. This newly formed Grenvillian crust then served as basement for the deposition of the Neoproterozoic Murchisonfjorden Supergroup. The present outcrop pattern of the Grenvillian rocks is largely the result of large-scale Caledonian folding and doming.
Field observations from the Trinity Peninsula Group at View Point on the Antarctic Peninsula indicate that thick, southward-younging and overturned clastic sedimentary rocks, comprising unusually coarse conglomeratic lenses within a succession of fine-grained sandstone–mudstone couplets, are the deposits of debris and turbidity flows on or at the foot of a submarine slope. Three detrital zircons from the sandstone–mudstone couplets date deposition at 302 ± 3 Ma, at or shortly after the Carboniferous–Permian boundary. Conglomerates predominantly consist of quartzite and granite and contain boulders exceeding 500 mm in diameter. Zircons from granitoid clasts and a silicic volcanic clast yield U–Pb ages of 466 ± 3 Ma, 373 ± 5 Ma and 487 ± 4 Ma, respectively and have corresponding average εHft values between +0.3 and +7.6. A quartzite clast, conglomerate matrix and sandstone interbedded with the conglomerate units have broadly similar detrital zircon age distributions and Hf isotope compositions. The clast and detrital zircon ages match well with sources within Patagonia; however, the age of one granite clast and the εHf characteristics of some detrital zircons point to a lesser South Africa or Ellsworth Mountain-like contribution, and the quartzite and granite-dominated composition of the conglomerates is similar to upper Palaeozoic diamictites in the Ellsworth Mountains. Unlike detrital zircons, large conglomerate clasts limit possible transport distance, and suggest sedimentation took place on or near the edge of continental crust. Comparison with other upper Palaeozoic to Mesozoic sediments in the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia, including detrital zircon composition and the style of deformation, suggests deposition of the Trinity Peninsula Group in an upper plate basin on an active margin, rather than a subduction-related accretionary setting, with slow extension and rifting punctuated by short periods of compression.
Bombardment damage produced by Si+ ions in AlxGa1−xAs/GaAs layer structures has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and ion channeling and backscattering spectrometry. The damage resistance of A1xGa1−xAs alloy layers increases with Al concentration. In particular, by comparison of complementary Si+ ion doses yielding similar nuclear displacement densities at 150keV and 2MeV bombardment energies, it is demonstrated for the first time that the local concentration of implanted Si impurity is likely to be a significant factor in controlling lattice damage build-up, especially for the highest Si+ ion implantation doses. It is also shown that, in a manner analogous to A1As, the alloy layers can confer a significant protection from ion damage upon adjacent, epitaxially-bonded narrow zones of crystalline GaAs.
The material-dependent manner in which ion damage occurs in AlAs/GaAs heteroepitaxial structures is demonstrated using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Both 150keV and 2MeV Si+ ion implants are employed over a wide range of ion doses. Under conditions which yield rapid build-up of lattice damage in GaAs, the AlAs is found to be relatively resistant to structure breakdown. Indeed, the crystalline AlAs exerts a novel protective effect on immediately adjacent regions of the GaAs layers. For high implantation doses amorphous-crystal superlattices are formed in multilayer structures. For the highest ion doses the AlAs lattice begins to be disrupted by a characteristic, boundary-dependent, heterogeneous mechanism. These observations suggest that mobile point defects play a significant role in AlAs in situ restructuring processes.
The implantation of Ar+ ions into AlAs/GaAs layered samples is shown to give very different damage structures in the two materials. While the GaAs is relatively easily amorphised, the AlAs is quite resistant to damage accumulation and remains crystalline for the ion doses employed in these investigations. The behaviour of the different damage structures when subjected to rapid thermal annealing treatments is described in some detail. It is demonstrated that differences in the initial damage state have a strong influence upon the nature of lattice defects produced by annealing.
The contrast of misfit dislocations in an InGaAs layer, close to the critical thickness and capped with GaAs grown by MBE on a (001) oriented GaAs substrate has been investigated by double axis synchrotron X-radiation topography. The layer thickness variation as a function of position has been measured to a precision of 1A by matching interference fringes observed in the 004 symmetric reflection double crystal rocking curves with simulations. The misfit dislocation density is highly anisotropic, varying from zero to a high value with increasing thickness. The contrast of the dislocations in the 004, 224 and 044 reflections has been examined in detail. All of the long dislocation segments characterized were 60° in character with ½<110> Burgers vectors inclined to the specimen surface. No dislocations were found which did not appear to be of this type. A surprising difference in contrast of the background in the 224 and 224 reflections is discussed.
We have studied the development of a microscopically ridged  Morphology during (001) GaAs Molecular beam epitaxy, as a function of layer thickness and growth temperature. The ridge slopes are consistent with the  separation required to incorporate a majority of adatoms by step-flow growth. Thus step-flow can be a dominant growth mode even on nominally on-axis (singular) substrates. With increasing epilayer thickness, the ridge slopes, and surface step density, remain approximately constant, while the ridge spacings, and therefore roughness amplitude, increase steadily.
The palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian orogen in southern Finland contains a number of orogenic gold occurrences. The Jokisivu gold deposit, comprising auriferous quartz veins, is hosted by syn-tectonic quartz diorites to gabbros. Mineralization occurs in approximately WNW–ESE- and WSW–ENE-trending shear zones, which probably branch from regional-scale NW–SE-trending shears. Ore zone fabrics post-date regional-scale folding and the metamorphic peak, and can be correlated with late Svecofennian regional shear tectonics (D6; 1.83–1.78 Ga), indicating that mineralization formed during the late stages of orogenic evolution. SIMS and TIMS U–Pb dating of three samples place tight constraints on the age of gold mineralization. Zircons from both unaltered and altered quartz diorites have ages of 1884±4 Ma and 1881±3 Ma, respectively. These are interpreted as the crystallization age of the rock and as providing the maximum age for mineralization. Zircon rims from an altered quartz diorite from the ore zone give ages of c. 1802±15 Ma, which overlap with the 1801±18 Ma titanite (mean Pb–Pb) age from the ore zone. The ages are similar to the age of the pegmatite dyke that cuts the ore zone and whose zircon age of 1807±3 Ma is approximately the same as the 1791±2 Ma monazite age (TIMS) giving the minimum age of the gold mineralization. The mineralization and its structural framework can be correlated with coeval late Svecofennian shear tectonics related to WNW–ESE-oriented shortening in southern Finland. Extensive c. 1.8 Ga granite magmatism, shear zone development and associated gold mineralization are of regional importance also in the northern and western Fennoscandian Shield (Finnish Lapand and Sweden). A Cordilleran-type setting can explain the widespread distribution of magmatism and gold mineralization associated with shortening, as well as the required heat source triggering hydrothermal fluid flow along shear zones.
In most individuals, language production and visuospatial skills are subserved predominantly by the left and right hemispheres, respectively. Functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) provides a noninvasive and relatively low-cost method for measuring functional lateralization. However, while the silent word generation task provides an accurate and reliable paradigm for investigating lateralization of language production, there is no comparable gold-standard method for measuring visuospatial skills. Thirty undergraduate students (19 females) completed a task of spatial memory while undergoing fTCD recording. Participants completed this task at two different time points, separated by between 26 to 155 days. The relative activation between hemispheres averaged across all participants was found to be consistent across testing sessions. This was observed at the individual level also, with a quantitative index of lateralization showing high reproducibility. These findings indicate that the use of the spatial memory task with fTCD is a robust methodology for examining laterality of visuospatial skills. (JINS, 2009, 15, 1028–1032.)
Dating the pre-Middle Ordovician metavolcanic rocks and metagranites of the Ollo de Sapo Domain has, historically, been difficult because of the small compositional variation, the effects of the Variscan orogeny and, as revealed in this paper, the unusually high fraction of inherited zircon components. The first reliable zircon data (U–Pb ion microprobe and Pb–Pb stepwise evaporation) indicate that the Ollo de Sapo volcanism spanned 495±5 Ma to 483±3 Ma, and was followed by the intrusion of high-level granites from 483±3 Ma to 474±4 Ma. In both metavolcanic rocks and metagranites, no less than 70–80% of zircon grains are either totally Precambrian or contain a Precambrian core overgrown by a Cambro-Ordovician rim. About 80–90% of inherited zircons are Early Ediacaran (602–614 Ma) and derived from calc-alkaline intermediate to felsic igneous rocks generated at the end of the Pan-African arc–continent collision. In the Villadepera region, located to the west, both the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks also contain Meso-Archaean zircons (3.0–3.2 Ga) which ultimately originated from the West African Craton. In the Hiendelaencina region, located to the east, both the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks lack Meso-Archaean zircons, but they have two different inherited zircon populations, one Cryogenian (650–700 Ma) and the other Tonian (850–900 Ma), which suggest older-than-Ediacaran additional island-arc components. The different proportion of source components and the marked variation of the 87Sr/86Srinit. suggest, at least tentatively, that the across-arc polarity of the remnants of the Pan-African arc of Iberia trended east–west (with respect to the current coordinates) during Cambro-Ordovician times, and that the passive margin was situated to the west.
The relationship between plutonic and volcanic rocks is central to understanding the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems, but it is clouded by ambiguities associated with unravelling the plutonic record. Here we report an integrated U–Pb, O and Lu–Hf isotope study of zircons from three putative granitic–volcanic rock pairs from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia, to explore the connection between the intrusive and extrusive realms. The data reveal contrasting petrogenetic scenarios for the S- and I-type pairs. The zircon Hf–O isotope systematics in an I-type dacite are very similar to those of their plutonic counterpart, supporting an essentially co-magmatic relationship between these units. The elevated δ18O of zircons in these I-type rocks confirm a significant supracrustal source component. The S-type volcanic rocks are not the simple erupted equivalents of the granites, although the extrusive and plutonic units can be related by open-system magmatic evolution. Zircons in the S-type rocks define covariant εHf–δ18O arrays that attest to mixing or assimilation processes between two components, one being the Ordovician metasedimentary country rocks, the other either an I-type magma or a mantle-derived magma. The data are consistent with models involving incremental melt extraction from relatively juvenile magmas undergoing open-system differentiation at depth, followed by crystal-liquid mixing upon emplacement in shallow magma reservoirs, or upon eruption. The latter juxtaposes crystals with markedly different petrogenetic histories and determines whole-rock geochemical and textural properties. This scenario can explain the puzzling decoupling between the bulk rock isotope and geochemical compositions commonly observed for granite suites.
Ion microprobe (SIMS) dating of zircon from the Miranda do Douro orthogneiss, Central Iberian Zone, Hercynian Iberian belt, defines an Early Ordovician U–Pb age of 496.0 ± 2.6 Ma (95 % conf., MSWD = 1.14) for magmatic zircon crystallization in its granitic protolith. The age contrasts with an earlier, conventional (ID-TIMS) U–Pb zircon age of 618 ± 9(95 % conf.) Ma, now thought to be an artefact of the complex zircon population. Individual SIMS ages for zircon from the rock range from 2700 to 180 Ma and comprise inherited and magmatic zircon, both concordant and common Pb-enriched, and younger, reset ages. The ID-TIMS study seems to have misinterpreted this heterogeneous population as a cogenetic suite consisting of magmatic zircon and its age-reset equivalents produced by recent Pb loss. The 496 ± 3 Ma SIMS age represents the weighted average for 26 magmatic zircon domains located by careful inspection of cathodoluminescence, secondary electron and optical microscopy images of ∼ 700 individual zircon crystals. Inherited zircon is widespread, ranging in age from 2700 to 550 Ma, with age clusters, which are statistically indistinguishable from those known from pre-Hercynian granitic basement material elsewhere in the Central Iberian Zone. Including the present age information, 582 ± 4 Ma (95 % conf., MSWD = 1.02, n = 13) and 619 ± 9 Ma (95 % conf., MSWD = 0.93, n = 7) appear as prevailing inherited zircon age components in basement intrusions in the Central Iberian Zone.
This report, which was sponsored by the Life Board of the Faculty and Institute of Actuaries, was originally published in November 1997.
Because it is referred to several times in the paper ‘Reserving, Pricing and Hedging for Policies with Guaranteed Annuity Options’, and in the discussions of the paper, and because it is not easily accessible elsewhere, it is printed here as a background paper for reference.