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This work reports by the first time a method to control the geometry of Ga2O3 films nanocrystallites at 350 °C. The formation of controlled shaped nano-crystallites of γ-Ga2O3 from amorphous Ga2O3 films grown by RF-Sputtering at room temperature driven by nano-layers of group IB metals (Cu, Ag or Au) is studied. The reported results can be explained by the role of subsurface metal nano-layers and the non-equilibrium nature of the sputtering processes. To study the effects on the surface structure and their optical properties arrays of amorphous-Ga2O3/IB-metal/amorphous-Ga2O3 were annealed in dry N2 atmosphere at 350 °C by 50, 100 and 150 min. The experimental results can be explained by the evolution of the amorphous character of the films amorphous films towards the nanocrystalline γ-Ga2O3 phase driven by the metal nano-layer seed nature. As the annealing time was increased the transition from amorphous-Ga2O3 to the nanocrystalline γ-Ga2O3 phase was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. The transition to the nanocrystalline γ-Ga2O3 is demonstrated by the formation of octahedral, triangle and ball shape nanocrystallites with sizes of ∼5 to 50 nm according to FE-SEM analysis. The influence of the metal nano-layer is clearly seen by the shift of the plasmon frequency resonance produced by the Ga2O3/IB-metal/Ga2O3 arrays in the region from 400 to 600 nm caused by the modification of the interface Ga2O3/IB-metal produced by the applied annealing stages.
To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.
Mothers’ return to work and childcare providers’ support for feeding expressed human milk are associated with breast-feeding duration rates in the USA, where most infants are regularly under non-parental care. The objective of the present study was to explore Florida-based childcare centre administrators’ awareness and perceptions of the Florida Breastfeeding Friendly Childcare Initiative.
Semi-structured interviews were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and analysed using applied thematic analysis.
Childcare centre administrators in Tampa Bay, FL, USA, interviewed in 2015.
Twenty-eight childcare centre administrators: female (100 %) and Non-Hispanic White (61 %) with mean age of 50 years and 13 years of experience.
Most administrators perceived potential implementation of the Florida Breastfeeding Friendly Childcare Initiative as simple and beneficial. Tension for change and a related construct (perceived consumer need for the initiative) were low, seemingly due to formula-feeding being normative. Perceived financial costs and relative priority varied. Some centres had facilitating structural characteristics, but none had formal breast-feeding policies.
A cultural shift, facilitated by state and national breast-feeding-friendly childcare policies and regulations, may be important for increasing tension for change and thereby increasing access to breast-feeding-friendly childcare. Similar to efforts surrounding the rapid growth of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, national comprehensive evidence-based policies, regulations, metrics and technical assistance are needed to strengthen state-level breast-feeding-friendly childcare initiatives.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
The ability to interface electronic materials with the peripheral nervous system is required for stimulation and monitoring of neural signals. Thus, the design and engineering of robust neural interfaces that maintain material-tissue contact in the presence of material or tissue micromotion offer the potential to conduct novel measurements and develop future therapies that require chronic interface with the peripheral nervous system. However, such remains an open challenge given the constraints of existing materials sets and manufacturing approaches for design and fabrication of neural interfaces. Here, we investigated the potential to leverage a rapid prototyping approach for the design and fabrication of nerve cuffs that contain supporting features to mechanically stabilize the interaction between cuff electrodes and peripheral nerve. A hybrid 3D printing and robotic-embedding (i.e., pick-and-place) system was used to design and fabricate silicone nerve cuffs (800 µm diameter) containing conforming platinum (Pt) electrodes. We demonstrate that the electrical impedance of the cuff electrodes can be reduced by deposition of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on cuff electrodes via a post-processing electropolymerization technique. The computer-aided design and manufacturing approach was also used to design and integrate supporting features to the cuff that mechanically stabilize the interface between the cuff electrodes and the peripheral nerve. Both ‘self-locking’ and suture-assisted locking mechanisms are demonstrated based on the principle of making geometric alterations to the cuff opening via 3D printing. Ultimately, this work shows 3D printing offers considerable opportunity to integrate supporting features, and potentially even novel electronic materials, into nerve cuffs that can support the design and engineering of next generation neural interfaces.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The excessive consumption of carbohydrates is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in infants and adults. The effect of combining maternal malnutrition and a high carbohydrate intake on the development of NAFLD in adulthood remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that consumption of 5% sucrose by the offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy promotes liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage differently in females and males. To test this, 12-month-old female and male offspring of mothers fed a Control (C) or low-protein diet (Restricted, R) were provided with either tap water or 5% sucrose for a period of 10 weeks. Livers were excised to measure the fat content and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTyr) immunostaining; serum samples were also obtained to measure the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Data were analyzed using a non-repeated measures three-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences (P<0.05) regarding to the interaction among maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Results showed that the liver fat content of females from R mothers was higher than that of their male counterpart. Hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations were not affected by the interaction involving maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Otherwise, liver fat content was correlated with the hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations only in females. Thus, sucrose intake in adulthood increases fat content in the female but not in the male rat offspring of dams fed with a low-protein diet during pregnancy. This research emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet during pregnancy and the influence of the diet on the adult offspring.
Body image disturbance (BID) is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), but as yet distinctive features of BID are unknown. The present study aimed at disentangling perceptual and attitudinal components of BID in AN.
We investigated n = 24 women with AN and n = 24 controls. Based on a three-dimensional (3D) body scan, we created realistic virtual 3D bodies (avatars) for each participant that were varied through a range of ±20% of the participants’ weights. Avatars were presented in a virtual reality mirror scenario. Using different psychophysical tasks, participants identified and adjusted their actual and their desired body weight. To test for general perceptual biases in estimating body weight, a second experiment investigated perception of weight and shape matched avatars with another identity.
Women with AN and controls underestimated their weight, with a trend that women with AN underestimated more. The average desired body of controls had normal weight while the average desired weight of women with AN corresponded to extreme AN (DSM-5). Correlation analyses revealed that desired body weight, but not accuracy of weight estimation, was associated with eating disorder symptoms. In the second experiment, both groups estimated accurately while the most attractive body was similar to Experiment 1.
Our results contradict the widespread assumption that patients with AN overestimate their body weight due to visual distortions. Rather, they illustrate that BID might be driven by distorted attitudes with regard to the desired body. Clinical interventions should aim at helping patients with AN to change their desired weight.
Early Warning of Space Weather phenomena is one of the most important products produced by Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX). The aim is to deliver a verified warning to Mexican National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) as well as to general public in near-real time automatically. First, the international pubic warning (or alert) is produced by Space Weather Prediction Center of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S.A. Further, the alert is received by SCiESMEX system, decodified, translated in Spanish and put in the context of local current conditions. The alerts are transformed and validated in agreement to Mexican policies of civil protection and CENAPRED protocols. The automatic system segments the information and delivers the corresponding web- page-alerts, emails, twits, facebook messages and SMS. The latency of the alert is 5 minutes. The code is running since January of 2015 without major interruptions.
First results from the 4-6 months observations of the VIRGO experiment (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations) on the ESA/NASA Mission SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) are reported. The time series are evaluated in terms of solar irradiance variability, solar background noise characteristics and p-mode oscillations. The solar irradiance is modulated by the passage of active regions across the disk, but not all of the modulation is straightforwardly explained in terms of sunspot flux blocking and facular enhancement. The observed p-mode frequencies are more-or-less in agreement with earlier measurements, but it is interesting to note that systematic differences seem to exist between the observations in different colours. There is also evidence that magnetic activity plays a significant role in the dynamics of the oscillations beyond its modulation of the resonant frequencies. Moreover, by comparing the amplitudes of different components of p-mode multiplets, each of which are influenced differently by spatial inhomogeneity, we have found that activity enhances excitation.
We are trying to reduce the largest uncertainties in using white dwarf stars as Galactic chronometers by understanding the details of carbon crystalliazation that currently result in a 1–2 Gyr uncertainty in the ages of the oldest white dwarf stars. We expect the coolest white dwarf stars to have crystallized interiors, but theory also predicts hotter white dwarf stars, if they are massive enough, will also have some core crystallization. BPM 37093 is the first discovered of only a handful of known massive white dwarf stars that are also pulsating DAV, or ZZ Ceti, variables. Our approach is to use the pulsations to constrain the core composition and amount of crystallization. Here we report our analysis of 4 hours of continuous time series spectroscopy of BPM 37093 with Gemini South combined with simultaneous time-series photometry from Mt. John (New Zealand), SAAO, PROMPT, and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina).
The role of the initial bacterial inoculates on the biocorrosion of API X52 pipeline steel coupons was evaluated by electrochemical noise technique. The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions using an aerobic bacteria identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Inoculations in the interval strain of 1x104 – 1x108 CFU/ml were evaluated. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis was carried out to evaluate the corrosive effects induced on the API X52 electrodes. The results show that all corroded surfaces show sites of localized corrosion, however, the density of de sites of localized corrosion have different grades depending of the initial inoculation used during the experiments. The maximum density sites of localized corrosion were obtained in the experiments with 1x105 CFU/ml. From inoculates of 1x106 CFU/ml the density sites of localized corrosion diminished constantly. The results show that with inoculates over 1x106 CFU/ml, the oxygen demand for the bacterial strain limits the presence of oxygen available into the metallic surface to maintain the corrosion reactions. The results were supported by the EDX analysis of the corrosion products formed on the metallic surfaces where the oxygen peaks diminished as the bacterial inoculation increases.
Land use and management, together with soil properties, determine soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and its stabilization mechanisms. Four soils (0–30 cm depth) were studied in a semi-arid region with different uses and management regimes: two soils with olive cultivation, both under a non-tillage regime and one with a cover crop (OCC) and the other without (ONT); a fluvial terrace soil (FT) with cereal–sunflower–fallow rotation; and an unaltered soil under natural vegetation (oak trees; OT). The OT soil had a higher SOC concentration than the agricultural soils (OCC, ONT and FT), followed by the FT soil without significant differences. The olive grove soils had a lower SOC concentration but the two types of management differed significantly, with higher concentrations due to the cover crop. Hydrofluoric acid (HF)-soluble, hydrochloric acid (HCl)-resistant, and non-oxidizable (sodium peroxodisulphate; Na2S2O8) SOC fractions were determined at different depths (0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm). The relative HCl-resistant and non-oxidizable SOC fractions increased with depth, whereas the relative HF-soluble SOC fraction varied slightly among the four soils considered. Differences in the SOC-stabilization mechanism were found according to the chemical SOC fractionation. In the FT and OT soils, where HF-soluble SOC and soil respiration rates were higher, the intense biological activity rapidly degraded the plant debris, being partially fixed and stabilized by the fine mineral-soil fraction as the principal stabilization mechanism of SOC. The olive grove soils had lower biological activity but higher SOC resistance to oxidation with Na2S2O8, thus suggesting that chemical recalcitrance of soil organic matter was a relevant stabilization mechanism in these soils.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies provide mechanistic understanding of nanoscale processes, whereas advanced synchrotron XRD (SXRD) enables precise measurements on volumes that are more representative of bulk materials. Therefore, the combined strengths of these techniques can provide new insight into irradiation-induced mechanistic processes. In the present study, their application to Zircaloy-2, proton-irradiated to 2.3, 4.7, and 7.0 dpa at 2 MeV and 350 °C and neutron-irradiated to 9.5 and 13.1 × 1025 n m−2 are exemplified. The application of correlative spectral imaging and structural TEM investigations to the phase transformation of Zr(Fe,Nb)2 precipitates in Low-Sn ZIRLO™, neutron-irradiated to 8.9–9 × 1025 n m−2, demonstrates the possibility of a Cr core nucleation site. Anomalous broadening is observed in SXRD profiles, which is believed to be caused by defect clusters and precursors to dislocation loop nucleation. The challenges to quantitative analysis of dislocations by SXRD are highlighted with reference to the segregation of Fe and Ni to basal planes and dislocation cores, observed by spectral imaging in the TEM.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many areas of the world, including the Mediterranean region. We performed a retrospective study of cases reported from 1998 to 2012 in order to review and update the epidemiology of this disease in a highly endemic area situated in western Spain. A total of 471 patients were diagnosed with hydatid disease. Of these cases, 55·8% were male, with an average age of 62·3 ± 19·5 years. More importantly, 1·5% of patients were children, and 20·5% were aged <45 years. An active therapeutic approach was implemented for 92·6% of the CE patients with primary diagnoses; however, a ‘watch and wait’ strategy was used in 59·3% of all secondary CE diagnoses. The incidence rate of hydatid disease was significantly higher compared to the incidence described in the Notifiable Disease System in this area. Furthermore, a significant decrease in hydatid incidence during the years included in the study was observed (β = −0·4357, P < 0·001). CE incidence has diminished in recent years, although active transmission remains in paediatric cases. Additionally, CE incidence remains high in our region despite public health plans for its control. The documented incidence of CE disease clearly underestimates the real numbers.
Six electric rays, Narcine leoparda, were caught off the coast of Manta, Ecuador between August 2013 and January 2014. These specimens represent the first record in Ecuadorian waters and the southernmost report in the eastern Pacific for the distribution of Narcine leoparda.