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The results of a basic electron heat transport experiment using multiple localized heat sources in close proximity and embedded in a large magnetized plasma are presented. The set-up consists of three biased probe-mounted crystal cathodes, arranged in a triangular spatial pattern, that inject low energy electrons along a strong magnetic field into a pre-existing, cold afterglow plasma, forming electron temperature filaments. When the three sources are activated and placed within a few collisionless electron skin depths of each other, a non-azimuthally symmetric wave pattern emerges due to interference of the drift-Alfvén modes that form on each filament’s temperature gradient. Enhanced cross-field transport from chaotic (
is the electric field and
the magnetic field) mixing rapidly relaxes the gradients in the inner triangular region of the filaments and leads to growth of a global nonlinear drift-Alfvén mode that is driven by the thermal gradient in the outer region of the triangle. Azimuthal flow shear arising from the emissive cathode sources modifies the linear eigenmode stability and convective pattern. A steady-current model with emissive sheath boundary predicts the plasma potential and shear flow contribution from the sources.
Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were US$32 and US$47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between US$28 and US$206, depending on hospitalization. Patients' cost of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective.
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