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The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
In meridional European countries such as Portugal, informal caregivers are almost always close relatives, either key-relatives (those more involved) or not. There are few systematic comparisons between the experience of key-relatives/primary caregivers (PC) and other/secondary caregivers (SC) in psychogeriatrics. We present some preliminary data from the FAMIDEM (Families of People with Dementia) survey.
Non-randomised cross-sectional study comparing two related samples of caregivers (PC versus SC) of 41 patients with DSM-IV dementia from outpatient practices in Lisbon (Portugal). Caregivers’ assessments included: Zarit Burden Interview, Caregiver Activity Survey (CAS), Positive Aspects of Caregiving, GHQ-12, Social Network Questionnaire and Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire.
Patients’ mean age was 78,7 years (SD 7,9). 24 (58,5%) were women and 58,5% had Alzheimer disease.PC were older than SC (p=0,000) and tended to live with the patient (p=0,000). They reported less emocional support (p=0,021) but higher objective burden-CAS (p=0,002). Regarding all other outcome variables, significant differences between groups were not found. Within the global sample, comparing spousals (n=23) and adult children/other relatives (n=59) yielded interestingly different preliminary results, eg higher GHQ-12 levels (p=0,010).
The experience of caregiving is possibly different regarding PC and SC, but further research is warranted in order to define who really is at risk. Being a spouse may be much more determinant, although most spouses are PC as well. for the moment, it seems prudent not to exclude SC from risk assessments. the final FAMIDEM results, even lacking generalizability, will probably provide interesting clues.
Prevalence of depression and other common psychiatric disorders in autoimmune diseases has been extensively documented. The association between subclinical autoimmunity and behavioural or psychiatric syndromes remains less studied. The best known example is raised titres of autoantibodies with high affinity for the basal ganglia in some obsessive compulsive spectrum syndromes (e.g. Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). The possible role of autoimmunity in impulse control disorders remains understudied.
We proposed to study the relation between autoimmunity, affective bipolarity and impulsive psicopathology.
14 bipolar, 10 cluster B personality disorder inpatients. Titres for rheumatoid factor (RA), antithyroglobulin (ATG), antiperoxidase (APO) antinuclear (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic (ANCA) and antistreptolysin (ASO) antibodies were measured in all subjects. Psychiatric assessment: non-structured psychiatric interview, MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II.
21,4% of bipolar patients had positive ATG titre vs 11,1% in the cluster B personality group. 28,6% of bipolar patients had positive APO titre vs 22,2% in the cluster B personality group. 16,7% of bipolar patients had positive ASO titre vs 30,0% in the cluster B personality group. None of this differences reached significance.
ASO titre correlated significantly with antisocial (rho=0,435, p=0,043) and autodestructive (rho=0,461, p=0,031) ratings and almost significantly with borderline (rho=0,420, p=0,052) ratings.
The results obtained partly agree with the existing studies. As far as we know a possible correlation between ASOs and impulsive behaviour has not been previously described. The results obtained call for further investigation in the subject.
Factitious disorders (FD) are characterized by intentional production of either physical, psychological or mixed symptoms that mimic various clinical syndromes, with no apparent advantage for the individual concerned other than allowing him to assume the sick role. Large body of work has been accumulated on FD, but the majority of published data deal with the physical variant of the disease, with comparable few reports on psychiatric FD. Although there are many different presentations for psychiatric FD, the factitious psychosis subset justifies particular attention. Factitious psychosis may be prodromic of a genuine chronic psychosis, usually in the context of a personality disorder. Published data shows Munchausen psychosis, a severe subset of FD psychosis, with a prevalence of 0.25% of all inpatient admissions and global FD psychosis attaining 4.1% of all diagnosed psychoses, generally with a poor prognosis.
The scantiness of studies on the subject of psychiatric FD and factitious psychosis in particular, despite its significant prevalence, coupled with the fact that its recognition embarks on a radically different approach compared with the physical variant, stresses the need for case reporting.
We present four clinical cases with discussion of the underlying pathology and outcome, and a systematic review of the literature of FD psychosis case reports. This is followed by further discussion addressing the recognition of factitious psychosis, its etiological contributing factors, management, effects on staff and diagnostic criteria.
Somatic comorbidities are common among elderly patients with mental health problems, namely dementia and depression. Quite often, somatic problems are associated with a substantial impairment in daily routines, as well as to a worse outcome of the neuropsychiatric condition.
to investigate the level of impairment due to comorbid somatic problems in the elderly, as part of the implementation of the 10/66- Dementia Research Group Population-based Research Protocol in Portuguese settings.
A cross-sectional survey was implemented of all residents aged 65 in a semi-rural area in Southern Portugal. Evaluation included a cognitive module and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT (GDS). Training of the field researchers was conducted with the supervision of the 10/66-DRG coordinators (CF, MP).
703 elderly participants were evaluated. Interference with daily activities was present in every area assessed, with moderate to severe impact in the following areas: Arthritis or rheumatism (36,9%), eyesight problems (19,8%), hypertension (10,5%) and gastro-intestinal conditions (10,4%). 48,9% of the participants had at least one contact with a primary care health centre in the last three months, and 22,5% had at least one contact with a doctor in a general hospital.
Results showed a relevant degree of impairment due to somatic conditions, and a high use of services, namely at primary care level. The significant prevalence of comorbid somatic conditions should be taken into account regarding the organization of services directed to older patients with mental health problems, that has been considered a priority in the Portuguese Mental Health Plan 2007–2016.
Executive functions (EF) are associated to frontal lobes and cognitive decline (CD) with worse results on EF tests.
Analyze if the Frontal Assessment Battery/FAB assessing EF discriminates elders with CD (vs. with no CD; Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA), and if the results obtained with the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure Test/ROCF (copy's quality, immediate, and delayed memory) are associated with the CD presence/absence. Moreover, we wanted to assess if copy's quality and 3 minutes memory test are associated with FAB results, since these two tests are supposedly associated with EF and with frontal lobes assessed by the FAB, contrarily to the 20 minutes memory (supposedly related to the temporal area).
556 institutionalized elders (age: M ± SD =80.2 ± 5.23; range=60-100) filled in voluntarily a sociodemographic questionnaire, ROCF, MoCA and FAB.
FAB and all ROCF tests were associated with the absence/presence of CD. Regarding variables stratified by age and education, FAB was associated with immediate memory but not with copy's quality nor with delayed memory. With no stratified ROCF and FAB, correlations confirmed the previous associations, but also between FAB and copy's quality.
Results follow the literature regarding the association between immediate memory and EF (associated to frontal lobes), in contrast to the long-term memory which is associated with the temporal area and that was not associated with FAB. Results concerning copy's quality (ROCF) are not consensual.
Above 60 years, prevalence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders double with every 5.1 years of age (from 0.7% at 60-65 years to 23.6% for those aged 85 or older). As aged people are dramatically increasing in Portugal, a Country under a serious financial crisis, it is important to understand whether health services are being used appropriately.
to characterize the use of health services among the elderly, as part of the implementation of the 10/66-Dementia Research Group Population-based Research Protocol in Portugal.
A cross-sectional survey was implemented of all residents aged 65 or more in a semi-rural area in Southern Portugal. Core evaluation included a cognitive module and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT (GDS). A structured questionnaire assessed the use of services, including health care providers (public, private), inpatient episodes, medication and costs.
703 participants were evaluated. Almost half of the participants (48,9%) were in contact with public primary care facilities, but only 22,5% had a contact with a hospital service. In both settings, nurses and other non-doctor professionals were rarely involved (6,4%) as principal care providers. 11,8% had at least one contact with a private doctor. Inpatient episodes in the last 3 months were very infrequent (3%). The National Health Service covered most costs.
Previous research strongly suggests that health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, namely the elderly. Reliable and cross-culturally comparable information about patterns of care may guide the implementation of adequate management in this area in Portugal.
The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in the elderly is high, considering patients, their families, and close or extended networks. In Portugal, the 10/66-Dementia Research Group population-based research programmes are running since 2011, with the community prevalence study. The protocol allows for valid diagnoses of dementia and depression, using comprehensive assessments which include the Geriatric Mental State- AGECAT.
Objectives and aims:
We aimed to analyse informal caregiving arrangements and the psychological experience of caregiving in a subsample drawn from the ongoing 10/66 studies.
We report on 580 residents aged 65 + years of a defined catchment area in Portugal (Mora). Assessments included questionnaires on demographic and caregiving issues, the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ) on psychological distress and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) on the caregiving experience.
In this subsample, 94 participants were in need of informal caregiving (dementia accounted for 28 cases, depression for 31, and other chronic physical/psychiatric conditions for the remainder). Most primary caregivers were family relatives (mostly wives and daughters) and were living with the patient. A large number were elderly people themselves (mean age 64.1±16.3years). Median scores were 3 on the SRQ (range 0-16) and 8 on the ZBI (range 0-66). Those who were caring for participants with more severe disabilities scored significantly higher on both measures.
These preliminary results of the 10/66 epidemiological community studies support previous suggestions that caregiver strain is also high in subgroups of community samples. Most overburdened families (and individual caregivers) lacked appropriate, tailored interventions. Final results will be available soon.
When cognitive decline (CD) is present, attention is one of the impaired mental functions. CD is also associated with anxious/depressive symptoms and with some demographic variables, particularly, age.
Investigate the associations between selective attention (Stroop Test: Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Difference between Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color and Difference between Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_ Color) and CD (Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA) in institutionalized elders; explore the predictive value of Stroop variables for CD, controlling anxious/depressive symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
140 institutionalized elders (mean age, M = 78.4, SD = 7.48, range = 60-97) voluntarily answered to sociodemographic questions, the MoCA, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS and Stroop test.
73 elders (52, 1%) had CD. Dichotomized MoCA was associated with Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color, GDS and the sociodemographic variable schooling × profession. Age and education were not tested, since MoCA was stratified according to those variables. GDS, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color showed to predict CD.
There was an association between Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color and CD, confirming that selective attention is smaller when the elderly reveal CD. GDS and CD were, also, associated. However, there was no association between MoCA dichotomized and differences between the correct answers (Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color) and Ratios (Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color). Selective attention and depressive symptoms predicted CD. It would be important to intervene through cognitive rehabilitation with the elders to improve their attention.
The healthcare needs of the elderly are seldom assessed in practice. Research in clinical populations with neuropsychiatric disorders generally unravels high levels of unmet needs. Although there are Portuguese studies in needs assessment, explorations of community or social services’ scenarios have been scarce.
Objectives and aims:
By gathering data from health and social services research, and from an epidemiological survey in the same region, we aimed to better characterize the unmet needs of Portuguese elderly.
We report on studies with old age people in Seixal, near Lisbon: 1) the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly was used for auditing a non-profit organization, with day-centre and home support services (n=95), and in a survey of family carers of dementia outpatients (n=116); 2) the 10/66 DRG community prevalence study (n=670) used comprehensive assessments to provide psychiatric diagnoses, data on health and psychosocial needs, and the use of services.
In the social service audit, unmet needs were mainly related to food, company, physical health and daytime activities. Domiciliary care users had more unmet needs than day centre users (p<0.001). Informal caregivers of dementia patients reported information and psychological distress needs. Finally, these 10/66 DRG study partial results highlighted a high prevalence of depression (20.4%; 95%CI 17.4-23.7) and huge health services’ utilization needs.
Systematic assessments of needs for care generally unravel high proportions of health and psychosocial problems lacking adequate interventions, in clinical and community populations. This may provide a more consistent basis for health services planning.
With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
The fraction of organic matter present affects the fragmentation behavior of sialoliths; thus, pretherapeutic information on the degree of mineralization is relevant for a correct selection of lithotripsy procedures. This work proposes a methodology for in vivo characterization of salivary calculi in the pretherapeutic context. Sialoliths were characterized in detail by X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) in combination with atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Correlative analysis of the same specimens was performed by in vivo and ex vivo helical computed tomography (HCT) and ex vivo μCT. The mineral matter in the sialoliths consisted essentially of apatite (89 vol%) and whitlockite (11 vol%) with average density of 1.8 g/cm3. In hydrated conditions, the mineral mass prevailed with 53 ± 13 wt%, whereas the organic matter, with a density of 1.2 g/cm3, occupied 65 ± 10% of the sialoliths’ volume. A quantitative relation between sialoliths mineral density and X-ray attenuation is proposed for both HCT and μCT.
Three new species of the Neotropical genus Barbacenia (Velloziaceae, Pandanales) from Tocantins, Brazil, are described and illustrated, based on morphology and leaf anatomy. The known species richness of the genus is mapped within the countries of South America and the states of Brazil.
Galactic microquasars have been detected at very-high-energies (VHE) (> 100 GeV) and the particle acceleration mechanisms that produce this emission are not yet well-understood. Here we investigate a hadronic emission scenario where cosmic-rays (CRs) are accelerated in magnetic reconnection events by the turbulent, advected-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) believed to be present in the hard state of black hole binaries. We present Monte Carlo simulations of CR emission plus γ-γ and inverse Compton cascades, injecting CRs with a total energy consistent with the magnetic energy of the plasma. The background gas density, magnetic, and photon fields where CRs propagate and interact are modelled with general relativistic (GR), magneto-hydrodynamical simulations together with GR radiative transfer calculations. Our approach is applied to the microquasar Cygnus X-1, where we show a model configuration consistent with the VHE upper limits provided by MAGIC collaboration.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases. The georeferencing used the ArcGis programme and occurrence of cases was evaluated in relation to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that categorises socio-economic and sanitation factors. The data identified a marked decrease in the overall prevalence of leprosy, a reduction in the new case-detection rate and a reduction in the number of cases with grade 2 disabilities (albeit with transient peaks in 2007 and 2015). Logistic regression analysis showed association of detection rates with elevated HVI. Thus, while the epidemiological indicators point to the elimination of leprosy, there is evidence of hidden cases and an association between higher rates of leprosy detection and greater social vulnerability remain.
Very high energy (VHE) emission has been detected from the radio galaxy NGC1275, establishing it as a potential cosmic-ray (CR) accelerator and a high energy neutrino source. We here study neutrino and γ-ray emission from the core of NGC1275 simulating the interactions of CRs assumed to be accelerated by magnetic reconnection, with the accreting plasma environment. To do this, we combine (i) numerical general relativistic (GR) magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), (ii) Monte Carlo GR leptonic radiative transfer and, (iii) Monte Carlo interaction of CRs. A leptonic emission model that reproduces the SED in the [103-1010.5] eV energy range is used as the background target for photo-pion interactions+electromagnetic cascading. CRs injected with the power-law index Îº=1.3 produce an emission profile that matches the VHE tail of NGC1275. The associated neutrino flux, below the IceCube limits, peaks at ∼PeV energies. However, coming from a single source, this neutrino flux may be an over-estimation.
Meat from lambs finished with high-starch diets often contains low concentration of vaccenic (t11-18:1) and rumenic (c9,t11-18:2) acids and high concentration of t10-18:1. We hypothesized that replacing cereals by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) and the inclusion of tanniferous feed sources in oil supplemented diets might reduce the accumulation of t10-18:1 and increase the t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 in lamb meat, without affecting the productive performance. In total, 32 lambs were assigned to four diets which combine two factors: basal diet (BD) (cereals v. DCP) and Cistus ladanifer (CL) (0 v. 150 g/kg dry matter). Feed intake, average daily weight gain and carcass traits were not affected by treatments, except for dressing percentage that was reduced with DCP (P=0.046). Both DCP and C. ladanifer reduced tenderness and juiciness of meat, and C. ladanifer also reduced (P<0.001) meat overall acceptability. Intramuscular fat and the concentration of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) were not affected (P>0.05) by diets. However, DCP increased the proportions of odd-chain FA (P=0.005) and several minor biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in meat lipids. C. ladanifer had few effects on meat FA profile. The proportions of t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 were high in all diets (5.4% and 1.5% of total FA, respectively) and were not influenced by the treatments. Basal diet and CL showed some significant interactions concerning FA composition of intramuscular fat. In diets without C. ladanifer, replacement of cereals by DCP increased the 18:0 (P<0.05) and decreased t10,c12-18:2 (P<0.05), t10-18:1 (P<0.10) and t10-/t11-18:1 ratio (P<0.10) with a large reduction of the individual variation for t10-18:1 and of t10-/t11-18:1 ratio. Combined with cereals, C. ladanifer increased 18:0 and reduced the BH intermediates in meat. Replacement of cereals by DCP seems to promote a more predictable FA profile in lamb meat, reducing the risk of t10-shifted BH pathways in the rumen.