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Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Mothers’ return to work and childcare providers’ support for feeding expressed human milk are associated with breast-feeding duration rates in the USA, where most infants are regularly under non-parental care. The objective of the present study was to explore Florida-based childcare centre administrators’ awareness and perceptions of the Florida Breastfeeding Friendly Childcare Initiative.
Semi-structured interviews were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and analysed using applied thematic analysis.
Childcare centre administrators in Tampa Bay, FL, USA, interviewed in 2015.
Twenty-eight childcare centre administrators: female (100 %) and Non-Hispanic White (61 %) with mean age of 50 years and 13 years of experience.
Most administrators perceived potential implementation of the Florida Breastfeeding Friendly Childcare Initiative as simple and beneficial. Tension for change and a related construct (perceived consumer need for the initiative) were low, seemingly due to formula-feeding being normative. Perceived financial costs and relative priority varied. Some centres had facilitating structural characteristics, but none had formal breast-feeding policies.
A cultural shift, facilitated by state and national breast-feeding-friendly childcare policies and regulations, may be important for increasing tension for change and thereby increasing access to breast-feeding-friendly childcare. Similar to efforts surrounding the rapid growth of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, national comprehensive evidence-based policies, regulations, metrics and technical assistance are needed to strengthen state-level breast-feeding-friendly childcare initiatives.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Introduction: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Currently, few methods aside from venous duplex scanning can rule out DVT in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). Current screening tools, including the use of the subjective Wells score, frequently leads to unnecessary investigations and anticoagulation. In this study, we sought to determine whether two-site compression point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) combined with a negative age-adjusted D-dimer test can accurately rule out DVT in ED patients irrespective of the modified Wells score. Methods: This is a single-center, prospective observational study in the ED of the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal. We are recruiting a convenience sample of patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of DVT. All enrolled patients are risk-stratified using the modified Wells criteria for DVT, then undergo two-site compression POCUS, and testing for age-adjusted D-dimer. Patients with DVT unlikely according to modified Wells score, negative POCUS and negative age-adjusted D-dimer are discharged home and receive a three-month phone follow-up. Patients with DVT likely according to modified Wells score, a positive POCUS or a positive age-adjusted D-dimer, will undergo a venous duplex scan. A true negative DVT is defined as either a negative venous duplex scan or a negative follow-up phone questionnaire for patients who were sent home without a venous duplex scan. Results: Of the 42 patients recruited thus far, the mean age is 56 years old and 42.8% are male. Twelve (28.6%) patients had DVT unlikely as per modified Wells score, negative POCUS and negative age-adjusted D-dimer and were discharged home. None of these patients developed a DVT on three-month follow-up. Thirty patients (71.4%) had either a DVT likely as per modified Wells score, a positive POCUS or a positive age-adjusted D-dimer and underwent a venous duplex scan. Of those, six patients had a confirmed DVT (3 proximal & 3 distal). POCUS detected all proximal DVTs, while combined POCUS and age-adjusted D-dimer detected all proximal and distal DVTs. None of the patients with a negative POCUS and age-adjusted D-dimer were found to have a DVT. Conclusion: Two-site compression POCUS combined with a negative age-adjusted D-dimer test appears to accurately rule out DVT in ED patients without the need for follow-up duplex venous scan. Using this approach would alleviate the need to calculate the Wells score, and also reduce the need for radiology-performed duplex venous scan for many patients.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Introduction: Undiagnosed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, including death from DVT-associated massive pulmonary embolism (PE). While several validated clinical prediction rules, blood test and imaging modalities exist to investigate a potential DVT, there is currently a lack of rapid, accessible and reliable methods to exclude the possibility of DVT without resorting to formal venous duplex scanning. Currently, the use in the ED of a validated clinical prediction rule combined to either a high-sensitivity D-dimer test or ultrasonography of the lower extremities has a poor predictive value, as 75-90% of patients suspected of DVT have a negative formal venous duplex scan. Compression bedside ultrasound has however recently been shown to be a safe, rapid and accurate method for the diagnosis of proximal DVT in the emergency department with a high sensitivity and specificity (combined sensitivity and specificity of 96.1% and 96.8%, respectively1). Research question: In the present study, we will primarily assess whether two-site compression POCUS combined with a negative age-adjusted D-dimer test can accurately rule out DVT in ED patients regardless of the Wells criteria. Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, observational study carried out over one year in the Emergency Department of the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. We aim to enroll a convenience sample of 475 patients aged 18 years and older presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of a DVT. All enrolled patients will receive the standard of care required for a lower leg DVT presentation. After calculating Patients DVT risk using modified wells criteria, all patients will undergo POCUS for DVT followed by a D-dimer test. Based on their results, patients will either undergo formal duplex scanning, or will be discharged without further testing and receive a three-month phone follow-up. A true negative lower leg DVT will be defined as follows: (1) Negative follow-up phone questionnaire for patients who were sent home with no formal duplex venous scanning. (2) Negative formal duplex venous scanning for patients who were deemed likely to have lower leg DVT using the Wells score, with a negative D-dimer and POCUS. Age adjusted DVT was added to account for below knee DVT and avoid the need for patients to return for fellow up duplex study in 1 week. To estimate our technique’s sensitivity with a 4% margin of error with 95% confidence intervals, 92 confirmed DVT patients are needed. We expect to recruit a total 475 patients within one-year period at the JGH (95 DVT-positive patients and 380 DVT-negative patients). Impact: The use of compression bedside ultrasound with a negative age-adjusted D-dimer test to rule out DVT in the ED may accelerate the decision regarding patient disposition and significantly decrease the length of patient stay in the ED. In addition, it may help avoid unnecessary medical interventions and diagnostic tests, thus representing potential quality of care and cost-saving improvements as well.
Objectives: Treatments for childhood brain tumors (BT) confer substantial risks to neurological development and contribute to neuropsychological deficits in young adulthood. Evidence suggests that individuals who experience more significant neurological insult may lack insight into their neurocognitive limitations. The present study compared survivor, mother, and performance-based estimates of executive functioning (EF), and their associations with treatment intensity history in a subsample of young adult survivors of childhood BTs. Methods: Thirty-four survivors (52.9% female), aged 18 to 30 years (M=23.5; SD=3.4), 16.1 years post-diagnosis (SD=5.9), were administered self-report and performance-based EF measures. Mothers also rated survivor EF skills. Survivors were classified by treatment intensity history into Minimal, Average/Moderate, or Intensive/Most-Intensive groups. Discrepancies among survivor, mother, and performance-based EF estimates were compared. Results: Survivor-reported and performance-based measures were not correlated, although significant associations were found between mother-reported and performance measures. Survivors in the Intensive/Most-Intensive treatment group evidenced the greatest score discrepancies, reporting less executive dysfunction relative to mother-reported F(2,31)=7.81, p<.01, and performance-based measures F(14,50)=2.54, p<.05. Conversely, survivors in the Minimal treatment group reported greater EF difficulties relative to mothers t(8)=2.82, p<.05, but not performance-based estimates (ps>.05). Conclusions: There may be a lack of agreement among survivor, mother, and performance-based estimates of EF skills in young adult survivors of childhood BT, and these discrepancies may be associated with treatment intensity history. Neuropsychologists should use a multi-method, multi-reporter approach to assessment of EF in this population. Providers also should be aware of these discrepancies as they may be a barrier to intervention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 900–910)
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).
Near infrared imaging can be a powerful tool in tracing the densest molecular structures in galaxies. The observable molecular emission originates in large molecular cloud complexes which are also subject to significant extinctions caused by the associated dust. It can be difficult to distinguish between regions of moderate and large molecular density with optical observations as both will appear optically thick. Since extinction in the near infrared is only about a tenth of the corresponding visual extinction, multi-band near infrared imaging will trace the regions of the highest optical depths much more effectively. With the advent of large format infrared imaging arrays it is now possible to use infrared extinction maps as a probe of the large scale distribution of molecular emission in extragalactic sources.
Yeomanite, Pb2O(OH)Cl, is a new Pb-oxychloride found in the manganese pod mineral assemblage at Merehead (Torr Works) Quarry, near Cranmore, Somerset, England. Yeomanite is named in joint recognition of Mrs Angela Yeoman (1931–) and her company, Foster Yeoman, who operated Merehead Quarry for aggregate until 2006. The mineral is normally white, occasionally grey, with a white streak and a vitreous to transparent lustre. Invariably intimately associated with mendipite, yeomanite appears to be formed of small, twisted, rope-like fibres growing from the end of columnar mendipite masses, forming loose mats and strands resembling asbestos. Individual fibres are generally <8 mm long, but exceptionally may reach up to 15 mm. There is a perfect cleavage parallel to the long axis of the fibres but this is masked by the fibrous nature, especially as individual fibres break easily. The Dcalc for the ideal formula is 7.303 g/cm3. The mean RI in air at 589 nm is 2.27. The eight strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [(d in Å) (Intensity) (hkl)] are: 2.880(100)(113); 2.802(78)(006); 3.293(61)(200); 3.770(32)(011); 2.166(22)(206); 1.662(19)(119); 2.050(18)(303); 3.054(17)(105) Yeomanite is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 6.585(10), b = 3.855(6), c = 17.26(1) Å, V = 438(1) Å3, Z = 4. Yeomanite is a new example of the growing family of lead oxychloride minerals that have a structure based upon oxocentred OPb4 tetrahedra, which, in this mineral, jointly with OHPb3 triangles, form [O(OH)Pb2]+ chains similar to those observed in synthetic Pb2O(OH)I. Yeomanite is structurally related to sidpietersite, penfieldite and laurionite.
It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for depression. However, dropout rates in web-based interventions are typically high, especially in self-guided web-based interventions. Rigorous empirical evidence regarding factors influencing dropout in self-guided web-based interventions is lacking due to small study sample sizes. In this paper we examined predictors of dropout in an individual patient data meta-analysis to gain a better understanding of who may benefit from these interventions.
A comprehensive literature search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for adults with depression from 2006 to January 2013 was conducted. Next, we approached authors to collect the primary data of the selected studies. Predictors of dropout, such as socio-demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics were examined.
Data from 2705 participants across ten RCTs of self-guided web-based interventions for depression were analysed. The multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [relative risk (RR) 1.08], lower educational level (primary education, RR 1.26) and co-morbid anxiety symptoms (RR 1.18) significantly increased the risk of dropping out, while for every additional 4 years of age, the risk of dropping out significantly decreased (RR 0.94).
Dropout can be predicted by several variables and is not randomly distributed. This knowledge may inform tailoring of online self-help interventions to prevent dropout in identified groups at risk.
Study of illness characteristics and symptoms in a young population with psychosis can assist for understanding of their needs, and can inform service planning strategies. The aims of the current study were to describe illness characteristics and symptoms of a first episode psychosis (FEP) sample aged 25 years and under, and compare with a sample aged over 25 years.
Interviews were conducted for 437 individuals aged 16–65 years presenting with suspected psychosis between 2005 and 2012 in a defined catchment area (population of 390 000) using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV to determine the presence of a psychosis diagnosis. Individuals with confirmed psychosis were assessed using standardised instruments to determine illness characteristics at first presentation.
Among the 25 years, and under FEP sample, 23.9% had their first onset of symptoms (prodromal or psychotic) before 18 years of age. After controlling for confounders, the sample aged 25 years and under had a significantly shorter log transformed duration of untreated psychosis (p=0.002), more negative symptoms (p=0.045) and greater frequency of comorbid cannabis abuse diagnosis (p=0.027).
Symptom onset in a youth FEP sample frequently occurs before age 18 years. Certain illness characteristics differed across the age categories, such as greater negative symptoms and cannabis abuse in the youth sample. Overall, the findings support the provision of adequate strategies for management of negative symptom deficits and substance abuse across all ages in FEP.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.