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We examined leukocyte numbers, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+, CD133+), circulating mesenychmal stem cells (CD105+) and circulating endothelial cells (CD146+) at the beginning, after 4 weeks and at the end of an inpatient antidepressant treatment.
24 insufficiently pretreated inpatients with major depression were included. At admission, after four weeks and at demission blood samples were obtained, and cell numbers were counted by flow cytometric analysis (FACS). At each examination the severity of the depression was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We were especially interested in the changes of cell numbers during the antidepressant treatment. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 14.0.
The mean BDI score fell from 34 ± 7 at the beginning to 26.5 ± 6.6 after four weeks and 13.5 ± 5.7 at demission. The longer the overall duration of the depressive illness, the higher the number of leukocytes at admission (P < 0.0001). The lower the depression score at demission, the lower the final number of leukocytes (P < 0.001). During the antidepressant treatment the BDI depression score improved significantly (P < 0.0001). The number of CD146+ cells showed a significant decrease (P < 0.006). We did not find any significant changes of circulating CD34+, CD105+, or CD133+ cells during the antidepressant treatment.
The leukocyte results suggest an activation of the immune system in major depression and a deactivation due to antidepressant treatment.
Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
Panic disorder (PD) patients are constantly concerned about future panic attacks and exhibit general hypersensitivity to unpredictable threat. We aimed to reveal phasic and sustained brain responses and functional connectivity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during threat anticipation in PD.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated 17 PD patients and 19 healthy controls (HC) during anticipation of temporally unpredictable aversive and neutral sounds. We used a phasic and sustained analysis model to disentangle temporally dissociable brain activations.
PD patients compared with HC showed phasic amygdala and sustained BNST responses during anticipation of aversive v. neutral stimuli. Furthermore, increased phasic activation was observed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Insula and PFC also showed sustained activation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed partly distinct phasic and sustained networks.
We demonstrate a role for the BNST during unpredictable threat anticipation in PD and provide first evidence for dissociation between phasic amygdala and sustained BNST activation and their functional connectivity. In line with a hypersensitivity to uncertainty in PD, our results suggest time-dependent involvement of brain regions related to fear and anxiety.
Field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2010 to determine crop tolerance and weed control efficacy of the POST herbicides bentazon, flumioxazin, and oxyfluorfen applied to direct-seeded dry bulb onions on organic soil. Postemergence application of oxyfluorfen at 0.071 kg ai ha−1 resulted in less than 20% onion injury when applied at the 2 and 4 onion leaf stages and provided good control of ladysthumb and common lambsquarters. Oxyfluorfen EC caused slightly higher visual injury than oxyfluorfen SC, but there was no difference in onion yield among the treatments. Application of flumioxazin at 0.036 of 0.072 kg ai ha−1 alone or in combination with pendimethalin ACS resulted in minimal onion injury and no yield reduction. Combining flumioxazin in a tank mix with pendimethalin EC, dimethenamid-P EC, or S-metolachlor EC resulted in significant onion injury and yield reduction. Flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, or pendimethalin improved ladysthumb control in one of two years. Bentazon applied at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 produced moderate onion injury and did not control yellow nutsedge adequately. Bentazon applied at 1.12 kg ai ha−1 provided good control of yellow nutsedge but caused serious onion injury and yield loss.
In substantial numbers of affected populations, disasters adversely affect well-being and influence the development of emotional problems and dysfunctional behaviors. Nowhere is the integration of mental and behavioral health into broader public health and medical preparedness and response activities more crucial than in disasters such as the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The National Biodefense Science Board, recognizing that the mental and behavioral health responses to H1N1 were vital to preserving safety and health for the country, requested that the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee recommend actions for public health officials to prevent and mitigate adverse behavioral health outcomes during the H1N1 pandemic. The subcommittee's recommendations emphasized vulnerable populations and concentrated on interventions, education and training, and communication and messaging. The subcommittee's H1N1 activities and recommendations provide an approach and template for identifying and addressing future efforts related to newly emerging public health and medical emergencies. The many emotional and behavioral health implications of the crisis and the importance of psychological factors in determining the behavior of members of the public argue for a programmatic integration of behavioral health and science expertise in a comprehensive public health response.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:67–71)
The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:60–66)
The dual task paradigm (Baddeley et al.1986; Della Sala et al.1995) has been proposed as a sensitive measure of Alzheimer's dementia, early in the disease process.
We investigated this claim by administering the modified dual task paradigm (utilising a pencil-and-paper version of a tracking task) to 33 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 10 with very early Alzheimer's disease, as well as 21 healthy elderly subjects and 17 controls with depressive symptoms. All groups were closely matched for age and pre-morbid intellectual ability.
There were no group differences in dual task performance, despite poor performance in episodic memory tests of the aMCI and early Alzheimer's disease groups. In contrast, the Alzheimer patients were specifically impaired in the trail-making test B, another commonly used test of divided attention.
The dual task paradigm lacks sensitivity for use in the early differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
Our study aimed at analysing the changes in epidemiological features of leptospirosis cases from the hospital of Pointe à Pitre in Guadeloupe in 2003–2004 compared to reliable data in 1994–2001. Leptospirosis incidence increased fourfold during 2002–2004, a period with two El Niño events. Whereas the main risk factors were unchanged (male gender, occupational exposure, contact with cattle or pigs) a major role of rodent exposure emerged (52%, P=0·02, multivariate analysis). Interestingly, mean age of cases shifted to the older population (51·7 years vs. 43 years, P<0·05). Moreover, the Ballum serogroup rose dramatically (36% of incidence) competing with the Icterohaemorragiae serogroup (62%). However, severe forms were less recorded. Our data suggest that the changes in leptospirosis features could be related to exceptional meteorological events and their consequences on rodent populations. We propose the monitoring of rodent population and climatic data as a tool of management of leptospirosis in Guadeloupe.