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The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning.
CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Battery (BACS) as well as tests for emotion recognition, working memory and attention were administered. In addition, role and social functioning as well as premorbid adjustment were assessed.
CHR-participants were significantly impaired on the Symbol-Coding and Token-Motor task and showed a reduction in total BACS-scores. Moreover, CHR-participants were characterised by prolonged response times (RTs) in emotion recognition as well as by reductions in both social and role functioning, GAF and premorbid adjustments compared with HCs. Neurocognitive impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, emotion recognition RT, processing speed and motor speed were associated with several aspects of functioning explaining between 4% and 12% of the variance.
The current data obtained from a community sample of CHR-participants highlight the importance of dysfunctions in motor and processing speed and emotion recognition RT. Moreover, these deficits were found to be related to global, social and role functioning, suggesting that neurocognitive impairments are an important aspect of sub-threshold psychotic experiences and a possible target for therapeutic interventions.
The main objective of this report is to present the dating process routinely applied to different types of samples at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14). All the results and protocols refer to our procedures over the last 5 years. A description of the sorting and chemical pretreatments of the samples as well as the extraction and graphitization of CO2 are reported. Our last study concerning the degradation of the blank level according to the storage time of the targets between graphitization and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement is also presented. This article also provides information on how to submit a valid laboratory sample. We give details relating to sampling procedures on site as well as contamination issues relative to the 14C dating methodology.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
The new facility Artemis was installed in 2003 in Saclay, France. This 3MV NEC Pelletron is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements for French 14C laboratories. We will present information on Artemis along with our sample preparation methods. Results from measurements on some intercalibration samples will be given along with the values of measured blanks. Finally, we report on some problems we have encountered when measuring sputter cathodes with high CH− outputs.
We present here the new line installed at the LMC14 laboratory (Saclay, France) for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) extraction from marine and freshwater samples. The operating system and extraction process are described. The efficiency of the line design was checked, and the background (0.42 ± 0.11 pMC) and the reproducibility on artificial samples obtained by dissolution of IAEA-C1, IAEA-C2, and commercial bicarbonate in water were evaluated. An intercomparison with an independent lab (IDES) was also carried out on a natural sample. The line processes 3 samples a day under a helium flow and is able to run samples up to 40,000 ka.
The Artemis accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility, installed in 2003 in Saclay, France, is devoted to radiocarbon measurements. Samples are submitted by scientists in the fields of Quaternary geology, environmental sciences, and archaeology. The entire preparation process, originally optimized for samples with about 1 mg of carbon, has been tested in recent years for samples with a lower carbon content. In particular, we prepared and measured carbonate and organic background and reference samples ranging in mass from 0.01 to 1 mg C. These tests helped define our protocol's practical limits and determine necessary improvements. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that satisfactory graphitization yields (80% and higher) and low background values can be obtained with samples down to 0.2 mg of carbon. For handling smaller samples, we developed a specific process. We tested smaller reactors (5 mL in volume) and adapted the reduction parameters (H2 pressure and temperature) accordingly. We also tested the effect of a chemical water trap on graphitization yields and 14C results. This paper presents in detail the aforementioned developments and reports the 14C results obtained for background and standard small samples prepared with the modified reactors.
Anxiety and depression are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), often co-occurring. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program in reducing anxiety and depression and whether a three-session motivational interviewing (MI) preparatory intervention increased treatment response.
A randomized parallel three-group design was employed. Following diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, 75 participants with mild-severe TBI (mean age 42.2 years, mean post-traumatic amnesia 22 days) were randomly assigned to an Adapted CBT group: (1) MI + CBT (n = 26), or (2) non-directive counseling (NDC) + CBT (n = 26); or a (3) waitlist control (WC, n = 23) group. Groups did not differ in baseline demographics, injury severity, anxiety or depression. MI and CBT interventions were guided by manuals adapted for individuals with TBI. Three CBT booster sessions were provided at week 21 to intervention groups.
Using intention-to-treat analyses, random-effects regressions controlling for baseline scores revealed that Adapted CBT groups (MI + CBT and NDC + CBT) showed significantly greater reduction in anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [95% confidence interval (CI) −2.07 to −0.06] and depression on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (95% CI −5.61 to −0.12) (primary outcomes), and greater gains in psychosocial functioning on Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale (95% CI 0.04–3.69) (secondary outcome) over 30 weeks post-baseline relative to WC. The group receiving MI + CBT did not show greater gains than the group receiving NDC + CBT.
Findings suggest that modified CBT with booster sessions over extended periods may alleviate anxiety and depression following TBI.
Experiments reporting magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability are reviewed. The experiments show how large-scale magnetic fields can, under certain circumstances, emerge and persist in strongly driven laboratory and astrophysical flows at drive pressures exceeding one million times atmospheric pressure.
Knowledge of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognition in older adults has primarily come from studies of clinically depressed, functionally impaired or cognitively impaired individuals, and in predominately White samples. Limited minority representation in depression research exposes the need to examine these associations in more ethnic/racially diverse populations. We sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognition in a sample of non-demented older African Americans recruited from surrounding U.S. cities of New York, Greensboro, Miami, and Nashville (N=944). Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Cognition was evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Test scores were summarized into attention, executive function, memory, language, and processing speed composites. Controlling for age, education, reading level, and sex, African American older adults who endorsed more symptoms obtained significantly lower scores on measures of memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning. Further investigation of the causal pathway underlying this association, as well as potential mediators of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive test performance among older African Americans, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, may offer potential avenues for intervention. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–8)
We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission, extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.
The possibility of using the Vlasov fluid model to describe large ion Larmor radius effects in a Z pinch is discussed. It is shown that the Vlasov fluid formulation can be applied to the m = 0 mode, but the comparison theorem which states that systems which are MHD stable are also Vlasov fluid stable, is shown to be inapplicable in this case.
In adults the prevalence of psychological distress varies in different ethnic groups, and this has been explained by differences in socio-economic status. Is this also the case in adolescents?
To examine whether ethnic differences in prevalence of psychological distress in adolescents are associated with social deprivation.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used to assess 2790 male and female pupils, aged 11–14 years, from a representative sample of 28 east London secondary schools.
Rates of psychological distress were similar to rates in UK national samples in boys and girls. Bangladeshi pupils, although highly socially disadvantaged, had a lower risk of psychological distress (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.4–0.9). Non-UK White girls had higher rates of depressive symptoms (OR=1.54, 95% C11.1–2.2).
High rates of depressive symptoms in non-UK White girls may be related to recent migration. Low rates of psychological distress in Bangladeshi pupils in this sample relative to White pupils, despite socio-economic disadvantage, could be associated with cultural protective factors that require further investigation.
Sprouted potato tubers lose nutritional value, and their increased content of reducing sugar renders them unsuitable for the french fry and chipping industries. Thus, tuber sprouting in storage is a primary concern of the potato industry, and is currently controlled by application of chemical sprout suppressants. Such suppressants are subject to widespread regulation by governmental agencies. The present study was initiated to investigate the role of the plant hormone ethylene in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy release. To this end, potato cv. ‘Russet Burbank’ was transformed with ETR1, an ethylene receptor gene from Arabidopsis. The resulting clones were genetically characterized to verify integration and expression of the ETR1 mRNA and protein. Transgenic clones showed developmental and morphologic changes in plant and tuber, and differing responses to environmental stress and pathogen attack relative to untransformed controls. Lengthening of dormancy was also observed in ETR1 antisense clones stored at 4 °C. Transgenic potato clones treated with solutions of silver thiosulfate (STS), an ethylene action inhibitor, showed restoration of normal plant morphology, while controls were unaffected. These results demonstrate the pleiotrophic effects of ethylene in potato, and identify a need for additional studies on the relationship between ethylene and tuber dormancy.
Background. Previous field studies have indicated that children's cognitive performance is impaired by chronic aircraft noise exposure. However, these studies have not been of sufficient size to account adequately for the role of confounding factors. The objective of this study was to test whether cognitive impairments and stress responses (catecholamines, cortisol and perceived stress) are attributable to aircraft noise exposure after adjustment for school and individual level confounding factors and to examine whether children exposed to high levels of social disadvantage are at greater risk of noise effects.
Methods. The cognitive performance and health of 451 children aged 8–11 years, attending 10 schools in high aircraft noise areas (16 h outdoor Leq > 63 dBA) was compared with children attending 10 matched control schools exposed to lower levels of aircraft noise (16 h outdoor Leq < 57 dBA).
Results. Noise exposure was associated with impaired reading on difficult items and raised annoyance, after adjustment for age, main language spoken and household deprivation. There was no variation in the size of the noise effects in vulnerable subgroups of children. High levels of noise exposure were not associated with impairments in mean reading score, memory and attention or stress responses. Aircraft noise was weakly associated with hyperactivity and psychological morbidity.
Conclusions. Chronic noise exposure is associated with raised noise annoyance in children. The cognitive results indicate that chronic aircraft noise exposure does not always lead to generalized cognitive effects but, rather, more selective cognitive impairments on difficult cognitive tests in children.
Background. Previous research suggests that children are a high risk group vulnerable to the effects of chronic noise exposure. However, questions remain about the nature of the noise effects and the underlying causal mechanisms. This study addresses the effects of aircraft noise exposure on children around London Heathrow airport, in terms of stress responses, mental health and cognitive performance. The research also focuses on the underlying causal mechanisms contributing to the cognitive effects and potential confounding factors.
Methods. The cognitive performance and health of 340 children aged 8–11 years attending four schools in high aircraft noise areas (16h outdoor Leq>66dBA) was compared with children attending four matched control schools exposed to lower levels of aircraft noise (16h outdoor Leq<57dBA). Mental health and cognitive tests were group administered to the children in the schools. Salivary cortisol was measured in a subsample of children.
Results. Chronic aircraft noise exposure was associated with higher levels of noise annoyance and poorer reading comprehension measured by standardized scales with adjustments for age, deprivation and main language spoken. Chronic aircraft noise was not associated with mental health problems and raised cortisol secretion. The association between aircraft noise exposure and reading comprehension could not be accounted for by the mediating role of annoyance, confounding by social class, deprivation, main language or acute noise exposure.
Conclusions.These results suggest that chronic aircraft noise exposure is associated with impaired reading comprehension and high levels of noise annoyance but not mental health problems in children.
We performed a comprehensive analysis for mutations in the TSC1
gene using Southern blot
analysis, and SSCP and heteroduplex analysis of amplified exons in 13 families
with genetic linkage
to the TSC1 region, 22 small families without linkage information, and
126 sporadic patients. 17
unique mutations were identified in 21 patients. Mutations were found in
7/13 (54%) TSC1-linked
families, 1/22 (5%) small families without linkage, and 13 of 126 (10%)
sporadic cases. The
mutations were all chain-terminating, with 14 small deletions, 1 small
insertion, and 6 nonsense
mutations. In families with mutations, all individuals carrying a mutation
met formal diagnostic
criteria for TSC, apart from a 3-year-old girl who had inherited a deletion
mutation, and who had
no seizures, normal intelligence, normal abdominal ultrasound, and hypomelanotic
macules only on
physical exam. We assessed the incidence and severity of mental retardation
in the 13 sporadic
patients with TSC1 mutations versus the entire sporadic cohort, and found
no significant difference.
The observations indicate that TSC1 mutations are all inactivating, suggest
that TSC1 disease occurs
in only 15–20% of the sporadic TSC population, and demonstrate that
presymptomatic TSC does
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to assess the efficacy of intra-articular bupivacaine and diamorphine. Ninety-six day-case patients were allocated randomly to receive intra-articular injections of either 20 mL 0.9% saline (control, n = 35), 20 mL 0.5% plain bupivacaine (n = 31), or 20 mL 0.9% saline with 5 mg diamorphine (n = 30) prior to tourniquet release. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were completed at 1 h, 3 h (discharge) and 24 h, and supplementary analgesia noted. Intra-articular analgesics conferred a noticeable improvement in patient comfort. First, the quantity of supplementary analgesia required prior to discharge was significantly reduced (P = 0.016); second, patients reported a less disturbed night's sleep (P = 0.034).
RALGDS is a 115 kDa protein which was identified by its
ability to enhance guanine nucleotide
exchange for the ras family member ral. It also
binds to activated ras and rap1, and appears to
function as part of a signalling complex in downstream events
following rap1 activation. Here we
report the identification of full-length cDNA clones for human RALGDS,
isolated from a brain
cDNA library. The predicted protein has strong sequence homology to rat
and murine isoforms of
RALGDS in the N- and C-terminal regions, but an internal region
(aa 250–380) shows relatively high
divergence with only 42% identical amino acid residues. The human RALGDS
gene is contained
within a 30 kb region of 9q34, approximately 200 kb proximal to the ABO
gene, within the current
critical region for the tuberous sclerosis gene TSC1. Partial genomic
structure was determined; it
consists of at least 11 exons. Based upon analysis of Southern blots from
110 TSC patients, genomic
DNA SSCP analysis, and RT-PCR analysis which demonstrated RNA expression
of both alleles in
patients from 9q34-linked TSC families using intragenic polymorphisms,
we conclude that RALGDS is not likely to be TSC1.
The Fifth International workshop on chromosome 9 comprised a gathering
of 36 scientists from
seven countries and included a fairly even distribution of interests
along chromosome 9 as well as a
strong input from more global activities and from comparative mapping.
At least eight groups had
participated in the goal set at the previous workshop which was to improve
the fine genetic mapping
in different regions of chromosome 9 by meiotic breakpoint mapping in
allocated regions and this has
resulted in some greatly improved order information. Excellent computing
facilities were available
and all contributed maps were entered not only into SIGMA (and thence
submitted to GDB) but also
into a dedicated version of ACEDB which can be accessed on the
in the form of one of 28 slices
into which the chromosome has been arbitrarily divided. It was generally
agreed that the amount
of data is now overwhelming and that the integration and validation of
all data is not only unrealistic
in a short meeting but probably impossible until the whole chromosome
has been sequenced and fully
annotated. Sequence-ready contigs presented at the meeting totalled
about 3 MB which is about one
fiftieth of the estimated length. The single biggest barrier to integration
of maps is the problem of
non-standard nomenclature of loci. In the past 2 workshops efforts have
been made to compare
traditional ‘consensus’ maps made by human insight (still
probably best for small specific regions)
with those generated with some computer assistance (such as SIGMA) and
objectively by defined computer algorithms such as ldb. Since no single
form of map or
representation is entirely satisfactory for all purposes the maps
reproduced in the published version
of the report are confined to one of the genetic maps, in which Genethon
and older markers have been
incorporated, a Sigma map of the genes as symbols together with a listing
of known ‘disease’ genes
on chromosome 9, and a revised assessment of the mouse map together with
a list of mouse loci
predicted to be on human chromosome 9. One of the 28 ACEDB
slices is also shown to illustrate
strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Workshop files include not
only all maps available at the
time but also details of loci and details of the meiotic breakpoints in
the CEPH families (http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/scw9db.shtml).
This report and other information on chromosome 9 can be found on the
chromosome 9 homepage
at the URL: http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/chr9/