To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper looks at the positive effects of partial status anonymity in face-to-face co-creation workshops. Results suggest that especially during the early phases of co-creation, i.e. idea generation, participants experience more freedom to express themselves without self-imposed barriers. We observed positive effects in terms of (1) lowering or even suspending the perceived status among team members, (2) increased motivation, (3) freedom to speak and positive disposition to listen, (4) willingness to consider perspectives from other team members.
Objectives: Research has shown that analyzing intrusion errors generated on verbal learning and memory measures is helpful for distinguishing between the memory disorders associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that certain clinical populations may be prone to exhibit different types of intrusion errors. Methods: We examined the prevalence of two new California Verbal Learning Test-3 (CVLT-3) intrusion subtypes – across-trial novel intrusions and across/within trial repeated intrusions – in individuals with AD or HD. We hypothesized that the encoding/storage impairment associated with medial-temporal involvement in AD would result in a greater number of novel intrusions on the delayed recall trials of the CVLT-3, whereas the executive dysfunction associated with subcortical-frontal involvement in HD would result in a greater number of repeated intrusions across trials. Results: The AD group generated significantly more across-trial novel intrusions than across/within trial repeated intrusions on the delayed cued-recall trials, whereas the HD group showed the opposite pattern on the delayed free-recall trials. Conclusions: These new intrusion subtypes, combined with traditional memory analyses (e.g., recall versus recognition performance), promise to enhance our ability to distinguish between the memory disorders associated with primarily medial-temporal versus subcortical-frontal involvement.
To estimate the additional health and economic burden of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections in Australian hospitals.
A simulation model based on existing evidence was developed to assess the additional mortality and costs of healthcare-associated AMR Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Australian public hospitals.
Australian hospitals spent an additional AUD$5.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], $2.2–$11.2 million) per year treating ceftriaxone-resistant E.coli bloodstream infections (BSI), and an estimated AUD$5.5 million per year (95% UI, $339,633–$22.7 million) treating MRSA patients. There are no reliable estimates of excess morbidity and mortality from AMR infections in sites other than the blood and in particular for highly prevalent AMR E. coli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs).
The limited evidence-base of the health impact of resistant infection in UTIs limits economic studies estimating the overall burden of AMR. Such data are increasingly important and are urgently needed to support local clinical practice as well as national and global efforts to curb the spread of AMR.
Objectives: The third edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-3) includes a new index termed List A versus Novel/Unrelated recognition discriminability (RD) on the Yes/No Recognition trial. Whereas the Total RD index incorporates false positive (FP) errors associated with all distractors (including List B and semantically related items), the new List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index incorporates only FP errors associated with novel, semantically unrelated distractors. Thus, in minimizing levels of source and semantic interference, the List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index may yield purer assessments of yes/no recognition memory independent of vulnerability to source memory difficulties or semantic confusion, both of which are often seen in individuals with primarily frontal-system dysfunction (e.g., early Huntington’s disease [HD]). Methods: We compared the performance of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and HD in mild and moderate stages of dementia on CVLT-3 indices of Total RD and List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD. Results: Although AD and HD subgroups exhibited deficits on both RD indices relative to healthy comparison groups, those with HD generally outperformed those with AD, and group differences were more robust on List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD than on Total RD. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the clinical utility of the new CVLT-3 List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index, which (a) maximally assesses yes/no recognition memory independent of source and semantic interference; and (b) provides a greater differentiation between individuals whose memory disorder is primarily at the encoding/storage level (e.g., as in AD) versus at the retrieval level (e.g., as in early HD). (JINS, 2018, 24, 833–841)
The lithostratigraphy, age and human occupation of the Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian succession of a Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg site in the excavation Geldrop-A2 (municipality of Heeze-Leende) have been investigated. The exposure revealed a stacked sequence of aeolian sand units and intercalated soils (Older Coversand II, Younger Coversand I (YCI), Usselo Soil, Younger Coversand II (YCII), Holocene podzol, drift sand). Fourteen optically stimulated luminescence dates on quartz and three radiocarbon dates provide the age control of the aeolian deposition (coversands, drift sand), landscape stability (soils) and human occupation. The upper part of the YCI unit was dated to the early Late Glacial. The well-developed Usselo Soil was formed during a phase of landscape stability during the late Allerød interstadial and onset of the Younger Dryas stadial. During the Younger Dryas, low aeolian dunes were formed locally (YCII), as a response to landscape instability due to cooling and vegetation decline. In the fine-grained lower part of the YCII unit an initial soil testifies to a decadal to centennial period of landscape stability. An Ahrensburg site in the upper part of this initial soil was dated at 10,915±35 BP (c. 12,854–12,789 cal BP). The lithostratigraphic position, radiocarbon dates of the underlying Usselo Soil and a possibly old-wood effect of up to 200 years suggest that Ahrensburg occupation of the dune environment occurred during the early Younger Dryas, shortly after c. 10,750 BP (12,750 cal BP). Landscape stability and podzol soil formation dominated the early and middle Holocene periods. Drift-sand deposition, probably related to human land use and vegetation decline, occurred in a 200-year period from the 16th to the 18th centuries.
The baseline of East-West array of the Fleurs Synthesis Telescope (FST) has been extended from 786 metres to 1585 metres by the addition of two 13.7 metre dishes. A digital receiver has been built to accommodate the extra delay and correlation requirements, low noise FET preamplifiers have been installed on the large antennas, and a software package has been developed for processing observation data on a VAX 11/780. The FST is now capable of producing accurate wide field maps at 1415 MHz with a resolution of 20 arc seconds and a sensitivity of several milliJansky.
Novel free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three-dimensional (3-D) deformations of the plasma–vacuum interface are computed. The structures obtained look like saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number
distortions when the edge bootstrap current is large and higher
corrugations when this current is small. Linear ideal MHD stability analyses confirm the nonlinear saturated ideal kink equilibrium states produced and we can identify the Pfirsch–Schlüter current as the main linear instability driving mechanism when the edge pressure gradient is large. The dominant non-axisymmetric component of this Pfirsch–Schlüter current drives a near resonant helical parallel current density ribbon that aligns with the near vanishing magnetic shear region caused by the edge bootstrap current. This current ribbon is a manifestation of the outer mode previously found on JET (Solano 2010). We claim that the equilibrium corrugations describe structures that are commonly observed in quiescent H-mode tokamak discharges.
JET experiments have compared the efficacy of low- and high-field side ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) as an actuator to deliberately minimise the sawtooth period. It is found that low-field side ICRH with low minority concentration is optimal for sawtooth control for two main reasons. Firstly, low-field side heating means that any toroidal phasing of the ICRH (
or dipole) has a destabilising effect on the sawteeth, meaning that dipole phasing can be employed, since this is preferable due to less plasma wall interaction from Resonant Frequency (RF) sheaths. Secondly, the resonance position of the low-field side ICRH does not have to be very accurately placed to achieve sawtooth control, relaxing the requirement for real-time control of the RF frequency. These empirical observations have been confirmed by hybrid kinetic–magnetohydrodynamic modelling, and suggest that the ICRH antenna design for ITER is well positioned to provide a control actuator capable of having a significant effect on the sawtooth behaviour.
NGC 1266 is a nearby field galaxy observed as part of the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011). NGC 1266 has been shown to host a compact (< 200 pc) molecular disk and a mass-loaded molecular outflow driven by the AGN (Alatalo et al. 2011). Very Long Basline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.65 GHz revealed a compact (diameter < 1.2 pc), high brightness temperature continuum source most consistent with a low-level AGN origin. The VLBA continuum source is positioned at the center of the molecular disk and may be responsible for the expulsion of molecular gas in NGC 1266. Thus, the candidate AGN-driven molecular outflow in NGC 1266 supports the picture in which AGNs do play a significant role in the quenching of star formation and ultimately the evolution of the red sequence of galaxies.
Hierarchically porous materials are of interest in a wide range of applications. If the materials are electronic, or ionic conductors, such materials are of interest as electrodes for use in fuel cells. Using hierarchically porous silica as templates, we have demonstrated the formation of hierarchically porous metal and metal oxide structures. Through the control of the synthesis conditions, we have produced partial replicas ca. 1 cubic centimeter in volume, in which two macroporous networks are separated by a nanoporous membrane. The macroporous network in the silica template is known to be bicontinuous. Our underlying model predicts that the second, induced, macroporous network should be similarly bicontinuous.
Micrometer resolution X-ray tomography of the whole sample confirms that the synthesis produces one bicontinuous macroporous network, and is consistent with the existence of a second set of macropores. Preliminary experiments were carried out using FIB/SEM serial tomography to image the second macropore network, however, the length scale of the structures is such that this approach it is unable to firmly establish that the second macropore network is bicontinuous throughout the entire sample volume.
The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34·3 % crude protein (CP), 19·2 % fat and 30·8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52·9 % CP, 23·5 % fat and 10·8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P < 0·05) in kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P < 0·05) in kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P < 0·05) in kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.
To model the economic costs of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in New Zealand, by type of HAI.
Monte Carlo simulation model.
Auckland District Health Board Hospitals (DHBH), the largest publicly funded hospital group in New Zealand supplying secondary and tertiary services. Costs are also estimated for predicted HAIs in admissions to all hospitals in New Zealand.
All adults admitted to general medical and general surgical services.
Data on the number of cases of HAI were combined with data on the estimated prolongation of hospital stay due to HAI to produce an estimate of the number of bed days attributable to HAI. A cost per bed day value was applied to provide an estimate of the economic cost. Costs were estimated for predicted infections of the urinary tract, surgical wounds, the lower and upper respiratory tracts, the bloodstream, and other sites, and for cases of multiple sites of infection. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken for input variables.
The estimated costs of predicted HAIs in medical and surgical admissions to Auckland DHBH were $10.12 (US $4.56) million and $8.64 (US $3.90) million, respectively. They were $51.35 (US $23.16) million and $85.26 (US $38.47) million, respectively, for medical and surgical admissions to all hospitals in New Zealand.
The method used produces results that are less precise than those of a specifically designed study using primary data collection, but has been applied at a lower cost. The estimated cost of HAIs is substantial, but only a proportion of infections can be avoided. Further work is required to identify the most cost-effective strategies for the prevention of HAI.
To report the pooled results of seven prevalence surveys of hospital-acquired infections conducted between November 1996 and November 1999, and to use the data to predict the cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired infections in the same patient group.
The summary and modeling of data gathered from the routine surveillance of the point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections.
Auckland District Health Board Hospitals (Auckland DHBH), the largest publicly funded hospital group in New Zealand supplying secondary and tertiary services.
Point-prevalence surveys were conducted including all patients in Auckland DHBH. Standard definitions of hospital-acquired infection were used. The data from the seven surveys were pooled and used in a modeling exercise to predict the cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired infection. An existing method for the conversion of prevalence to cumulative incidence was applied. Results are presented for all patients and stratified by clinical service and site of hospital-acquired infection.
The underlying patterns of hospital-acquired infection by site and service were stable during the seven time periods. The prevalence rate for all patients was 9.5%, with 553 patients identified with one or more hospital-acquired infections from a population of 5,819. The predicted cumulative incidence for all patients was 6.33% (95% confidence interval, 6.20% to 6.46%).
The prevalence and the predicted cumulative incidence are similar to rates reported in the international literature. The validity of the predicted cumulative incidence derived here is not known. If it were accurate, then the application of this method would represent a cost-effective alternative to incidence studies.
Esta auditoría retrospectiva de una serie clínica evaluó el impacto clínico y económico-sani-tario del tratamiento a largo plazo con quetiapina (“Seroquel”), un nuevo antipsicótico atípico, en pacientes con esquizofrenia crónica. El diseño del estudio era de un formato de serie clínica, que incluía a pacientes de un centro que tomaron parte en la extensión al descubierto de un estudio multicéntrico de eficacia de seis semanas. Se estudió a 21 pacientes (15 varones, seis mujeres; edad media de 39 afios), 17 de los cuales (el 81%) tuvieron la evaluación de “parcialmente sensibles” a los antipsicóticos anteriores. Los datos sobre las hospitalizaciones y la información sobre los síntomas se recogieron retrospectivamente para los 12 meses anteriores a la iniciación del tratamiento de quetiapina y para los 12 meses posteriores. La quetiapina fue efectiva en la reducción de síntomas psicóticos, con disminu-ciones significativas de las puntuaciones medias de la BPRS de 38 a 21 (P < 0,005). La función moto-ra mejoró también significativamente, con disminución de las puntuaciones medias de la escala de Simpson de 15 a 12 (P < 0,005). El número medio de días de hospitalización se redujo en un 11% en el segundo año (97 días, comparado con 109), mientras que los costes globales del tratamiento, incluidos los del fármaco, cayeron en un 5% (de 20.843 a 19.827 libras esterlinas). Cuatro pacientes habían esta-do hospitalizados durante más de 5 años antes de comenzar la quetiapina; estos pacientes instituciona-lizados crónicamente permanecieron hospitalizados durante los 12 meses completos del tratamiento de quetiapina, a pesar de la mejoría de la evolución clínica (puntuación media de la BPRS después del tratamiento de 34, comparado con 43 antes). Si hubiera que analizar de nuevo los datos de esta auditoría excluyendo a estos cuatro pacientes, el número medio de días de hospitalización se habría reducido en un 33% (de 45 a 30 días) y el coste global del tratamiento, en un 19% (de 8.617 a 7.011 libras esterlinas). Esta auditoría indica que el tratamiento con quetiapina durante este período de 1 año se asoció con mejoría clínica y un menor uso a la vez de los servicios de hospitalización. Parece que la reducción en los gastos de hospitalización compensaría el aumento del coste del tratamiento farmacológico. Significativamente, los ahorros potenciales parecen ser mayores para los pacientes con un patrón de “puerta giratoria” de readmisiones repetidas.
In this study, the near-surface region of air-exposed thin 3C-SiC films grown on 50-mm (2-in.) diameter Si(111) and Si(211) substrates have been investigated. Carbonization to create the film in a radio-frequency (RF) induction-heated horizontal atmospheric-pressure chemicalvapor- deposition reactor utilized a propane-hydrogen mix (3% C3H8 in ultra-high purity hydrogen) with a hydrogen carrier. Elemental and chemical-state identification of the thin-films are presented. Several structure sensitive techniques including X-ray diffractaion (XRD) in ω-2θ as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine crystal structure, surface morphology and film thickness are included.
The outcome of dual infection of the grass Lolium
perenne L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the
parasitic angiosperm Rhinanthus minor L. was investigated in a
glasshouse study. Colonization of L. perenne roots
by AM fungi was significantly reduced by the presence of R. minor,
as was host growth which fell by 44–51%.
It was concluded that these two responses were linked, with AM
colonization declining in response to the
reduction in availability of host carbon. Parasite growth and
reproductive output rose by 58% and 47%
respectively when the hosts were mycorrhizal. These trends were
unrelated to the attachment success of the
parasite, but were accompanied by a significant increase in the
formation of secondary haustoria. The benefits
afforded the parasite when the hosts were mycorrhizal were
attributed to increased carbon and nutrient flux
resulting from alternations in sink strength. Host responses to
parasitism and mycorrhizal colonization were not
affected by the interaction between the two symbionts. However,
the suggestion is made that the interaction
between the AM fungi and parasite might have long-term ecological
implications for the host species via its impact on parasite fecundity.
We describe a new approach to deposition of Parylene N thin films. It utilizes a small scale, sonic speed, Jet Vapor DepositionTM (JVDTM) process technology in place of the conventional larger scale, slow flow, Gorham apparatus. It employs a simple but powerful strategy to promote radical polymerization: exposure of the growing film, during deposition, to a high flux of atomic hydrogen. We believe that H atoms have two effects: they clean oxygen from the substrate, and they promote crosslinking in the Parylene film by abstraction of H atoms from the Parylene ring or side groups. With “H atom assisted JVD” Parylene N deposits and adheres even on warm substrates; it has reduced index of refraction and dielectric constant.
Background. Many studies have separately reported abnormalities
of frontal and temporal lobe
structures in schizophrenia, but little is known of structural
fronto-temporal associations in this
condition. We investigated whether male patients with chronic schizophrenia
would show abnormal patterns of correlation between regional brain volumes.
Methods. Structural magnetic resonance images of the brain
42 patients were compared with
43 matched unaffected controls. We explored the pattern of association
between regional brain
volumes by correlational analyses, and non-parametrically tested for
significance of between-group differences by randomization.
Results. The schizophrenics demonstrated significant volume
several brain regions (left
temporal lobe and hippocampus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and
increases in the ventricular system (third ventricle and left temporal
of the lateral ventricle). Controls demonstrated large positive correlations
(r>0·4) between prefrontal and
temporal lobe regions. By contrast, inter-regional correlations significantly
reduced in schizophrenics included those between prefrontal, anterior
cingulate and temporal regions, and between
posterior cingulate and hippocampus (P<0·05). The
most salient abnormality in patients was a
dissociation between prefrontal and superior temporal gyrus volumes
Conclusions. These results support the existence of a relative
‘fronto-temporal dissociation’ in schizophrenia
which we suggest may be due to lack of mutually trophic influences during
temporal lobe development.
The phylogenetic affinities of the oyster pathogen Perkinsus
marinus were investigated with morphology, 18S-like rDNA
data and actin sequence data. Morphological investigations revealed that
Perkinsus species do not have a conoid and that
other criteria which have been used to place them in the Apicomplexa are
general to alveolates. When considered separately,
18S-like rDNA and actin data sets each support a closer affinity for
Perkinsus marinus with the dinoflagellates. However,
each of these separate analyses possess their own biases and weaknesses.
Use of the phylogenetic principle of ‘total
evidence’ in which data sets are combined in simultaneous analysis
yielded a more robust hypothesis that is stable both
to character and taxonomic sampling. The resulting cladogram strongly
corroborates the placement of Perkinsus species
with the Dinoflagellida and not with the Apicomplexa.