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The purpose of this paper is to provide a new expression for < ṗ > the average time-rate-of-change of momentum of cosmic-ray particles propagating in the interplanetary region. The expression derived replaces the previously used adiabatic deceleration formula and it is arrived at by a rearrangement and reinterpretation of the well known equation of transport for cosmic-rays. Thus, although we provide a new expression for < ṗ > we maintain the equation of transport and do not render invalid results for differential intensity and differential current density of cosmic-ray particles obtained by its solution (Jokipii 1971; Gleeson 1972).
This paper is a preliminary account of the calculation of the circularly polarized synchrotron radiation received from a distribution of electricallycharged particles confined to a thin shell in the magnetic field of a dipole. Calculations of the total radiation and the degree of linear polarization have previously been carried out, and these calculations are duplicated in part.
In this paper we model mathematically the propagation of galactic cosmic-rays in the solar cavity and study the effects of changing the physical parameters; in particular the radius of the cavity. We assume spherical symmetry with heliocentric distance r, momentum p and work in terms of F0(r, p) the mean distribution function with respect to momentum; it is related to JT the mean differential intensity w.r.t. energy by JT = p2F0. The boundary is at r = rb beyond which the galactic spectrum prevails; there is free escape of particles incident on rb from within, and the distribution is steady state.
In this paper we study the steady-state interplanetary propagation of solar cosmic-rays by means of analytic solutions of the equation of transport. The cosmic-rays are released monoenergetically from a fixed heliocentric radius and redistribute in energy as they propagate. Previous investigations by Goldstein et al. (1970), Urch and Gleeson (1971,1972), and Parker (1965, 1966), were either not general enough or used numerical solutions which could not deal with strictly monoenergetic initial injection nor maintain accuracy over a wide range of particle energies. We use the analytic solutions of Gleeson and Webb (1973) and show the energy changes, the redistribution in energy (or momentum) and the characteristics of the particle flow or streaming.
Recent observations of the radio-frequency flux spectrum of Jupiter in the frequency range 80-10 000 MHz suggest that the synchrotron component is not independent of frequency as has been generally accepted. Rather, the flux decreases at frequencies below 300 MHz and above 3000 MHz. In this paper we show that extensions and variations of the well-known dipolar model for this emission can account for the modified spectrum.
Recently (Gleeson (1972), Quenby (1973), Gleeson and Webb (1974, 1978)) it has been shown that the mean rate of change of momentum of cosmic rays reckoned for a volume fixed in the solar system is
where G = (1/Up)(∂Up/∂r)si the cosmic-ray density gradient with Up, the differential number density with respect to momentum p at position r. (cf also the integral form of (1) by Jokipii and Parker 1967).
With prevention and treatment of mental disorders a challenge for primary care and increasing capability of electronic medical records (EMRs) to facilitate research in practice, we aim to determine the prevalence and treatment of mental disorders by using routinely collected clinical data contained in EMRs.
We reviewed EMRs of patients randomly sampled from seven general practices, by piloting a study instrument and extracting data on mental disorders and their treatment.
Data were collected on 690 patients (age range 18–95, 52% male, 52% GMS-eligible). A mental disorder (most commonly anxiety/stress, depression and problem alcohol use) was recorded in the clinical records of 139 (20%) during the 2-year study period. While most patients with the common disorders had been prescribed medication (i.e. antidepressants or benzodiazepines), a minority had been referred to other agencies or received psychological interventions. ‘Free text’ consultation notes and ‘prescriptions’ were how most patients with disorders were identified. Diagnostic coding alone would have failed to identify 92% of patients with a disorder.
Although mental disorders are common in general practice, this study suggests their formal diagnosis, disease coding and access to psychological treatments are priorities for future research efforts.
In recent years there has been increasing interest in functional recovery in the early phase of schizophrenia. Concurrently, new remission criteria have been proposed and several studies have examined their clinical relevance for prediction of functional outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, the longitudinal interrelationship between full functional recovery (FFR) and symptom remission has not yet been investigated. This study sought to: (1) examine the relationships between FFR and symptom remission in FEP over 7.5 years; (2) test two different models of the interaction between both variables.
Altogether, 209 FEP patients treated at a specialized early psychosis service were assessed at baseline, 8 months, 14 months and 7.5 years to determine their remission of positive and negative symptoms and functional recovery. Multivariate logistic regression and path analysis were employed to test the hypothesized relationships between symptom remission and FFR.
Remission of both positive and negative symptoms at 8-month follow-up predicted functional recovery at 14-month follow-up, but had limited value for the prediction of FFR at 7.5 years. Functional recovery at 14-month follow-up significantly predicted both FFR and remission of negative symptoms at 7.5 years, irrespective of whether remission criteria were simultaneously met. The association remained significant after controlling for baseline prognostic indicators.
These findings provided support for the hypothesis that early functional and vocational recovery plays a pivotal role in preventing the development of chronic negative symptoms and disability. This underlines the need for interventions that specifically address early psychosocial recovery.
We report a case of an arteriovenous malformation within the internal auditory meatus and cerebellopontine angle, and we discuss its imaging appearances and management.
A 50-year-old man presented with a two-year history of vertigo. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated a lesion consisting of multiple ‘high flow’ vessels within the left internal auditory meatus and cerebellopontine angle. Transarterial embolisation was performed, with obliteration of the arteriovenous malformation.
Arteriovenous malformations of the internal auditory meatus and cerebellopontine angle are exceedingly rare. It is important that a pre-treatment diagnosis is made, as the management of arteriovenous malformation differs from that of other, more common lesions at this site.
Myxosporean parasites are significant parasites of fishes not only for their apparent high diversity but also for their potential impact on fish health and/or marketability. Regardless, our knowledge of most myxosporeans, especially those found in elasmobranch hosts, is superficial. A study of multivalvulidan diversity in a range of elasmobranchs from Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Australia) was conducted to address this knowledge gap. Specimens were collected from a total of 3 orders, 9 families and 31 species of elasmobranchs. Myxosporean infections referable to the genus Kudoa were discovered in host muscle and characterized morphologically and genetically. Both small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences were used in molecular phylogenetic analyses. Kudoa spp. infected 27 of the 31 species of elasmobranchs examined, representing new records of this parasite genus in 26, of the 27, host species. Kudoids were observed in all 3 orders, and 7 out of the 9 families of elasmobranchs investigated. This paper reports the first 2 multivalvulidan species to be formally described from elasmobranchs, Kudoa hemiscylli n.sp. characterized from Hemiscyllium ocellatum (and 8 other host species) and Kudoa carcharhini n. sp. characterized from Carcharhinus cautus (and 2 other host species). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that kudoids from elasmobranchs form a separate lineage to those of teleosts, but are anchored within the overall kudoid clade.
Little research has focused on delineating the specific predictors of emotional over-involvement (EOI) and critical comments (CC) in the early course of psychosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential relationships of EOI and CC with relevant predictors in relatives of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
Baseline patient-related factors including psychotic symptoms, depression and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and carer attributes comprising CC, EOI, burden of care and carers' stress and depression were assessed in a cohort of 63 remitted FEP patients and their relatives. Carers were reassessed at 7 months follow-up.
Baseline analysis showed that EOI was more strongly correlated with family stress compared with CC, whereas CC yielded a stronger association with DUP than EOI. Carers' CC at follow-up was not significantly predicted by either baseline family stress, burden of care or patient-related variables. Conversely, baseline EOI predicted both family stress and burden of care at 7 months follow-up. Finally, family burden of care at follow-up was a function of baseline EOI and patients' depressive symptoms.
This study provides preliminary support to the postulate that EOI and CC may be influenced by separate factors early in the course of psychosis and warrant future research and therapeutic interventions as separate constructs. Implications for family interventions in the early phase of psychosis and the prevention of CC and EOI are discussed.
The aim of this study was to present the management and survival data of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone, and to discuss whether extensive surgery improves survival.
Patients and methods:
Retrospective, case-series review of 17 patients (18 cases) with temporal bone carcinoma (15 primary and three recurrent tumours), over a period of 20 years.
Tertiary referral centre – university hospital.
Main outcome measures:
Disease-specific and overall five-year survival.
The mean age at presentation was 63 years, with a range of 39 to 75 years. Twelve cases of de novo tumour were managed by surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy in 10 cases, while three such patients were considered incurable from the outset and were given a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Of the three patients referred to our unit with recurrent disease, two were treated elsewhere with radical mastoidectomy and one with chemoradiation; all were subsequently managed by subtotal petrosectomy. The disease-specific and overall five-year survival for the entire cohort was 64.17 per cent (mean 89 months; 95 per cent confidence interval, 62–117) and 47.06 per cent (mean 70 months; 95 per cent confidence interval, 43–98), respectively. The disease-specific and overall survival for patients with advanced T3 and T4 tumours was 59 per cent (mean 83 months; 95 per cent confidence interval, 53–113) and 40 per cent (mean 62; 95 per cent confidence interval, 33–91 months), respectively. All but one recurrence developed within 12 months of initiating treatment. No deaths occurred after 26 months of follow up.
A lateral temporal bone resection is adequate treatment for T1 and T2 tumours. Post-operative radiotherapy should probably be offered for large T2 tumours. For T3 and T4 tumours, a subtotal petrosectomy with parotidectomy followed by post-operative radiotherapy is adequate treatment, as it offers a similar outcome to that of more extensive procedures.
To describe a unique presentation of a predominantly extracranial glomus faciale tumour. To discuss the role of imaging in the differential diagnosis and evaluation of a hypervascular parotid mass. To review the previous literature concerning the glomus faciale tumour.
A 54-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of facial weakness, pain and a parotid mass. Ultrasound revealed a hypervascular parotid mass and pre-operative core biopsy suggested a paraganglioma. Computed tomography defined its deep extent and demonstrated involvement of the petrous temporal bone along the descending portion of the facial nerve canal with a pattern of permeative lucency. A tumour was surgically removed which arose from the facial nerve from the second genu to the proximal divisions within the parotid gland and histology confirmed a paraganglioma.
A facial nerve glomus faciale tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hypervascular parotid mass and may present in a predominantly extracranial location. Computed tomography will prove helpful in such a case in order to limit the differential diagnosis and to define the extent of skull base involvement.
Sarcoidosis often presents with signs and symptoms within the head and neck. In this region, it most commonly affects the nose, larynx, parotid and cervical lymph nodes. Within the ear, it usually causes sensorineural hearing loss of varying severity. We report a patient in whom sarcoidosis involved the middle ear and presented with a conductive hearing loss. Granulomata were found in the middle ear during an exploratory tympanotomy. The granulomatous process had caused necrosis of the long process of incus and was also encasing the chorda tympani nerve. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis.
This study sought to clarify the role of obstetric complications (OCs) and maternal recall bias for patients with first episodes of schizophrenia and those at increased risk of the disorder.
Subjects at high risk of schizophrenia were compared with people with first-episode schizophrenia and with healthy volunteers. Consenting mothers of subjects were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire for the recall of OCs, and OCs were also measured from records collected at the time of pregnancy and delivery.
High-risk subjects and first-episode patients had higher rates of OCs recalled by their mother than controls, but hospital records showed no differences in OCs between groups. The number of OCs recalled by mothers of the high-risk group was not related to whether the mother had schizophrenia or not, but was related to the maternally rated abnormal childhood behaviour as measured by the Child Behaviour Checklist.
These results suggest that studies that rely on maternal recall alone are susceptible to bias. The excess of OCs recalled by the mother could be related to abnormal behaviour in their child rather than maternal illness, family history or psychotic symptoms.
Vagal paraganglioma is a rare usually benign tumour of neural crest origin. The malignant form of this tumour i s very uncommon and the diagnosis is made on the basis of its clinical behaviour rather than its histological appearance. We report a case of vagal paraganglioma metastatic to adjacent cervical nodes and discuss the diagnosis and management of this tumour.
Myofibromatosis is an uncommon, usually cutaneous, condition in which there is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts. Solitary and multicentric nodular forms with, and without, visceral involvement have been described. Infantile and adult sub-types have been reported, each having distinct clinicopathological features. Presentation in the head and neck is common. It is frequently misdiagnosed because of its peculiar histological features. The first documented cases of infantile and adult myofibromatosis involving the nasal cavity are reported.
Angioedema secondary to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is rare, but it is a side effect which is likely to be seen more frequently because of the increased use of these drugs to treat cardiac failure and hypertension. Presentation is variable and the diagnosis may go unrecognized for many months or years. The cases reported illustrate problems both in the diagnosis and management of this life-threatening condition.