To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Formation of a low barrier back contact plays a critical role in improving the photoconversion efficiency of the CdTe solar cells. Incorporating a buffer layer to minimize the band bending at the back of the CdTe device can significantly lower the barrier for the hole current, improving open circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor. Over the past years, researchers have incorporated the both ZnTe and Te as buffer layers to improve CdTe device performance. Here we compare device performance using these two materials as buffer layers at the back of CdTe devices. We show that using Te in contact to CdTe results in higher performance than using ZnTe in contact to the CdTe. Low temperature current density-voltage measurements show that Te results is a lower barrier with CdTe than ZnTe, indicating that Te has better band alignment, resulting in less downward bending in the CdTe at the back interface, than ZnTe does.
The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass–legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level. The three treatments imposed each provided 3.8 kg DM/day of corn silage offered in a single meal at 0800 h (Treatment AM), equally distributed in two meals 0800 and 1700 h (Treatment AM-PM) or a single meal at 1700 h (Treatment PM). The experiment was carried out during the late autumn and early winter period, with 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of measurements. There were no differences between treatments in milk yield, but 4% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be greater in AM-PM than in AM cows, which did not differ from PM (23.7, 25.3 and 24.6±0.84 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). Fat percentage and yield were greater for AM-PM than for AM cows and intermediate for PM cows (3.89 v. 3.66±0.072% and 1.00 v. 0.92±0.035 kg/day, respectively). Offering corn silage in two meals had an effect on herbage DM intake which was greater for AM-PM than AM cows and was intermediate in PM cows (8.5, 11.0 and 10.3±0.68 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). During the 6-h period at pasture, the overall proportion of observations on which cows were grazing tended to be different between treatments and a clear grazing pattern along the grazing session (1-h observation period) was identified. During the time at pasture, the proportion of observations during which cows ruminated was positively correlated with the DM intake of corn silage immediately before turn out to pasture. The treatment effects on herbage DM intake did not sufficiently explain differences in productive performance. This suggests that the timing of the corn silage supplementation affected rumen kinetics and likewise the appearance of hunger and satiety signals as indicated by observed changes in temporal patterns of grazing and ruminating activities.
Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) are taxonomically and ecologically diverse, with a wide range of social complexity, nesting preferences, floral associations, and biogeographic restrictions. A Canadian bee checklist, greatly assisted by the gene-assisted approach of DNA barcoding, is nearing completion. Previous evaluation of bee diversity in Canada, assisted by DNA barcoding, was restricted to Nova Scotia, which contains about 25% of the bee species in the country. Here, we summarise efforts to date to build a comprehensive DNA barcode library supporting bee taxonomic studies in Canada, consisting of more than 12 500 barcode-compliant sequences yielding 811 distinct barcode index numbers (BINs). This appears to represent ~95% of the 856 bee species presently recorded from Canada, but comparison with known morphological species in each genus shows that some genera are still under-sampled or may contain cryptic taxa, with much taxonomic work still to be done on bees in Canada. This is particularly true within the taxonomically difficult genera Andrena Fabricius (Andrenidae), Hylaeus Fabricius (Colletidae), Melissodes Latreille (Apidae), Nomada Scopoli (Apidae), Osmia Panzer (Megachilidae), and Sphecodes Latreille (Halictidae). DNA analysis will likely be a key asset in resolving bee taxonomic issues in Canada in the future, and to date has even assisted studies of well-known bee taxa. Here we present summaries of our results, and discuss the use of DNA barcoding to assist future taxonomic work, faunal lists, and ecological studies.
Hemihedrite from the Florence Lead-Silver mine in Pinal County, Arizona, USA
was first described and assigned the ideal chemical formula
based upon a variety of chemical and crystal-structure analyses. The primary
methods used to determine the fluorine content for hemihedrite were
colorimetry, which resulted in values of F that were too high and
inconsistent with the structural data, and infrared (IR) spectroscopic
analysis that failed to detect OH or H2O. Our reinvestigation
using electron microprobe analysis of the type material, and additional
samples from the type locality, the Rat Tail claim, Arizona, and Nevada,
reveals the absence of fluorine, while the presence of OH is confirmed by
Raman spectroscopy. These findings suggest that the colorimetric
determination of fluorine in the original description of hemihedrite
probably misidentified F due to the interferences from PO4 and
SO4, both found in our chemical analyses. As a consequence of
these results, the study presented here proposes a redefinition of the
chemical composition of hemihedrite to the ideal chemical formula
Hemihedrite is isotypic with iranite with substitution of Zn for Cu, and
raygrantite with substitution of Cr for S. Structural data from a sample
from the Rat Tail claim, Arizona, indicate that hemihedrite is triclinic in
space group P1, a = 9.4891(7),
b = 11.4242(8), c = 10.8155(7) Å, α =
120.368(2)°, β = 92.017(3)°, γ = 55.857(2)°, V = 784.88(9)
Å3, Z= 1, consistent with previous
investigations. The structure was refined from singlecrystal X-ray
diffraction data to R1 = 0.022 for 5705 unique observed reflections, and the ideal
was assumed during the refinement. Electron microprobe analyses of this
sample yielded the empirical chemical formula
6.00 Si1.97O34H2.16 based on 34 O
atoms and six (Cr + S + P) per unit cell.
To identify clinical signs and symptoms (ie, “terms”) that accurately predict laboratory-confirmed influenza cases and thereafter generate and evaluate various influenza-like illness (ILI) case definitions for detecting influenza. A secondary objective explored whether surveillance of data beyond the chief complaint improves the accuracy of predicting influenza.
Retrospective, cross-sectional study.
Large urban academic medical center hospital.
A total of 1,581 emergency department (ED) patients who received a nasopharyngeal swab followed by rRT-PCR testing between August 30, 2009, and January 2, 2010, and between November 28, 2010, and March 26, 2011.
An electronic surveillance system (GUARDIAN) scanned the entire electronic medical record (EMR) and identified cases containing 29 clinical terms relevant to influenza. Analyses were conducted using logistic regressions, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), sensitivity, and specificity.
The best predictive model for identifying influenza for all ages consisted of cough (DOR=5.87), fever (DOR=4.49), rhinorrhea (DOR=1.98), and myalgias (DOR=1.44). The 3 best case definitions that included combinations of some or all of these 4 symptoms had comparable performance (ie, sensitivity=89%–92% and specificity=38%–44%). For children <5 years of age, the addition of rhinorrhea to the fever and cough case definition achieved a better balance between sensitivity (85%) and specificity (47%). For the fever and cough ILI case definition, using the entire EMR, GUARDIAN identified 37.1% more influenza cases than it did using only the chief complaint data.
A simplified case definition of fever and cough may be suitable for implementation for all ages, while inclusion of rhinorrhea may further improve influenza detection for the 0–4-year-old age group. Finally, ILI surveillance based on the entire EMR is recommended.
The effects of partial substitution of Al for Fe in Fe73.5-xAlxSi13B9Nb3Cu1, nano composite alloys both on the a.c. magnetic properties such as permeability and core loss, saturation magnetostriction and core loss are presented. The observed improvements in material properties are discussed in relation to the nanocrystallite and residual glass component chemistry.
Marriage is known to be associated with improved mental health, but little research has examined whether the duration of a cohabiting relationship is associated with mental health.
To examine the associations between relationship duration and mental health problems in a birth cohort of 30-year-olds.
Associations between relationship duration and mental health were examined using a generalised estimating equation approach. Associations were adjusted for covariates, including prior mental health problems.
Longer relationship duration was significantly associated with lower rates of depression, suicidal behaviour and substance abuse/dependence, even after adjustment for covariates. In most cases the associations did not vary with gender. Legal relationship status (legally or de facto married) was not significantly related to mental health once due allowance was made for relationship duration.
Increasing relationship duration, but not legal relationship status, has a protective effect on mental health for men and women.