In sows, n-3 fatty acids increase litter sizes, however, effects on gilt reproductive development have not been adequately studied. Moreover, not determined are effects of feeding n-3 fatty acids to sows on reproduction in offspring. The objective here was to determine effects of 4% dietary menhaden oil on growth and puberty in gilts farrowed by sows fed menhaden oil. Sows (n = 44) were assigned to: (1) control gestation and lactation diets, or (2) diets including menhaden oil. For primiparous sows only, total litter size and born alive were greater (P < 0.05) in females fed menhaden oil. Conversely, pigs from primiparous controls were heavier (P < 0.05) than pigs from primiparous sows fed menhaden oil (parity by diet interactions, P < 0.01). Diet did not affect (P > 0.20) other sow and litter characteristics. At weaning, 84 gilts from control- or menhaden oil sows were placed three gilts per pen and provided control diets or diets containing menhaden oil. Nursery and grow-finish feed intake and feed efficiency were similar (P > 0.21) for gilts from the different sows and weight gain was similar (P > 0.24) for gilts fed control or menhaden diets. Gilts fed menhaden oil tended to eat less in the nursery (1.18±0.08 kg v. 0.98±0.08 kg; P = 0.09) and overall (1.83±0.04 kg v. 1.72±0.04 kg; P = 0.06). Thus, overall feed to gain was greater (2.52±0.03 v. 2.33±0.03; P < 0.01) and nursery (2.12±0.04 v. 1.80±0.04; P = 0.10) and grow-finish (3.07±0.19 v. 2.58±0.19; P = 0.08) feed to gain tended to be greater, for control gilts. Age at puberty was greater (P = 0.02) for gilts from menhaden oil-fed sows (205.1±3.2 days) compared to gilts from controls (193.9±3.2 days) and tended to be greater (P = 0.09), for controls (203.5±3.2 days) compared to gilts fed menhaden oil (195.5±3.2 days). A tendency existed (P = 0.09) for greater follicular fluid in gilts fed menhaden oil, however, ovulation rate and ovarian, luteal and uterine weights were not affected by sow diet, gilt diet or the interaction (P > 0.23). Feeding gilts menhaden oil enhanced feed efficiency and hastened puberty onset. Gilts from sows consuming menhaden oil exhibited delayed puberty and retaining females from sows fed this feedstuff may be ill advised.