This paper investigates the premise that long-term engagement in performance-focussed sports training may lead to significantly enhanced clinical outcomes for people with neurological impairments (NI). The minimum volume of moderate-intensity activity recommended for good health is 450 MET.minutes/week, although evidence from the general population indicates that outcomes may be enhanced by completing up to five times this volume (2250 MET.minutes/week) at vigorous (rather than moderate) intensity. Most studies evaluating physical activity interventions for people with NI deliver low volumes (<450 MET.minutes/week), which may explain why evidence for some clinical outcomes is weak. Athletes (with or without NI) who aim to achieve high-level sports performance undertake an increasingly large volume of vigorous intensity physical activity over several seasons. Evidence that people with NI may enhance clinical outcomes through performance-focussed sports training includes: evidence from studies investigating the benefits of high-intensity and/or high volume clinical exercise; scientific evidence from elite/high-level athletes; and anecdotal evidence from Paralympic athlete testimonials. Additionally, sports participants with NI may also accrue an important array of psychosocial benefits, including higher rates of employment, and higher satisfaction with life and social integration. Rigorous, prospective, longitudinal clinical monitoring of people with NI undertaking performance-focussed sports training are required to evaluate its clinical utility.