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Although many mental health care systems provide care interventions that are not related to direct health care, little is known about the interfaces between the latter and core health care. ‘Core health care’ refers to services whose explicit aim is direct clinical treatment which is usually provided by health professionals, i.e., physicians, nurses, psychologists. ‘Other care’ is typically provided by other staff and includes accommodation, training, promotion of independence, employment support and social skills. In such a definition, ‘other care’ does not necessarily mean being funded or governed differently. The aims of the study were: (1) using a standard classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for Long Term Care, DESDE-LTC) to identify ‘core health’ and ‘other care’ services provided to adults with mental health problems; and (2) to investigate the balance of care by analysing the types and characteristics of core health and other care services.
The study was conducted in eight selected local areas in eight European countries with different mental health systems. All publicly funded mental health services, regardless of the funding agency, for people over 18 years old were identified and coded. The availability, capacity and the workforce of the local mental health services were described using their functional main activity or ‘Main Types of Care’ (MTC) as the standard for international comparison, following the DESDE-LTC system.
In these European study areas, 822 MTCs were identified as providing core health care and 448 provided other types of care. Even though one-third of mental health services in the selected study areas provided interventions that were coded as ‘other care’, significant variation was found in the typology and characteristics of these services across the eight study areas.
The functional distinction between core health and other care overcomes the traditional division between ‘health’ and ‘social’ sectors based on governance and funding. The overall balance between core health and other care services varied significantly across the European sites. Mental health systems cannot be understood or planned without taking into account the availability and capacity of all services specifically available for this target population, including those outside the health sector.
The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.
There is a need of more quantitative standardised data to compare local Mental Health Systems (MHSs) across international jurisdictions. Problems related to terminological variability and commensurability in the evaluation of services hamper like-with-like comparisons and hinder the development of work in this area. This study was aimed to provide standard assessment and comparison of MHS in selected local areas in Europe, contributing to a better understanding of MHS and related allocation of resources at local level and to lessen the scarcity in standard service comparison in Europe. This study is part of the Seventh Framework programme REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems’ Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care in Europe) project.
A total of eight study areas from European countries with different systems of care (Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain) were analysed using a standard open-access classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services for Long Term Care in Europe, DESDE-LTC). All publicly funded services universally accessible to adults (≥18 years) with a psychiatric disorder were coded. Care availability, diversity and capacity were compared across these eight local MHS.
The comparison of MHS revealed more community-oriented delivery systems in the areas of England (Hampshire) and Southern European countries (Verona – Italy and Girona – Spain). Community-oriented systems with a higher proportion of hospital care were identified in Austria (Industrieviertel) and Scandinavian countries (Sør-Trøndelag in Norway and Helsinki-Uusimaa in Finland), while Loiret (France) was considered as a predominantly hospital-based system. The MHS in Suceava (Romania) was still in transition to community care.
There is a significant variation in care availability and capacity across MHS of local areas in Europe. This information is relevant for understanding the process of implementation of community-oriented mental health care in local areas. Standard comparison of care provision in local areas is important for context analysis and policy planning.
Precision agriculture (PA) requires reasonably homogeneous areas for site-specific management. This work explores the applicability of digital terrain classes obtained from a digital elevation model derived from UAV-acquired images, to define management units in in a relative flat area of about 6 ha. Elevation, together with other terrain variables such as: slope degree, profile curvature, plan curvature, topographic wetness index, sediment transport index, were clustered using the Fuzzy Kohonen Clustering Network (FKCN). Four terrain classes were obtained. The result was compared with a map produced by a classification of soil properties previously interpolated by ordinary kriging. The results suggest that areas for site-specific management can be defined from terrain classes based on environmental covariates, saving time and cost in comparison with interpolation of soil variables.
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.
We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1–2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.
The σ Orionis cluster (~3 Myr, 350 pc) is an ideal site to investigate the early evolution of substellar (brown dwarf and planetary mass) objects. To date, the cluster photometric and spectroscopic sequence of free-floaters is known for a wide mass range from 1 M⊙ down to roughly 3 MJup. The substellar domain covers spectral types that go from mid-M classes to the recently defined “methane” T-types, i.e., surface temperatures between ~3000K and 800 K. We derive a rising initial substellar mass function in the mass interval of 150–5 MJup (dN/dM ~ M-α, with α = 0.9 ± 0.4). We also find evidence for a extension of this mass function toward lower masses down to 2–3 MJup. This indicates that the population of isolated planetary mass objects with masses below the deuterium burning threshold is rather abundant in the cluster.
We present a detailed study of the kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) input catalog. We have selected all M dwarfs with known parallactic distance or a good photometric distance estimation, precise proper motion in the literature or as determined by us, and radial velocity measurements. Using these parameters, we computed the M dwarfs galactic space motions (U, V, W). For the stars with U and V velocity components inside or near the boundaries that determine the young disk population, we have analyzed the possible membership in the classical moving groups and nearby loose associations with ages between 10 and 600 Myr. For the candidate members, we have compiled information available in the literature in order to constrain their membership by applying other age-dating methods.
This study describes the incidence rate of reported lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Barcelona from 2007 to 2012. Epidemiological, clinical and sexual behaviour characteristics of LGV cases are described. Seroadaptive behaviours as a transmission risk factor were assessed by a telephone questionnaire during 2012. Data were handled on a strictly confidential basis. LGV annual rate ratios in MSM were compared with cases from 2007. Differences were statistically analysed with a Poisson test. The incidence rate of LGV in MSM aged 15–69 years ranged from 32·1/105 MSM per year in 2007 to 182·7/105 MSM per year in 2012. In 2012, 31/51 LGV cases (61%) answered the telephone questionnaire, of which 84% (26/31) were HIV positive, 39% (12/31) reported having sex according to their partners’ serostatus and 7% (2/31) used strategic positioning. The incidence of LGV has increased since 2007 and mainly affects HIV-positive MSM. It is probable that seroadaptation has facilitated LGV transmission.
We evaluated the effect of feeding dietary tannins from Lysiloma latisiliquum fresh forage on the saliva tannin-binding capacity of hair sheep lambs without previous exposure to tannin-rich (TR) fodder. Twenty-four hair sheep lambs (13.6±3.04 kg LW) were fed a tannin-free diet at the beginning of the experimental period (from day 10 to 13). On day 14, lambs were distributed into three groups (n=8): control group (CG), fed with the tannin-free diet (from D10 to D112); tannin short-term group (TST), fed the basal diet and 650 g of L. latisiliquum forage (from D14 to D55); tannin long-term group (TLT), fed the basal diet and 650 g of L. latisiliquum forage (from D14 to D112). Saliva samples were collected from the mouth of each lamb in the morning before feeding time on D10 and D14 (baseline period), on D49 and D56 (period 1) and on D97 and D112 (period 2). The tannin binding response of salivary protein (∆% turbidity) was determined with the haze development test (HDT) using either tannic acid or L. latisiliquum forage acetone extract. A turbidity protein index (TPI) was calculated as (∆% turbidity/[salivary protein (mg)]). Differences in HDT and TPI in the different groups were compared by repeated measures ANOVA using Proc Mixed. All groups had similar ∆% turbidity throughout the experiment (P>0.05). At baseline and period 1, the TPI of the different groups was similar (P>0.05). On period 2 the TLT group showed higher TPI compared with CG (P<0.05). Meanwhile, CG and TST showed similar salivary TPI. The saliva of hair sheep lambs consuming TR L. latisiliquum fresh fodder (TLT group) increased their TPI compared with control lambs not exposed to tannins.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) will conduct a radial-velocity survey of ~ 300 M dwarfs with the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. The CARMENES instrument is currently under construction; it consists of two independent échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range 0.55 – 1.7μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs and the fiber input are designed with a goal of 1m/s radial velocity precision using simultaneous calibration with emission-line lamps.
DHA deficiency has been related to skeletal malformations in fish, but high DHA levels have produced controversial results that could relate to the oxidative status of fish tissues in the different reports. In the present study, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae were fed deficient, adequate or high DHA levels, or high DHA levels supplemented with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. Larvae fed deficient DHA levels tended to be smaller, and showed the highest incidence of urinary bladder calculi, lordosis and kyphosis and the lowest number of mineralised vertebrae for any given size class. Elevation of dietary DHA increased larval growth and significantly enhanced the expression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. However, a DHA level increase up to 5 % raised the degree of lipid oxidation in larval tissues and deformities in cranial endochondral bones and in axial skeletal haemal and neural arches. The increase in dietary α-tocopherol supplementation in high-DHA feeds reduced again the occurrence of skeletal deformities. Moreover, the expression of genes coding for specific antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase, which neutralised reactive oxygen substances formed by increased dietary DHA, was significantly decreased in larvae fed high α-tocopherol levels. These results denoted the importance of DHA for early bone formation and mineralisation. Low dietary DHA levels delay early mineralisation and increase the risk of cranial and axial skeletal deformities. Excessive DHA levels, without an adequate balance of antioxidant nutrients, increase the production of free radicals damaging cartilaginous structures before bone formation.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument under construction for the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is a five-year exoplanet survey targeting 300 M stars with the completed instrument. The CARMENES hardware consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s−1 employing a simultaneous calibration with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of Se inclusion in high-DHA and vitamin E microdiets (5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight; 5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight supplemented with Se) in comparison with a control diet (1 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 150 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight) on sea bass larval growth, survival, biochemical composition, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, muscle morphology and antioxidant enzymes (AOE), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and myosin expression. For a given DHA and vitamin E dietary content, Se inclusion favoured larval total length and specific growth rate, and reduced the incidence of muscular lesions, MDA contents and AOE gene expression. In contrast, IGF gene expression was elevated in the 5/300 larvae, suggesting an increased muscle mitogenesis that was corroborated by the increase in mRNA copies of myosin heavy chain. The results of the present study denoted the beneficial effect of Se not only in preventing oxidative stress, as a glutathione peroxidase cofactor, but probably due to other as yet unknown physiological functions.
The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
Hulled wheats are neglected crops that have potential in plant breeding programmes of modern durum and common wheat. Among these wheats, three species were widely cultivated in Spain until the mid 20th century: Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (einkorn), Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum (emmer) and Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta (spelt). One important aspect of wheat grain quality is starch composition, which is related to the action of waxy proteins. A collection of 536 accessions of Spanish hulled wheats was analyzed for waxy protein composition using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Polymorphism was found for the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 proteins, including new and null alleles in the three species. An allelic variant with an electrophoretic mobility not previously described was found in einkorn wheat. In emmer and spelt, some alleles with different mobility were also found. A Wx-B1 null allele was detected in emmer wheat, and null alleles for Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 were found in spelt wheat. The variations found could be used to enlarge the gene pool available to breeders, and to design new cultivars with different levels of amylose content.
The etch rates of InGaP, AlInP and AlGaP increases dramatically with microwave power in ECR BCl3- or CH4/H2-based discharges, reaching values near 1μm·min−1 at 1000W, The surface morphologies of these materials however behave much differently as the microwave power is increased. For BCl3 etching of InGaP the surface RMS roughness decreases from 36nm at 250W to 2nm at 1000W. For AlInP, there is little change in surface morphology, whereas for the common binary component of these two materials, InP, the surface becomes very rough at high powers (>60nm RMS). By contrast, the morphologies of the three ternaries remain smooth over a wide range of conditions with CH4/H2/Ar. The AFM analysis, coupled with AES enables us to understand these different responses in terms of volatility of the respective chloride, metalorganic and hydride etch products.
BaTiO3 thin films, 50–60 nm in thickness, were evaporated in Ultra High Vacuum as well as under 1 mPa O2 pressure onto Si/SiO2 (30 nm) wafers. The substrate temperature during the evaporations was approximately 70 °C. The films were flash annealed in oxygen at 500 °C. The interfacial reactions were studied by XPS and AES Ar ion assisted depth profiling, and by RBS. Interdiffusion took place even at 70 °C. The XPS/AES depth profiles suggested strong interdiffusion, with Ba being the dominant moving species. The SiO2/BaTiO3 interface smears out with significant Ba concentrations up to half of the SiO2 thickness. Ti diffusion is remarkably lower. Barium is detected up to the SiO2/Si interface.
An examination of thermal chemical vapor deposit elemental composition by EDAX has been completed for material films grown from Cu(acac)2 and Cu(tmhd)2 (acac = pentane-2,4-dionate; tmhd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionate), using both hydrous and anhydrous carrier gas steams each of reducing (H2), inert (H2), and oxidizing (O2) composition.
A variety of plasma etching chemistries were examined for patterning NiMnSb Heusler thin films and associated A12O3 barrier layers. Chemistries based on SF6 and Cl2 were all found to provide faster etch rates than pure Ar sputtering. In all cases the etch rates were strongly dependent on both the ion flux and ion energy. Selectivities of ≥20 for NiMnSb over A12O3 were obtained in SF6-based discharges, while selectivities ≤5 were typical in Cl2 and CH4/H2 plasma chemistries. Wet etch solutions of HF/H2O and HNO3/H2SO4/H2O were found to provide reaction-limited etching of NiMnSb that was either non-selective or selective, respectively, to A12O3. In addition we have developed dry etch processes based on Cl2/Ar at high ion densities for patterning of LaCaMnO3 (and SmCo permanent magnet biasing films) for magnetic sensor devices. Highly anisotropie features are produced in both materials, with smooth surface morphologies. In all cases, SiO2 or other dielectric materials must be used for masking since photoresist does not retain its geometrical integrity upon exposure to the high ion density plasma.