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To assess the associations between nutrient intake and dietary patterns with different sarcopenia definitions in older men.
Sarcopenia was defined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2). Dietary adequacy of fourteen nutrients was assessed by comparing participants’ intakes with the Nutrient Reference Values (NRV). Attainment of NRV for nutrients was incorporated into a variable ‘poor’ (meeting ≤ 9) v. ‘good’ (meeting ≥ 10) using the cut-point method. Also, two different dietary patterns, monounsaturated:saturated fat and n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio and individual nutrients were used as predictor variables.
A total of 794 men aged ≥75 years participated in this study.
The prevalence of sarcopenia by the FNIH, EWGSOP and EWGSOP2 definitions was 12·9 %, 12·9 % and 19·6 %, respectively. With the adjustment, poor nutrient intake was significantly associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia (OR: 2·07 (95 % CI 1·16, 3·67)), but not with EWGSOP and EWGSPOP2 definitions. The lowest and second-lowest quartiles of protein, Mg and Ca and the lowest quartiles of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA intakes were significantly associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia. Each unit decrease in n-6:n-3 ratio was significantly associated with a 9 % increased risk of FNIH-defined sarcopenia (OR: 1·09 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·16)).
Inadequate intakes of nutrients are associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia in older men, but not with the other two sarcopenia definitions. Further studies are required to understand these relationships.
Recent neuroscience research makes it clear that human biology is cultural biology - we develop and live our lives in socially constructed worlds that vary widely in their structure values, and institutions. This integrative volume brings together interdisciplinary perspectives from the human, social, and biological sciences to explore culture, mind, and brain interactions and their impact on personal and societal issues. Contributors provide a fresh look at emerging concepts, models, and applications of the co-constitution of culture, mind, and brain. Chapters survey the latest theoretical and methodological insights alongside the challenges in this area, and describe how these new ideas are being applied in the sciences, humanities, arts, mental health, and everyday life. Readers will gain new appreciation of the ways in which our unique biology and cultural diversity shape behavior and experience, and our ongoing adaptation to a constantly changing world.
To examine changes in micronutrient intake over 3 years and identify any associations between socio-economic, health, lifestyle and meal-related factors and these changes in micronutrient intakes among older men.
Dietary adequacy of individual micronutrient was compared to the estimated average requirement of the nutrient reference values (NRV). Attainment of the NRV for twelve micronutrients was incorporated into a dichotomised variable ‘not meeting’ (meeting ≤ 6) or ‘meeting’ (meeting ≥ 7) and categorised into four categories to assess change in micronutrient intake over 3 years. The multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to model predictors of changes in micronutrient intake.
Seven hundred and ninety-four men participated in a detailed diet history interview at the third wave (baseline nutrition) and 718 men participated at the fourth wave (3-year follow-up).
The mean age was 81 years (range 75–99 years). Median intakes of the majority of micronutrients decreased significantly over a 3-year follow-up. Inadequacy of the NRV for thiamine, dietary folate, Zn, Mg, Ca and I were significantly increased at a 3-year follow-up than baseline nutrition. The incidence of inadequate micronutrient intake was 21 % and remained inadequate micronutrient intake was 16·4 % at 3-year follow-up. Changes in micronutrient intakes were significantly associated with participants born in the UK and Italy, low levels of physical activity, having ≥2 medical conditions and used meal services.
Micronutrient intake decreases with age in older men. Our results suggest that strategies to improve some of the suboptimal micronutrient intakes might need to be developed and implemented for older men.
This paper examines and critiques the ethical issues in postmortem sperm retrieval and the use of postmortem sperm to create new life. The article was occasioned by the recent request of the parents of a West Point cadet who died in a skiing accident at the Academy to retrieve and use his sperm to honor his memory and perpetuate the family name. The request occasioned national media attention. A trial court judge in New York in a two-page order authorized both the retrieval and use of the postmortem sperm.
Introduction: Patients with concussion often present to the emergency department (ED). Current guidelines recommend graded return to work and physical activity (i.e., sport, recreation and exercise activities); however, whether emergency physicians target this advice based on patient-reported activities is unknown. This study aimed to assess mismatches between physicians’ rest and return-to-activity advice and self-reported pre-injury work and physical activity of adult concussion patients. Methods: Adults (>17 years) presenting with a concussion from April 2013 to April 2015 to a study ED with Glasgow coma scale score ≥13 were recruited by on-site research assistants. Data on patient characteristics (i.e., age, sex, employment, and physical activity level) and activity leading to injury were collected from structured patient interviews. A structured questionnaire collected data from the treating physician about discharge advice provided. “Working” was defined as employed or enrolled in any level of school at the time of injury. “Physically active” was defined by reporting regular exercise (≥2 times a week) or concussed during a sports-related activity. Proportions or medians (interquartile range [IQR]) are reported, as appropriate. Results: Physician questionnaires were completed for 198/248 enrolled patients (median age: 37 years [IQR: 23, 49]; 46% male). Overall, 89% (177/198) were working; 110/177 (62%) received return-to-work advice, while 10/21 (48%) patients also received return-to-work advice, despite not working. Mentally strenuous work/school duties were reported by 143 patients, of which 85 (60%) were recommended cognitive rest. Overall, 148 patients were physically active and 115 (78%) of these were recommended physical rest while 124 (82%) were advised on safe return to physical activity. On the other hand, 35/50 (70%) patients who were not physically active received advice on safe return to physical activity. Sustaining a sports-related injury significantly increased the likelihood of safe return to physical activity advice among physically active patients (Fisher's exact p = 0.001). Conclusion: There is a mismatch between concussed patients’ pre-injury activities, and the rest and return-to-activity (i.e., work and physical activity) advice provided by emergency physicians. The possible effect of this mismatch on patient outcomes should be assessed in future research, as should strategies to improve emergency physician-patient communications around concussion management.