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This paper reports the first successful synthesis and the structural characterization of nanocrystalline and stacking-disordered β-cristobalite AlPO4 that is chemically stabilized down to room temperature and free of crystalline impurity phases. Several batches of the title compound were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping in SEM, solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy including the TRAPDOR method, differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas-sorption methods, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and ion chromatography. Parameters that are critical for the synthesis were identified and optimized. The synthesis procedure yields reproducible results and is well documented. A high-quality XRD pattern of the title compound is presented, which was collected with monochromatic copper radiation at room temperature in a wide 2θ range of 5°–100°.
Farm equipment, including sensors and mobile machinery, create increasing amounts of data, and data can also be gained from third-party services. In order to be able to fully take advantage of this a farmer needs to be able to gather, store, process, and share the data as needed. In this work we describe a prototype for open environment that can gather, combine, store, select, and share data from arbitrary sources and with external partners, as well as use the data in decision making and provide it as input for various services. The environment is built using the Service Oriented Architecture paradigm and is therefore not tied to any specific operating system or software framework. We have tested the environment on the farm scale in Finland. The system was found suitable to improve the work in all tested tasks.
We study the geometric and topological properties of strange non-chaotic attractors created in non-smooth saddle-node bifurcations of quasiperiodically forced interval maps. By interpreting the attractors as limit objects of the iterates of a continuous curve and controlling the geometry of the latter, we determine their Hausdorff and box-counting dimension and show that these take distinct values. Moreover, the same approach allows us to describe the topological structure of the attractors and to prove their minimality.
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
We report the discovery of carbonates in the Planetary Nebulae NGC 6302 and NGC 6537 (Kemper et al. 2002). In the ISO LWS spectra far-infrared features have been identified with calcite and dolomite by comparison with laboratory spectra of these minerals. This is the first time that carbonates have been identified outside the solar system. In a follow-up study (Kemper et al., in prep.) a detailed analysis of the mineral composition of the dust in NGC 6302 is presented.
A number of yellow and red super- and hypergiants show phenomena that are similar to those shown by Luminous Blue Variables. The LBV phenomenon may not be restricted to the blue part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the conventional name ‘S Dor variables’ seems more appropriate.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in patients with vascular chronic Q fever at time of diagnosis and during follow-up. Based upon the SF-36 questionnaire, the mean physical and mental health of each patient were assessed at 3-month intervals for up to 18 months. A total of 26 patients were included in the study. At time of diagnosis, the mean physical health and mental health score was 50·6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 46·7–54·4] and 44·6 (95% CI 41·6–47·5), respectively. During treatment, the mean physical health score declined significantly by 1·7 points each 3 months (P < 0·001) to 40·8 (95% CI 34·4–45·1). The mean mental health score significantly and steadily increased towards 51·2 (95% CI 46·9–54·3) during follow-up (P = 0·026). A total of 23% of patients were cured after 18 months of follow-up. In conclusion, quality of life at time of diagnosis for patients with vascular chronic Q fever is lower compared to a similar group of patients, matched for age and gender, with an aortic abdominal aneurysmal disease, and physical health decreases further after starting treatment. Considering the low percentage of cure, the current treatment of vascular chronic Q fever patients may require a separate strategy from that of endocarditis in order to increase survival.
The assessment of driving-relevant cognitive functions in older drivers is a difficult challenge as there is no clear-cut dividing line between normal cognition and impaired cognition and not all cognitive functions are equally important for driving.
To support decision makers, the Bern Cognitive Screening Test (BCST) for older drivers was designed. It is a computer-assisted test battery assessing visuo-spatial attention, executive functions, eye–hand coordination, distance judgment, and speed regulation. Here we compare the performance in BCST with the performance in paper and pencil cognitive screening tests and the performance in the driving simulator testing of 41 safe drivers (without crash history) and 14 unsafe drivers (with crash history).
Safe drivers performed better than unsafe drivers in BCST (Mann–Whitney U test: U = 125.5; p = 0.001) and in the driving simulator (Student's t-test: t(44) = –2.64, p = 0.006). No clear group differences were found in paper and pencil screening tests (p > 0.05; ns). BCST was best at identifying older unsafe drivers (sensitivity 86%; specificity 61%) and was also better tolerated than the driving simulator test with fewer dropouts.
BCST is more accurate than paper and pencil screening tests, and better tolerated than driving simulator testing when assessing driving-relevant cognition in older drivers.
The electronic spectroscopy of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules has been studied in the laboratory at low temperatures using both molecular beam and matrix isolation spectroscopy techniques. While molecular beam spectra can be readily compared to astronomical observations, the band positions measured in Ne and Ar matrices are extrapolated to obtain rather good estimates for the same transitions in the gas phase. Absolute absorption cross sections are determined for gas-phase and matrix spectra by comparing them with calibrated solution spectra. All laboratory results are analyzed and discussed in view of the role that PAHs can play as carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Our studies suggest that regular neutral PAHs are not responsible for any of the known strong DIBs.
This study examines historical variation in individual trajectories of heavy drinking and marijuana use from age 18 to 22. Unlike most studies that have examined cohort differences in drug use, it focuses on differences in both level of use and rates of change (growth). Nearly 39,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976–2004 were surveyed at biennial intervals between the ages of 18 and 22 as part of the national Monitoring the Future study. Between 1976 and 2004, adolescent heavy drinking decreased substantially. However, because the age 18–22 heavy drinking growth rate increased threefold for males and sixfold for females during this period, heavy drinking among 21- to 22-year-olds remained largely stable. The growth rate for marijuana use was more stable across cohorts, and historical declines in use were sizable across the entire 18–22 age band. Generally, historical variation in use was unrelated to college status and living arrangements as well as to historical changes in the distribution of young adult social roles. Findings suggest that historical fluctuations in use were less the result of proximal young adult factors and more the result of historical variation in distal adolescent factors, the effect of which diminished with age, especially for heavy drinking.
Undoped 69GaAs/71GaAs isotope superlattice structures grown by MBE on n-type GaAs substrates, doped by Si to ∼3×1018 cm−3, have been used to study Ga self-diffusion in GaAs by disordering reactions. In the temperature range of 850–960°C, the SIMS measured Ga self-diffusivity values showed an activation enthalpy of 4 eV, and are larger than previously compiled Ga self-diffusivity and Al-Ga interdiffusivity values obtained under thermal equilibrium and intrinsic conditions, which are characterized by a 6 eV activation enthalpy. SIMS, CV, and TEM characterizations showed that the as-grown superlattice layers were intrinsic which became p-type with hole concentrations up to ∼2×1017 cm−3 after annealing, because the layers contain carbon. Dislocations of a density of ∼106-107 cm−2 were also present. However, the factor responsible for the presently observed larger Ga self-diffusivity values appears to be Si outdiffusion from the substrate, which was determined using CV measurements. Outdiffusion of Si decreases the n value in the substrate which causes the release of excess Ga vacancies into the superlattice layers where the supersaturated Ga vacancies enhance Ga self-diffusion.
We recently developed a scattering model based on the scalar scattering theory. In this contribution we present how we used the scattering model to investigate interface textures with optimized scattering properties. We used the simulated annealing algorithm to find optimized surface textures and applied the ASA device simulator to evaluate the influence of these optimized textures on the performance of thin film silicon solar cells. We found that the lateral feature size of the textures is crucial for efficient scattering of the incident light.
Infrared spectroscopy is the best astronomical tool for studying the composition of cosmic dust. Thanks to the Herschel satellite, dust properties from the FIR to mm wavelength range will be sampled in different astrophysical environments. In the laboratory, the study of the temperature and structural dependence of FIR absorption of cosmic dust analogs including agglomeration is essential to interpret observational spectra. For crystalline materials, FIR single phonon bands are temperature dependent due to the anharmonicity of the vibrational potentials. This strong temperature dependence of the FIR bands’ positions can be used as a thermometer of the dust temperature. In amorphous material, the FIR absorption is dominated by disorder-induced single phonon processes and in the submillimeter and millimeter range by highly temperature-dependent low energy processes, e.g. tunneling transitions in two-level systems. The effect of these processes on the FIR absorptivity in amorphous silicates will be demonstrated.
Comparisons have been made of the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the eigenvalue problems
with φ ∈ C(-∞, +∞) and 0≦φ(x)≦C|x|i+1(1+|x|1), −∞<x<+∞ where i and l are arbitrary positive numbers with i≧2k≧2, k integer. In first approximation the eigenvalues λ and λ− and the corresponding eigenfunctions ψ and ψ are the same for ε→0; the error decreases whenever the exponent i increases.
We have investigated microstructural properties of GaAs:N and GaN:As layers using transmission electron microscopy. The samples were grown onto (001)-oriented GaAs substrates by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It has been found that during the GaAs/GaAs:N epitaxial growth the supplied active nitrogen atoms gave rise to nanometer-size GaN crystallites formed in the GaAs matrix. In addition, silicon incorporation showed abnormal behavior at the two interfaces of the thin GaAs:N layer embedded in GaAs. A model is proposed for the formation of GaN crystallites in GaAs during the growth. In the GaN:As growth, the layer exhibited columnar growth, resulting in domains with different crystallographic orientation. With an increase of the film thickness, the zincblende structure changed to the wurtzite phase of GaN. The distribution of arsenic through the layer thickness was found to be inhomogeneous and be much higher near the GaN/GaAs interface compared to the region near the surface.
To improve the efficiency of heterostructure solar cells based on chalcopyrite semiconductors a good understanding of the interface properties is crucial. By Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy it is possible to obtain laterally resolved images of the work function of semiconductor surfaces in addition to the topographical information usually obtained by noncontact atomic force microscopy. We studied the CuGaSe2/ZnSe interface prepared by growth of CuGaSe2 onto the (110) face of freshly cleaved ZnSe single crystals using chemical vapor deposition. We observed different work function values for different crystal facets on single CuGaSe2 grains. From the obtained work function data and surface photovoltage measurements a schematic band diagram for the CuGaSe2/ZnSe heterostructure is proposed.
The design of a novel spectrometer based on a thin film diode in combination with an electro statically tunable micro machined mirror will be presented. The semi transparent diode is introduced into a standing wave created in front of a reflector to sample the profile of the standing wave. Varying the position of the reflector results in a shift of the phase of the standing waves and thus in a change of the optical generation profile within the detector. The spectral information of the incoming light can be determined by the Fourier transformation of the transient response of the sensor. An analytical optical model will be presented which facilitates the evaluation of different detector concepts. The model will be applied to discuss different device designs regarding the resolution of the spectrometer, the spectral range and the linearity.
The microstructure induced by the Zn diffusion at 1170 K into doped and undoped semi-insulating GaAs single crystals was characterized for various diffusion times t < 1740 min by analytical electron microscopy. The results were compared with Zn concentration profiles obtained by spreading resistance measurements (SRM) on the same samples. At the diffusion front the formation of prismatic interstitial dislocation loops, dislocation networks, and of cavities partly filled with Ga was observed. Closer to the surface facetted voids and, for the undoped samples, vacancy-type dislocation loops formed. The near surface region of highest Zn-concentration showed a high density of Zn-rich precipitates. A model is presented which accounts .for these observations. It is based on fast interstitial Zn diffusion and the kick-out mechanism for interstitial-substituional exchange.