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Recent research on Flight-deck Interval Management (FIM), a modern technology for increasing safety and improving airspace and runway utilisation through self-spacing, has led to the development of a new rule-based logic for FIM, namely Interval Management – Speed Planning (IM-SP). In an initial benchmark study, IM-SP showed good spacing performance with a significant reduction in speed commands, a major area of concern with previous FIM logics, resulting in a lower burden on the flight crew during FIM operation. Nevertheless, there remains scope for improvement in other aspects, such as fuel burn. In this study, the internal cost function of IM-SP is further analysed and optimised using speed-constrained multi-objective particle swarm optimisation to improve the performance of IM-SP under the multiple objectives of FIM. The optimisation renders new settings that address the problem areas, improve the speed commands and enhance the overall quality of IM-SP. Two distinctive solutions, viz. a spacing performance optimised setting and a fuel burn optimised setting, are further analysed and discussed, and directions for follow-up research are explored.
Dietary intake of ω-3 fatty acids has been associated with a decreased lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal phospholipids metabolism in the brain has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, mood disorder. This study was conducted to determine whether essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) levels in the erythrocyte membrane are correlate with severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as cognitive function, in subjects with AD.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Toyama School of Medicine.
Thirty out-patients (male/female = 6/24) with AD (n = 23) or amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 7) participated in the study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to assess cognitive function and severity of BPSD respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Fatty acids levels were analyzed using a gas chromatography system.
Concentrations of EPUFAs and ω-3 fatty acids were positively correlated with MMSE score. Also, EPUFAs levels were negatively correlated with the NPI Global and caregiver scores. Specifically, EPUFAs levels predicted dysphoria, euphoria and apathy scores of NPI.
These results suggest that abnormal phospholipids metabolism provided a biological basis for BPSD and cognitive impairments of AD.
The purpose of this study was to determine if perospirone, a second generation antipsychotic drug and partial agonist at serotonin-5-HT1A receptors, enhances electrophysiological activity, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), in frontal brain regions, as well as cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia. P300 current source images were obtained by means of standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) before and after treatment with perospirone for 6 months. Perospirone significantly increased P300 current source density in the left superior frontal gyrus, and improved positive symptoms and performance on the script tasks, a measure of verbal social cognition. Perospirone also tended to enhance verbal learning memory in patients with schizophrenia. There was a significant correlation between the changes in P300 amplitudes on the left frontal lead and those in social cognition. These results suggest the changes in three-dimensional distribution of cortical activity, as demonstrated by sLORETA, may mediate some of the actions of antipsychotic drugs. the distinct cognition-enhancing profile of perospirone may be related to its actions on 5-HT1A receptors.
Although the application of new, reduced aircraft separation minima can directly increase runway throughput, the impact thereof on the traffic flow of aircraft arriving at the destination airport has not been discussed yet. This paper proposes a data-driven and queue-based modeling approach and presents an analysis of the impact on the delay time of arriving aircraft in the airspace within a radius of 100 nautical miles around an airport. The parameters of our queuing model were estimated by analysing the data contained in the radar tracks and flight plans for flights that arrived at Tokyo International Airport during the 2 years of 2016 and 2017. The results clarified the best arrival strategy according to the distance from the arrival airport: The combination of airspace capacity control and reduction of the flight time and separation variance is the most powerful solution to mitigate delays experienced by arriving traffic while also allowing an increase in the amount of arrival traffic. The application of new wake vortex categories would enable us to increase the arrival traffic to 120%. In addition, the arrival delay time could be minimised by implementing the proposed arrival traffic strategies together with automation support for air traffic controllers.
Flight-deck Interval Management (FIM) is a modern airborne self-spacing technology that improves arrival route throughput and runway utilisation and increases hourly arrival capacity by up to four aircraft per hour and per runway, compared to conventional air traffic controller guided arrivals. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been the leader in FIM research and formulated a logic that was put to an actual flight test in 2017. Despite the overall success of the project, operational deficiencies concerning the number of speed commands, which led to several recommendations for future research before operational implementation, were discovered. In this study, a new logic that implements a two-stage rule-based selection algorithm was developed to overcome those deficiencies. The proposed logic was compared to NASA’s logic on an arrival in Tokyo International Airport with multiple induced error patterns. The results indicate that the new logic significantly decreases the number of speed commands with only minor aggravations in spacing performance. The results that highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both concepts are discussed, and an outlook on and ideas for future research on FIM and the proposed logic are presented.
We studied a suitable procedure for preparing of water samples used in radiocarbon intercomparisons involving dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The water samples must have inter-batch consistency and stable 14C concentrations and no sterilizing agent (e.g., HgCl2) should be added, in order to avoid the production of hazardous material. Six water samples, containing widely different amounts and types of salts, DIC, and 14C concentrations (1–100 pMC), were prepared in order to assess the procedure. Sample consistency was investigated through δ13C and chemical compositions; their low variabilities indicate that our procedure can be applied to radiocarbon intercomparison. A specific sample preparation protocol was developed for this kind of applications.
Some of the stable isotopes of silicon and carbon have zero nuclear spin, whereas many of the other elements that constitute semiconductors consist entirely of stable isotopes that have nuclear spins. Silicon and diamond crystals composed of nuclear-spin-free stable isotopes (28Si, 30Si, or 12C) are considered to be ideal host matrixes to place spin quantum bits (qubits) for quantum-computing and -sensing applications, because their coherent properties are not disrupted thanks to the absence of host nuclear spins. The present paper describes the state-of-the-art and future perspective of silicon and diamond isotope engineering for development of quantum information-processing devices.
We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, −0.121 to −0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.
Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of ‘ordinary’ adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by ‘immune-resistant’ adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5–7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.
Besides the importance of the actinide dioxide series as a nuclear fuel, the magnetic properties of these compounds at low temperatures are particularly interesting. Their surprisingly varied physical properties at low temperatures stimulate continuing interest for both theory and experiment. Recently, we have performed 17O-NMR studies for the first time on Pu and Amcontaining dioxide systems, (Pu1-xAmx)O2. For the x=0.09 sample, a temperature-dependent NMR line broadening has been observed at low temperatures. By comparing the experimental data with the results of NMR line simulations, we have estimated the effective moment of Am ions to be Peff=1.38 μB. The value suggests the 5f5 (Am4+) state of the Am ion in PuO2. For the x=1 (=AmO2) sample, on the other hand, our 17O-NMR data provide the first microscopic evidence for a phase transition at 8.5 K as a bulk property in this system. A spectrum with a triangular line shape indicates that the internal field is distributed very nearly randomly in the ordered state.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
Results of our experimental investigation on the ozone zero phenomenon
suggested us the importance of the electrode surface condition. This means
that the main cause of the phenomenon, that is, temporal decrease of ozone
concentration at the outlet of DBD type ozone generator and the recovery
characteristics from the phenomenon are considered as the surface reaction
process, which are influenced strongly by the surface condition. The surface
condition is never constant during the ozone generation and varies gradually
or remarkably with time depending on the experimental conditions. Therefore
we have been continued to make clear the cause of the phenomenon, for
example, the reproducibility of the phenomenon, using new electrodes and
together with the surface analysis technique etc. In this paper, we describe
on the above results and discussion.
Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands ‘worm expulsion’, which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.
Cobalt hydroxide thin films with a thickness of 100 nm were deposited onto glass, Si and indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by reactively sputtering a Co target in H2O gas. The substrate temperature was varied from -20 to +200°C. The EC performance of the films was investigated in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the samples indicated that Co3O4 films were formed at substrate temperatures above 100°C, and amorphous CoOOH films were deposited in the range from 10 to -20°C. A large change in transmittance of approximately 26% and high EC coloration efficiency of 47 cm2/C were obtained at a wavelength of 600 nm for the CoOOH thin film deposited at -20°C. The good EC performance of the CoOOH films is attributed to the low film density and amorphous structure.
An experimental study is carried out to clarify the mechanism of the ozone zero phenomenon. Temporal variations of both the discharge characteristics and the metallic electrode surface in the ozone generator are investigated by the Lissajous figure method and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), respectively. The AES results suggest that a number of oxygen atoms penetrate into the stainless-steel electrode owing to the exposure to ozone. Such a surface change would result in the temporal variation of the discharge characteristics of the generator.
The poloidal eigenmode of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is studied in the limit of high safety factor. In this limit, the poloidal gyroradius cannot be treated as a perturbation or as an expansion parameter. Analytical expressions for the poloidal structure of the GAM potential, the radial wavenumber dependence of the frequency, the phase velocity, and the group velocity are obtained. The spatial structure of the poloidal eigenmode including the higher-order gyroradius effect is revealed theoretically.
A thin-amorphous MnOx layer using self-forming barrier process with a Cu-Mn alloy shows good adhesion and diffusion barrier properties between copper and dielectric layer, resulting in excellent reliability for stress and electromigration. Meanwhile, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be employed for conformal deposition of the barrier layer in narrow trenches and vias for future technology node. In our previous research, a thin and uniform amorphous MnOx layer could be formed on TEOS-oxide by thermal metal-organic CVD (MOCVD), showing a good diffusion barrier property. In addition, a good adhesion strength is necessary between a Cu line and a dielectric layer not only to ensure good SM and EM resistance but also to prevent film delamination under mechanical or thermal stress conditions during fabrication process such as chemical mechanical polishing or high temperature annealing. To date, no information is available with regard to the adhesion property of CVD-MnOx. In this work, we report diffusion barrier property in further detail and adhesion property in PVD-Cu/CVD-MnOx/SiO2/Si. The temperature dependence of the adhesion property is correlated with the chemical composition and valence state of Mn investigated with SIMS and Raman spectroscopy.
Substrates were p-type Si wafers having a plasma-TEOS oxide of 100nm in thickness. CVD was carried out in a deposition chamber. A manganese precursor was vaporized and introduced into the deposition chamber with H2 carrier gas. After the CVD, a Cu overlayer was deposited on some samples using a sputtering system in load lock chamber of the CVD machine. The diffusion barrier property of the MnOx film was investigated in annealed samples at 400 oC for 100 hours in a vacuum of better than 1.0×10-5 Pa. The Adhesion property of Mn oxide was investigated by Scotch tape test in the as-deposited and in the annealed Cu/CVD-MnOx/TEOS samples. The obtained samples were analyzed for thickness and microstructure with TEM, chemical bonding states of the MnOx layer with XPS, and composition of each layer with SIMS.
In the CVD deposition below 300 °C, no Cu delamination was observed both in the as-deposited and in the annealed Cu/CVD-MnOx/SiO2 samples. On the other hand, in the CVD deposition at 400 °C, the Cu films were delaminated from the CVD-MnOx/TEOS substrates. The XPS peak position of Mn 2p and Mn 3s spectra indicated that the valence state of Mn in the as-deposited barrier layer below 400 °C was 2+. Composition analysis with SIMS as well as Raman also indicated the presence of a larger amount of carbon at 400 °C than at less than 300 °C. The good adhesion between Cu and MnO could be attributed to an amount of carbon inclusion in the CVD barrier layer.
We examined the effect of supplementing the culture medium with follicular fluid (FF) on the growth of porcine preantral follicles and oocytes. Firstly, preantral follicles were retrieved from ovaries and then FF was collected from all antral follicles that were 2–7 mm in diameter (AFF), which included large follicles of 4–7 mm in diameter (LFF) and small follicles of 2–3 mm in diameter (SFF). When preantral follicles with a diameter of 250 μm were cultured in medium containing AFF, the growth of follicles and oocytes was greater than when follicles were cultured in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS). When this growth-promoting effect in AFF was compared for LFF and SFF, the LFF were shown to be significantly more effective than SFF. This LFF effect was lost, however, when the concentration of LFF in the medium was decreased from 5% to 0.5% or when LFF were heat treated (60 °C for 30 min) or trypsin was added. In contrast, a decrease in SFF concentration from 5% to 0.5% and heat treatment of the SFF enhanced preantral follicle growth. Furthermore, proteins obtained from LFF that had molecular weights greater than 10 kDa (LFF > 10 kDa) had similar, but relatively reduced, growth-promoting properties. The remaining three LFF protein fractions (<10 kDa or <100 kDa or >100 kDa), however, did not have these growth-promoting properties. In conclusion, the supplementation of medium with LFF, rather than serum, enhanced preantral follicle and oocyte growth. Factors that enhanced follicle development in LFF and factors that suppressed follicle development in SFF were proteins and these LFF factors ranged in size from 10 kDa to over 100 kDa.