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Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
We describe preliminary results from our study of multi-scale structures in Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained using the Chandra X-ray Observatory HRC-I observations. The high-angular resolution Chandra images reveal X-ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity. The region surrounding the Cen A nucleus, believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole, shows structures on arcsecond scales clearly resolved from the central source.
Commission 46 is dedicated to Teaching of Astronomy. Commission 46 can be seen as an
extension of the IAU Executive Committee in the sense that each adhering country has
appointed a national representative to the Commission. National Representatives maintain
liaison between the Commission and the home country, and write national triennial reports
on development of astronomy on their nations. Other IAU astronomers, with special interest in education, can become regular individual members of the Commission. Non-IAU
members can be invited by the Commission to serve for one triennial term. Commission
46 considers that one of its major duties is to contribute to enhance astronomy education
in developing countries. The Newsletter, the International School for Young Astronomers,
the Visiting Lecturer Program and the Travelling Telescope are examples of such activities administered by the Commission. The strength of Commission 46 comes from the hard
work that its members do in order to promote astronomy education worldwide.
There are three wide-field telescopes at the Bisei Spaceguard Center operated by the Japan Spaceguard Association. These telescopes are dedicated to detect near-earth asteroids and produce several tera-byte data per month. Since these data contain many main-belt asteroids, we will use them for an education program that will allow school pupils and the general public to find new main-belt asteroids. We are now developing a new software for its purpose.
A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 occurred in Japan in April 2011. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and trace-back investigation to determine the source of EHEC O111 infection and risk factors for severe complications. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to help define cases. A total of 86 individuals met the case definition. Of these, 40% experienced haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 24% acute encephalopathy, and 6% died. Illness was significantly associated with eating the raw beef dish yukhoe (odds ratio 19·64, 95% confidence interval 7·03–54·83), the likely food vehicle. EHEC O111 and its closely related stx-negative variants were found in the beef. HUS occurred most frequently in individuals aged 5–9 years, and this age group was significantly associated with acute encephalopathy. The prevalence of HUS and acute encephalopathy was higher than in previous non-O157-related outbreaks, indicating a high risk of severe complications.
Eimeria tenella is recognized worldwide as a significant pathogen in the poultry industry. However, a lack of methods for isolating developing schizonts has hindered the use of transcriptome analyses to discover novel and developmentally regulated genes. In the present study, we characterized the long-term successive development of E. tenella in infected chicken caeca and assessed the utility of laser microdissection (LMD) for the isolation of schizont RNA. Developmental stages, including those of the first, second, and third-generation schizonts and gametocytes, were synchronous. Using LMD, only the mature second-generation schizonts were successfully excised from the lamina propria, and non-degraded RNA was purified from the schizonts. E. tenella-specific genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results augment our understanding of the E. tenella life cycle, and reveal LMD as a potentially useful tool for gene expression analyses of the intracellular stages of E. tenella.
ZnS nanocrystals doped with Mn2+ ions are prepared by a solution process and subsequent UV irradiation to produce the samples with different S/(Zn+Mn) ratios and/or surface modification by acrylic acids. Coordination states around Mn2+, ions were examined at 9 and 35 GHz by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Mn2+ sites in the vicinity of 2- vacancies or carboxyl groups are observed at the frequencies more than 9 or 35 GHz, respectively, for nanocrystals, but are not for the bulk sample of 250 nm diameter. Such Mn2+ sites enhance the photoluminescence due to d-d transition of Mn2+ ions through energy transfer from S2- vacancies or carboxyl groups, excited simultaneously by a light of 350 nm for exciting ZnS.
Piezoresponse scanning force microscopy (PFM) was applied to study the nanoscale mechanism of retention loss in SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) thin films. Experiments were conducted by performing local polarization reversal within an individual grain with subsequent imaging of a resulting domain structure at different time intervals. The retention behavior of the films was studied as a function of switching conditions and electrode material. SFM was also used for nanoscale mapping of leakage current sites and investigation of electrical conduction mechanism at these sites. For the first time, the development of dielectric breakdown in SBT films was directly observed at nanoscale.
(BiLa)4Ti3O12 (BLT) films have been fabricated by the sol-gel technique and characterized. It is shown that the partially replacing Bi with La can promote the crystallization, hence can reduce the crystallization temperature of the film. It is also demonstrated that crystalline orientations of sol-gel derived ferroelectric BLT films can be controlled by the growth conditions.
The discrete variational Xα method was introduced to elucidate the possible factors of luminescence enhancement of ZnS:Mn modified by poly acrylic acid. The effective charge calculation of Mn indicated that the ionicity of Mn and its first neighbors increase when Mn atom is located at the surface site rather than in the bulk, in accordance with the signals observed from EPR measurements. The bond order between Mn and S increased by the stronger exchange interaction when Mn was oxidized by coordination of carboxyl group rather than by adsorption of OH or a SH group. The bond order between Mn and O is higher for the same situation, which may attribute to the energy transfer from poly acrylic acid to ZnS:Mn. As a consequence, the symmetry of the d orbital decreased, judging from the contour maps of the molecular orbital. This relaxed the forbidden d-d transition of Mn2+ and resulted in the enhanced photo luminescence.
Rock samples in the secondary ore deposit at Koongarra, Australia, were examined mineralogically to clarify the formation mechanism of saléeite (Mg(UO2)2(PO4)2.10H2O), a major secondary uranium mineral in the secondary ore deposit. Sklodowskite (MgSi2U2O11.7H2O) veinlets, present upstream of the ore deposit, are partially replaced by saléeite. Most grains of apatite (Ca5(P04)3F), an accessory mineral of the host rock, are also replaced by saléeite. Thermodynamic calculations by EQ3NR showed that the present Koongarra ground waters are undersaturated with respect to saléeite and also suggested that saléeite can be precipitated under the condition of higher U or P concentrations. Such conditions can be created at the reaction interfaces of dissolving sklodowskite, which releases U, or dissolving apatite, which releases P. The present study indicates that saléeite is formed by local microscale saturation upstream of the secondary ore deposit, which is different from the formation mechanism of saléeite downstream of the ore deposit, where saléeite microcrystals of 1 – 20 nm in size form by catalysis on iron minerals, the weathering products of the host rock.
Addition of methacrylic acid (MA) during preparation of ZnS doped with Mn2+ (ZnS:Mn) increased the photoluminescence (PL) due to 4T1-6A1 transition of Mn2+. According to X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, ion exchange between Zn2+ and Mn2+ through a preferential dissolution of Mn2+ was promoted by acidic additives. This caused that Mn ions were isolatedly incorporated into ZnS. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show that the intensity of S 2p3/2 peak due to S6+ increased relative to that of S2- by virtue of carboxylic groups. The intensities of PL peaks at 450 and 580 nm, corresponding to polymethacrylic acid and Mn2+, respectively, increased after heating at 80°C for 1 week. We conclude that MA plays important roles on selective leaching to increase the amount of isolated Mn2+ ions, chemical interaction between ZnS:Mn and MA and energy transfer to Mn2+, leading to the increase in PL intensity.
A sparingly soluble model drug, phenytoin (5,5-diphenyl-hydantoin, denoted as PT), was added during hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetra orthoethyl silicate (TEOS). The average size of the composite primary particles after in situ recrystallization of PT and gelation of silica was 2–3nm. The extent of hydrogen bond (HB) in PT was reduced after the complex formation (CF), while many PT molecules were attached by HB on the surface of silica gel. The apparent solubility to ethanol decreased to 29%∼18% by CF. The firstorder rate constant of dissolution of PT into H20 increased by CF up to 40 times. Addition of acrylamide also enhanced the dissolution rate. Mechanisms of faster dissolution were discussed in terms of the hydrogen bond reformation and microstructure.
A comprehensive study of transport properties and magnetism on β-MnO2 reveals the strong coupling between the conduction electrons and the localized spins which are supposed to form a magnetic helix below TN ∼ 92 K. We also show the direct evidences of the helical magnetism by means of the measurements of the anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility and the observation of x ray magnetic scatterings on a single crystal of β-MnO2. These results are consistent with proper-type helix model proposed by Yoshimori [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 14, p. 807 (1959)]. This model also qualitatively agrees with the anisotropy in magnetoresistance that appears below TN. The pitch of the magnetic helix is not commensurate to the lattice and it is slightly temperature dependent. The intensity of several Bragg peaks drastically changes at TN suggesting that the magnetic ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion.
The authors prepared a near-UV to red wavelength conversion thick film containing 38.8 wt% of YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanoparticles of 10.8 ± 1.6 nm in size. This nanoparticle film shows a high transparency in the visible region, e.g., the transmittance at 619 nm is ∼ 96% irrespective of the film thickness. The photoluminescence intensity at 619 nm corresponding to the f-f transition of Eu3+ for this nanoparticle film increases with increasing the film thickness up to 400 μm, whereas that of the film containing micron-sized particles reaches the maximum at the film thickness of ∼ 40 μm. On the other hand, YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanoparticles have a sufficient photostability for practical use over 15 years outside, as confirmed by the light fastness test. These results suggest that the transparent film of YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanoparticles are potentially applicable to the spectral convertor for photovoltaic cells from the aspects of low light-scattering loss and high photostability.
The scheelite-type LiEuW2O8 (LEW) nanoparticles of ∼50 nm in diameter were synthesized from lithium acetate, europium (III) acetate and phosphotungstic acid in 1,4-butylene glycol at 300°C for 2h by autoclave treatment. Post calcination treatment at 600°C for 2 h enhanced the photoluminescence at 465 nm due to the 4f - 4f transition excitation of Eu3+ by a factor of 24.4, and due to charge transfer (CT) excitation from either O2− or WO42− to Eu3+ by a factor of 5.8. Convergent beam electron diffractmetry and the compositional analysis revealed the non-stoichiometric structure of the scheelite-type LEW nanocrystals. Raman spectroscopy also detected the WO4 vibrational modes due to the tetragonal scheelite-type LEW. Solid-state 7Li single pulse excitation MAS NMR indicated the existence of at least three Li sites in the samples. We conclude that the following three factors are improved by calcination to increase the f-f transition probability of Eu3+: (i) a distribution of the Eu3+ – Eu3+ distance, (ii) the symmetry of Eu3+ polyhedra, (iii) the symmetry of tetrahedral WO4 units in the vicinity of Eu3+ polyhedra. Furthermore, oxygen is provided for non-stoichiometric LEW during calcination to enhance the CT probability.
This contribution illustrates the synthesis of nitrogen-containing hydrothermal carbon particles from a mixture of glucose, as carbon source, and different types of proteins, as nitrogen sources. Casein, ovalbumin, hemoglobin and gelatin were chosen here as model compounds. The particle size and the level of structural order could be tuned according to the protein type and the amount utilized.