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Many studies have been carried out to investigate the morphological structure of the syrinx in many bird species. However, the cellular organization of the syrinx in the fowls and pigeons is still unclear. The current study revealed that in fowl and pigeon, the syrinx is formed of three main parts including tympanum (cranial) part, intermediate syringeal part, and bronchosyringeal (caudal) part, in addition to pessulus and tympaniform membranes. A great variation in the structural characteristics of syrinx of fowl and pigeon was recorded. In fowl, the tympaniform membranes showed a characteristic distribution of elastic and collagen fibers which increase the elasticity of tympaniform membranes. Moreover, the bony pessulus helps the medial tympaniform membranes to be stiffer, vibrate more strongly so that louder sound will be generated. In pigeon, the lateral tympaniform membrane is of greater thickness so that the oscillation of this membrane is reduced and the amplitude is lower. Moreover, the pessulus is smaller in size and is formed mainly of connective tissue core (devoid of cartilaginous or bony plates), resulting in the failure of stretching and vibrating of the medial tympaniform membranes, that leads to the generation of deeper sound. Electron microscopic examination of the syringes of fowls and pigeons revealed numerous immune cells including dendritic cells, plasma cells, mast cells, and lymphocytes distributed within syringeal mucosa and invading the syringeal epithelium. Telocytes were first recorded in the syrinx of fowls and pigeons in this study. They presented two long telopodes that made up frequent close contacts with other neighboring telocytes, immune cells, and blood capillaries.
The area of dry-season rice (Oryza sativa L.) has rapidly increased in Cambodia owing to the large-scale development of irrigation infrastructure. But little is known of potential productivity and adaptive crop management. The objective of our study was to evaluate potential yield and nutrient requirements of dry-season rice in Cambodia, and the economic feasibility of soil-specific management recommended by the government. Field experiments were conducted on four soil types (Bakan, equivalent to Alfisol; Krakor, Inceptisol; Prateah Lang, Plinthustalfs; and Toul Samroung, Endoaqualfs) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 dry seasons to compare 14 (2016) and 8 (2017) N-P-K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 1.0 to 5.5 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.3 to 6.7 t ha−1 in 2017. Potential yield from the experiments was 6–7 t ha−1 on Toul Samroung soil, 5–6 t ha−1 on Bakan soil, and 3–5 t ha−1 on Prateah Lang and Krakor soils. A rate of 140-60-60 kg ha−1 of N-P2O5-K2O was more than enough to achieve the best yields on any soil group. On the other hand, modest application rates in soil-specific management (44–78 kg ha−1 of N, 23–28 kg ha−1 of P2O5, 0–30 kg ha−1 of K2O) proved reasonable for resource-poor farmers in Cambodia, since the treatment always provided >75 % of the highest economic profit in high-input plots.
Rice is widely grown in rainfed lowlands during the wet season in the Mekong region. Limited nutrient availability is a common constraint on crop yield, and the optimal rate of fertilizer application depends on the soil type. The objective of our study was to evaluate rice productivity and the economic feasibility of various nutrient management regimes in Cambodia. We conducted field experiments on three soil types (Prey Khmer, Prateah Lang, and Toul Samroung, equivalent to Psamments, Plinthustalfs, and Endoaqualfs, respectively) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 wet seasons to compare nine (2016) and seven (2017) N–P–K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 0.9 to 4.8 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.0 to 5.2 t ha−1 in 2017, depending on soil type and nutrient management. The Prey Khmer soil contained around 80% sand, and rice yield responded most weakly to nutrient management. The moderate fertilizer input in the current soil-specific recommendation was effective on this soil type. However, on more fertile soils with a higher clay content and a higher cation-exchange capacity (Toul Samroung and Prateah Lang), an additional 20 kg N ha−1 combined with adding 15 kg ha−1 of P2O5 or 20 kg ha−1 of K2O significantly increased yield and economic return. Although P and K use during Cambodia’s wet season is uncommon, our results demonstrate the importance of these nutrients in improving the country’s rice production.
The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk.
We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis.
This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months.
Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol).
Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.
An important prerequisite for the design, assessment and certification of aircraft and their associated control systems is a quantitative specification of the environment in which the aircraft is intended to operate, for example, atmospheric gust. Gust loads on aircraft may induce detrimental influences such as increased aerodynamic and structural loads, structural deformation and decreased flight dynamic performance. This paper presents a systematic and comprehensive overview of important concepts and applications of gust loads on aircraft. This overview includes a brief research background, concepts, research techniques, influences and load alleviation measures of gust. Finally, we summarise some potential improvements in the future work. It is also recommended to learn from previous experiences to avoid aviation accidents due to flight through atmospheric gusts and turbulence.
We describe an algorithm that can fit the properties of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of a tidal stream, given the properties of that stream. We show that under ideal conditions (the Milky Way potential, the orbit of the dwarf galaxy progenitor, and the functional form of the dwarf galaxy progenitor are known exactly), the density and angular width of stars along the stream can be used to constrain the mass and radial profile of both the stellar and dark matter components of the progenitor dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart to create the stream. Our provisional fit for the parameters of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of the Orphan Stream indicates that it is less massive and has fewer stars than previous works have indicated.
Animal’s feed efficiency in growing cattle (i.e. the animal ability to reach a market or adult BW with the least amount of feed intake), is a key factor in the beef cattle industry. Feeding systems have made huge progress to understand dietary factors influencing the average animal feed efficiency. However, there exists a considerable amount of animal-to-animal variation around the average feed efficiency observed in beef cattle reared in similar conditions, which is still far from being understood. This review aims to identify biological determinants and molecular pathways involved in the between-animal variation in feed efficiency with particular reference to growing beef cattle phenotyped for residual feed intake (RFI). Moreover, the review attempts to distinguish true potential determinants from those revealed through simple associations or indirectly linked to RFI through their association with feed intake. Most representative and studied biological processes which seem to be connected to feed efficiency were reviewed, such as feeding behaviour, digestion and methane production, rumen microbiome structure and functioning, energy metabolism at the whole body and cellular levels, protein turnover, hormone regulation and body composition. In addition, an overall molecular network analysis was conducted for unravelling networks and their linked functions involved in between-animal variation in feed efficiency. The results from this review suggest that feeding and digestive-related mechanisms could be associated with RFI mainly because they co-vary with feed intake. Although much more research is warranted, especially with high-forage diets, the role of feeding and digestive related mechanisms as true determinants of animal variability in feed efficiency could be minor. Concerning the metabolic-related mechanisms, despite the scarcity of studies using reference methods it seems that feed efficient animals have a significantly lower energy metabolic rate independent of the associated intake reduction. This lower heat production in feed efficient animals may result from a decreased protein turnover and a higher efficiency of ATP production in mitochondria, both mechanisms also identified in the molecular network analysis. In contrast, hormones and body composition could not be conclusively related to animal-to-animal variation in feed efficiency. The analysis of potential biological networks underlying RFI variations highlighted other significant pathways such as lipid metabolism and immunity and stress response. Finally, emerging knowledge suggests that metabolic functions underlying genetic variation in feed efficiency could be associated with other important traits in animal production. This emphasizes the relevance of understanding the biological basis of relevant animal traits to better define future balanced breeding programmes.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Little is known about the association of cortical Aβ with depression and anxiety among cognitively normal (CN) elderly persons.
We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota; involving CN persons aged ≥ 60 years that underwent PiB-PET scans and completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel. Participants were classified as having abnormal (≥1.4; PiB+) or normal PiB-PET (<1.4; PiB−) using a global cortical to cerebellar ratio. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex.
Of 1,038 CN participants (53.1% males), 379 were PiB+. Each one point symptom increase in the BDI (OR = 1.03; 1.00–1.06) and BAI (OR = 1.04; 1.01–1.08) was associated with increased odds of PiB-PET+. The number of participants with BDI > 13 (clinical depression) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET- group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.42; 0.83–2.43). Similarly, the number of participants with BAI > 10 (clinical anxiety) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET− group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.77; 0.97–3.22).
As expected, depression and anxiety levels were low in this community-dwelling sample, which likely reduced our statistical power. However, we observed an informative albeit weak association between increased BDI and BAI scores and elevated cortical amyloid deposition. This observation needs to be tested in a longitudinal cohort study.
To investigate the differential associations between sensory loss and neuropsychiatric symptoms among older adults with and without diagnosed neurocognitive disorder.
The sample comprised 1,393 adults (52.3% men) aged between 72 and 79 years from a community-based cohort study. There were 213 cases of mild and 64 cases of major neurocognitive disorders. The main outcome was number of informant reported symptoms on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Sensory loss was defined by visual acuity worse the 0.3 logMAR (6/12 or 20/40) and self-reported hearing problems.
Clinically relevant NPI symptoms were reported in 182 (13.1%) participants, but no individual symptom occurred in more than 5% of the total sample. Among participants diagnosed with a major neurocognitive disorder, those with any sensory loss had over three times (95%CI: 1.72–11.78) greater rates of NPI symptoms than those with unimpaired levels of sensory functioning. There were no differences in the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms by type of sensory loss, and no additional risk associated with a dual sensory loss compared to a single sensory loss. There was no evidence of an association between sensory loss and number of neuropsychiatric symptoms among cognitively healthy adults.
The extent to which this association is the result of underlying neuropathology, unmet need, or interpersonal factors is unclear. These findings have significant implications for dementia care settings, including hospitals and respite care, as patients with sensory loss are at increased risk of neuropsychiatric symptoms and may require additional psychosocial support. Interventions to manage sensory loss and reduce the impact of sensory limitations on neuropsychiatric symptoms are needed.
The use of ultrasound for assessing diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery may be under-utilised. This study aimed to evaluate the role of bedside ultrasound performed by an intensivist to diagnose diaphragmatic dysfunction and the need for plication after paediatric cardiac surgery.
We carried out a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected data of postoperative children admitted to the paediatric cardiac ICU during 2013. Diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected based on difficulties in weaning from positive pressure ventilation or chest X-ray findings. Ultrasound studies were performed by the paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist and confirmed by a qualified radiologist.
Out of 344 postoperative patients, 32 needed diaphragm ultrasound for suspected dysfunction. Ultrasound studies confirmed diaphragmatic dysfunction in 17/32 (53%) patients with an average age and weight of 10.8±3.8 months and 6±1 kg, respectively. The incidence rate of diaphragmatic dysfunction was 4.9% in relation to the whole population. Diaphragmatic plication was needed in 9/17 cases (53%), with a rate of 2.6% in postoperative cardiac children. The mean plication time was 15.1±1.3 days after surgery. All patients who underwent plication were under 4 months of age. After plication, they were discharged with mean paediatric cardiac ICU and hospital stay of 19±3.5 and 42±8 days, respectively.
Critical-care ultrasound assessment of diaphragmatic movement is a useful and practical bedside tool that can be performed by a trained paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist. It may help in the early detection and management of diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery through a decision-making algorithm that may have potential positive effects on morbidity and outcome.
The role of psychological factors in the development and maintenance of encopresis is controversial.
Assessment of the psychosocial profile of encopretic children and their caregivers in relation to parenting style compared to controls.
The current cross sectional study comprised 90 Egyptian children classified into three groups: group I (encopresis without constipation and overflow incontinence), group II (encopresis with constipation and overflow incontinence), and group III (clinically healthy controls); each group included 30 children. Thorough clinical evaluation and psychometric assessment were carried out for all enrolled children while caregivers were evaluated for their parenting styles, anxiety, depression, and introversion scores.
Hardness, undue blaming, and indecisive parenting styles were significantly more prevalent among caregivers of group I. Encopretic children of group I & II had poorer self-esteem and higher prevalence of clinically manifest depression compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a higher prevalence of clinically manifest paternal anxiety, depression, and introversion and maternal depression among caregivers of group II and higher prevalence of clinically manifest paternal anxiety and depression among fathers of group I.
The approach of toilet training, not the time of its initiation, seems to be the factor that really matters in predisposing to and perpetuating encopresis. Further exploration is needed to determine if the documented association of psychological disorders of enrolled encopretic children and their caregivers was causal or being just the impact of the child's encopresis.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The loss of estrogen during menopause causes changes in the female body, with wide-ranging effects on health. Estrogen-containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) leads to a relief of typical menopausal symptoms, benefits bone and muscle health, and is associated with tissue-specific gene expression profiles. As gene expression is controlled by epigenetic factors (including DNA methylation), many of which are environmentally sensitive, it is plausible that at least part of the HRT-associated gene expression is due to changes in DNA methylation profile. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of white blood cells (WBCs) and their associations with body composition, including muscle and bone measures of monozygotic (MZ) female twin pairs discordant for HRT. We identified 7,855 nominally significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with 4,044 genes. Of the genes with DMRs, five (ACBA1, CCL5, FASLG, PPP2R2B, and UHRF1) were also differentially expressed. All have been previously associated with HRT or estrogenic regulation, but not with HRT-associated DNA methylation. All five genes were associated with bone mineral content (BMC), and ABCA1, FASLG, and UHRF1 were also associated with body adiposity. Our study is the first to show that HRT associates with genome-wide DNA methylation alterations in WBCs. Moreover, we show that five differentially expressed genes with DMRs associate with clinical measures, including body fat percentage, lean body mass, bone mass, and blood lipids. Our results indicate that at least part of the known beneficial HRT effects on body composition and bone mass may be regulated by DNA methylation associated alterations in gene expression in circulating WBCs.
Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD).
In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression.
Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure.
We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.