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A new and an essential reference work for any international human rights law academic, student or practitioner, A Commentary on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights spans all substantive rights of the ICCPR, as approached from the perspective of the ICCPR as an interated, coherent scheme of rights protection. In detailed coverage of the Human Rights Committee's output when monitoring ICCPR compliance, Paul M. Taylor offers extraordinary access to 40 years of its concluding observations Views and General Comments organised thematically. This Commentary is a solid and practical introduction to any and all of the civil and political rights in the ICCPR, and a rare resource explaining the requirements for domestic implementation of ICCPR standards. An indispensable research tool for any serious enquirer into the subject, the Commentary speaks to the accomplishments of the ICCPR in striving for universal human rights standards.
This book is a comprehensive introduction to particle physics, bridging the gap between traditional textbooks on the subject and popular accounts that assume little background knowledge. This fourth edition is fully revised, including the most recent ideas and discoveries, and the latest avenues of research. The development of the subject is traced from the foundations of quantum mechanics and relativity, through the formulation of quantum field theories, to the standard model. Research now continues with the first signs of physics beyond the standard model and with the formulation of modern string theory which aims to include a quantum theory of gravity for the first time. This book is intended for anyone with a background in physical sciences who wishes to learn about particle physics. It is also valuable to students of physics wishing to gain an introductory overview of the subject.
At the intersection between statistical physics and rigorous econometric analysis, this powerful new framework sheds light on how innovation and competition shape the growth and decline of companies and industries. Analyzing various sources of data including a unique micro level database which collects historic data on the sales of more than 3,000 firms and 50,000 products in 20 countries, the authors introduce and test a model of innovation and proportional growth, which relies on minimal assumptions and accounts for the empirically observed regularities. Through a combination of extensive stochastic simulations and statistical tests, the authors investigate to which extent their simple assumptions are falsified by empirically observable facts.Physicists looking for application of their mathematical and modelling skills to relevant economic problems as well as economists interested in the explorative analysis of extensive data sets and in a physics-orientated way of thinking will find this book a key reference.
This greatly expanded third edition provides a comprehensive overview of clinical psychopharmacology, incorporating the major advances in the field since the previous edition's publication. Renowned experts from psychiatry, pharmacy, and nursing have integrated basic science, psychopharmacology, and clinical practice throughout the book in order to provide a thorough basis for prescribing. It covers all key psychiatric drugs and disorders and includes the latest data on efficacy, safety and tolerability. Adopting a pragmatic approach to drug nomenclature, both Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) and older generic terminology are included in the text reflecting that clinicians are likely to use both systems. Many chapters refer to current National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, making this a crucial resource. Edited by leading authorities in the field, Professor Peter M. Haddad and Professor David J. Nutt, Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology emphasises evidence-based prescribing with the aim of achieving better clinical outcomes for patients.
Furry and wide-eyed, lorises and pottos are small, nocturnal primates inhabiting African, Asian and Southeast Asian tropical and subtropical forests. Their likeable appearance, combined with their unusual adaptations – from a marked reduction of the tail to their mostly slow, deliberate locomotion, powerful grasping and, in some species, a venomous bite – has led to a significant rise in research interest in the family Lorisidae over the last decade. Furthermore, lorises in particular have featured frequently in international media largely due to illegal trade, for example as pets. This is the first volume to present a full picture of the breadth of research being undertaken on lorisids to aid future studies as well as conservation efforts. Focusing on five key topics: evolutionary biology, ecomorphology, behavioural ecology, captive management and conservation, this book is a vital read for graduate students and researchers in primatology, biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, animal behaviour and conservation.
Classrooms are dynamic spaces of teaching and learning, where language and culture are intertwined in remarkable ways. The theory of language socialization explores how sociocultural practices in classrooms help to shape language learning and development. This collection is the first of its kind to bring together research on this fascinating concept. It presents 10 case studies, based on linguistic and ethnographic research conducted in classrooms located within communities in North America, Europe and India, spanning learners from preschool, to primary and secondary school, to university. Following an introduction that discusses the theory and core concepts of language socialization, the volume is divided into three central themes: socializing values, dispositions, and stances; socializing identities; and language socialization and ideology. Both new and more experienced researchers will appreciate its new insights into how language socialization is carried out across the globe.
In this volume, Stephanie M. Langin-Hooper investigates the impact of Greek art on the miniature figure sculptures produced in Babylonia after the conquests of Alexander the Great. Figurines in Hellenistic Babylonia were used as agents of social change, by visually expressing and negotiating cultural differences. The scaled-down quality of figurines encouraged both visual and tactile engagement, enabling them to effectively work as non-threatening instruments of cultural blending. Reconstructing the embodied experience of miniaturization in detailed case studies, Langin-Hooper illuminates the dynamic process of combining Greek and Babylonian sculpture forms, social customs, and viewing habits into new, hybrid works of art. Her innovative focus on figurines as instruments of both personal encounter and global cultural shifts has important implications for the study of tiny objects in art history, anthropology, classics, and other disciplines.
Suitable for both senior-level and first-year graduate courses, this fully revised edition provides a unique and systematic treatment of engineering dynamics that covers Newton–Euler and Lagrangian approaches. New to this edition are: two completely revised chapters on the constraints on, and potential energies for, rigid bodies, and the dynamics of systems of particles and rigid bodies; clearer discussion on coordinate singularities and their relation to mass matrices and configuration manifolds; additional discussion of contravariant basis vectors and dual Euler basis vectors, as well as related works in robotics; improved coverage of navigation equations; inclusion of a 350-page solutions manual for instructors, available online; a fully updated reference list. Numerous structured examples, discussion of various applications, and exercises covering a wide range of topics are included throughout, and source code for exercises, and simulations of systems are available online.
Populism and authoritarian-populist parties have surged in the 21st century. In the United States, Donald Trump appears to have become the poster president for the surge. David Ricci, in this call to arms, thinks Trump is symptomatic of the changes that have caused a crisis among Americans – namely, mass economic and creative destruction: automation, outsourcing, deindustrialization, globalization, privatization, financialization, digitalization, and the rise of temporary jobs; all breeding resentment. Rather than dwelling on symptoms, Ricci focuses on the root of our nation's problems. Thus, creative destruction, aiming at perpetual economic growth, encouraged by neoliberalism, creates the economic inequality that fuels resentment and leads to increased populism. Ricci urges political scientists to highlight this destruction meaningfully and substantively; to use empirical realism to put human beings back into politics. Ricci's sensible argument conveys a sense of political urgency, grappling with real-world problems and working to transform abstract speculations into tangible, useful tools. The result is a passionate book, important not only to political scientists, but to anyone who cares about public life.
In a world where we have an endless number of options to swipe through, why do many of us repeatedly return to previous romantic partners? This book addresses this question by synthesizing the research on relationships that break up and renew (i.e. 'on-again, off-again' relationships) from various disciplines including communication, social psychology, family studies, and sociology. It explicates the various types and trajectories of on-again, off-again relationships, and uncovers how these relationships are different from those that do not split up and reconcile. Because on-again, off-again relationships challenge traditional notions of relationship stability and highlight the fluctuating nature of relationships, alternative conceptualizations of stability are also reviewed. This book is a theoretical and practical resource for researchers, students, and professionals interested in understanding why partners repeatedly reconcile with ex-partners.
Mathematical analysis is key to the modeling and management of natural resources. By presenting required mathematical methods, classic dynamic models for non-renewable and renewable resources, and by exploring several contemporary problems, this text provides a foundation for advanced research. Topics include seminal models in fishery, forestry and non-renewable resource management, as well as an extensive collection of contemporary applications that include the optimal transition from fossil fuels to clean energy, the optimal timing of interventions to save endangered species, pest control and the optimal management of antibiotic resistance. Deterministic and stochastic models in both discrete and continuous time are covered. The book encourages students to pursue a deeper understanding of the analytics of resource problems and to deploy numerical methods when analytical results prove intractable. The combination of analysis, theory and applications will launch the next generation of resource economists, while serving as a useful reference for established researchers.
This book presents the first systematic appreciation of Ovid's extensive influence on, and affinity with, modern visual culture. Some topics are directly related to Ovid; others exhibit features, characters, or themes analogous to those in his works. The book demonstrates the wide-ranging ramifications that Ovidian archetypes, especially from the Metamorphoses, have provoked in a modern artistic medium that did not exist in Ovid's time. It ranges from the earliest days of film history (Georges Méliès's discovery of screen metamorphosis) and theory (Gabriele D'Annunzio's fascination with the metamorphosis of Daphne; Sergei Eisenstein's concept of film sense) through silent films, classic sound films, commercial cinema, art-house and independent films to modernism and the C.G.I. era. Films by well-known directors, including Ingmar Bergman, Walerian Borowczyk, Jean Cocteau, Alfred Hitchcock, Stanley Kubrick, Fritz Lang, Max Ophüls, Alain Resnais, and various others, are analyzed in detail.
This volume presents the first systematic comparative analysis of national traditions of local democracy across the developed world, as well as their origins and evolution. It reveals how inclusive local institutions that integrate national and local governance make democracy work better. Across most of the developed world, early forms of the national state entrenched the local power of elites. In Anglo-American and Swiss democracies, state formation imposed enduring tensions with local civic governance. In contrast, inclusive, integrative local institutions in Northern Europe enabled close links with central government around common local and national agendas, producing better governance and fuller democracy to the present day. Through comparative analysis, the authors demonstrate how institutions for local governance and the participation of civil society differ widely among developed democracies, and how local democracy relates to national democracy. The resulting insights fundamentally recast our understanding of how to build and maintain more effective democracies.
Since the collapse of the housing market in 2008, demand for housing has consistently outpaced supply in many US communities. The failure to construct sufficient housing - especially affordable housing - in desirable communities and neighborhoods comes with significant social, economic, and environmental costs. This book examines how local participatory land use institutions amplify the power of entrenched interests and privileged homeowners. The book draws on sweeping data to examine the dominance of land use politics by 'neighborhood defenders' - individuals who oppose new housing projects far more strongly than their broader communities and who are likely to be privileged on a variety of dimensions. Neighborhood defenders participate disproportionately and take advantage of land use regulations to restrict the construction of multifamily housing. The result is diminished housing stock and higher housing costs, with participatory institutions perversely reproducing inequality.
When presidents take positions on pending Supreme Court cases or criticize the Court's decisions, they are susceptible to being attacked for acting as bullies and violating the norm of judicial independence. Why then do presidents target Supreme Court decisions in their public appeals? In this book, Paul M. Collins, Jr and Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha argue that presidents discuss the Court's decisions to demonstrate their responsiveness to important matters of public policy and to steer the implementation of the Court's decisions. Using data from Washington to Trump, they show that, far from being bullies, presidents discuss cases to promote their re-election, policy goals, and historical legacies, while attempting to affect the impact of Court decisions on the bureaucracy, Congress, the media, and the public.
Media, politicians, and the courts portray college campuses as divided over diversity and affirmative action. But what do students and faculty really think? This book uses a novel technique to elicit honest opinions from students and faculty and measure preferences for diversity in undergraduate admissions and faculty recruitment at seven major universities, breaking out attitudes by participants' race, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and political partisanship. Scholarly excellence is a top priority everywhere, but the authors show that when students consider individual candidates, they favor members of all traditionally underrepresented groups - by race, ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic background. Moreover, there is little evidence of polarization in the attitudes of different student groups. The book reveals that campus communities are less deeply divided than they are often portrayed to be; although affirmative action remains controversial in the abstract, there is broad support for prioritizing diversity in practice.
In this book, John Rist offers an account of the concept of “person” as it has developed in the West, and how it has become alien in a post-Christian culture. He begins by identifying the 'Mainline Tradition' about persons as it evolved from the time of Plato to the High Middle Ages, then turns to successive attacks on it in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, then proceeds to the 'Five Ways' in which the Tradition was savaged or distorted in the nineteenth century and beyond. He concludes by considering whether ideas from contemporary philosophical movements, those that combine a closer analysis of human nature with a more traditional metaphysical background may enable the Tradition to be restored. A timely book on a theme of universal significance, Rist ponders whether we persons matter, and how we have reached a position where we are not sure whether we do.
The vitality, or alternatively, vitiation, of the international arbitral process is a pressing subject today. The explosion of inter-State, investor-State, and international commercial arbitration attest to the huge expansion of the field in recent years. This second edition combines the historical analysis of the first edition in 1987 with a survey of contemporary developments on each of the three salient problems identified: (i) the severability of the arbitration agreement; (ii) denial of justice (and now other possible breaches of international law) by governmental negation of arbitration; and (iii) the authority of truncated international arbitral tribunals. The international arbitral process continues to be fortified against unilateral attempts to derail it, and this book will be an invaluable guide for today's practitioners and scholars alike.
A vivid social history of Baltimore's prostitution trade and its evolution throughout the nineteenth century, Bawdy City centers woman in a story of the relationship between sexuality, capitalism, and law. Beginning in the colonial period, prostitution was little more than a subsistence trade. However, by the 1840s, urban growth and changing patterns of household labor ushered in a booming brothel industry. The women who oversaw and labored within these brothels were economic agents surviving and thriving in an urban world hostile to their presence. With the rise of urban leisure industries and policing practices that spelled the end of sex establishments, the industry survived for only a few decades. Yet, even within this brief period, brothels and their residents altered the geographies, economy, and policies of Baltimore in profound ways. Hemphill's critical narrative of gender and labor shows how sexual commerce and debates over its regulation shaped an American city.