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The neutral beam (NB) fast ion confinement in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied for several full field (
) magnetic configurations by a combination of neutron measurement and simulations. To investigate the NB fast ion confinement, we have performed a series of short-pulse NB injection experiments. The experiment results are analysed by the integrated code TASK3D-a. From this investigation, the effective particle diffusion coefficients of the tangential and perpendicular NBs are approximately
in the standard configuration. It is clarified that the NB fast ion confinement improves when the plasmas are shifted inward. Moreover, it is also found that the simulation, which considers the deuteron dilution effect due to the presence of impurity ions, can describe a neutron emission rate consistent with the measurement.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 occurred in Japan in April 2011. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and trace-back investigation to determine the source of EHEC O111 infection and risk factors for severe complications. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to help define cases. A total of 86 individuals met the case definition. Of these, 40% experienced haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 24% acute encephalopathy, and 6% died. Illness was significantly associated with eating the raw beef dish yukhoe (odds ratio 19·64, 95% confidence interval 7·03–54·83), the likely food vehicle. EHEC O111 and its closely related stx-negative variants were found in the beef. HUS occurred most frequently in individuals aged 5–9 years, and this age group was significantly associated with acute encephalopathy. The prevalence of HUS and acute encephalopathy was higher than in previous non-O157-related outbreaks, indicating a high risk of severe complications.
Eimeria tenella is recognized worldwide as a significant pathogen in the poultry industry. However, a lack of methods for isolating developing schizonts has hindered the use of transcriptome analyses to discover novel and developmentally regulated genes. In the present study, we characterized the long-term successive development of E. tenella in infected chicken caeca and assessed the utility of laser microdissection (LMD) for the isolation of schizont RNA. Developmental stages, including those of the first, second, and third-generation schizonts and gametocytes, were synchronous. Using LMD, only the mature second-generation schizonts were successfully excised from the lamina propria, and non-degraded RNA was purified from the schizonts. E. tenella-specific genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results augment our understanding of the E. tenella life cycle, and reveal LMD as a potentially useful tool for gene expression analyses of the intracellular stages of E. tenella.
The authors prepared a near-UV to red wavelength conversion thick film containing 38.8 wt% of YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanoparticles of 10.8 ± 1.6 nm in size. This nanoparticle film shows a high transparency in the visible region, e.g., the transmittance at 619 nm is ∼ 96% irrespective of the film thickness. The photoluminescence intensity at 619 nm corresponding to the f-f transition of Eu3+ for this nanoparticle film increases with increasing the film thickness up to 400 μm, whereas that of the film containing micron-sized particles reaches the maximum at the film thickness of ∼ 40 μm. On the other hand, YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanoparticles have a sufficient photostability for practical use over 15 years outside, as confirmed by the light fastness test. These results suggest that the transparent film of YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanoparticles are potentially applicable to the spectral convertor for photovoltaic cells from the aspects of low light-scattering loss and high photostability.
This paper reports a reference X-ray powder diffraction pattern for a high-pressure phase, CaCo2O4, which has been reported recently to have a large Seebeck coefficient. The structure of CaCo2O4 is orthorhombic with space group Pnma, a=8.789(2) Å, b=2.9006(7) Å, c=10.282(3) Å, V=262.43 Å3, and Dc=5.62 g/cm3. This phase crystallizes in the CaFe2O4-type structure and consists of an edge- and corner-shared CoO6 octahedral network. The reference pattern has been submitted to the Powder Diffraction File (PDF).
Metal abundances of the hot X-ray emitting interstellar medium (ISM) include important information to understand the history of star formation and evolution of galaxies. The metals are mainly synthesized by Type Ia (SNe Ia) and stellar mass loss in elliptical galaxies. The productions of stellar mass loss reflect stellar metallicity. SNe Ia mainly product Fe. Therefore, the abundance pattern of ISM can play key role to investigate the metal enrichment history.
This contribution illustrates the synthesis of nitrogen-containing hydrothermal carbon particles from a mixture of glucose, as carbon source, and different types of proteins, as nitrogen sources. Casein, ovalbumin, hemoglobin and gelatin were chosen here as model compounds. The particle size and the level of structural order could be tuned according to the protein type and the amount utilized.
Rice straw is among the most abundant herbaceous biomass, and regarded as the central feedstock for bioethanol production in Japan. We found that significant amounts of soft carbohydrates (SCs), defined as carbohydrates readily recoverable by mere extraction from the biomass or brief enzymatic saccharification, exist in rice straw in the form of free glucose, free fructose, sucrose, starch, and β-1,3-1,4-glucan. Based on the finding, we proposed a simple method for bioethanol production from rice straw samples with SCs, by a heat treatment for sterilization and starch gelatinization, followed by simultaneous saccharification/fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method would offer an efficient process for bioethanol production without the aid of harsh thermo/chemical pretreatment step.
The salt damage such as the snow melting salts in winter or the sea salt particle flying in the coast region has significant effect on the corrosive environment of the automobile. Moreover, the corrosive environment of the automobile become more severe by the wet/dry cyclic condition, for example, a car gets wet with the splash water and dryness by the thermal loading while driving. On the other hand, the further application of the high strength stainless steel to the automobile parts is expected because it can contribute durability and lightening. Then, it is important to clarify the corrosion characteristic of this material under the salt damage environment.
In this study cold rolled type304 stainless steel pipe with shot peening were used to investigate the corrosion property of high strength type304 stainless steel for automotive applications in a salt damage environment. The hardness of the pipe was about HV450, and a clear difference was not admitted in the thickness direction. A crevice was created between the outside of the pipe and an O-ring, and the pipe was applied stress by press fitting of another part. The corrosion property of the sample was evaluated in an automotive field test in Okinawa. Cracking from a corrosion pit was observed in the crevice. The Electron Prove Micro Analysis（EPMA） indicated that pitting corrosion was caused by chloride (from sea salt) concentrated in the crevice. The crack occurred in the residual compressive stress layer created by shot peening. In this regard, it was confirmed by the XRD analysis that about 85% of the metallographic structure had been transformed into the martensite. And the observation of the metallographic structure by the Electron Back Scatter Diffraction（EBSD） clarified the crystal grain was greatly transformed by the strong processing. It means that the accumulation of strain occurred. These two factors are considered to raise the receptivity to the crack generation of this sample.
A crack generated at a corrosion pit was reproduced in a wet/dry cyclic corrosion test after one flash of artificial seawater. To investigate the crack generating mechanism, a corrosion pit was previously generated on the sample by cyclic corrosion test, after which a cathodic charge test in artificial sea water was done. Similar cracking from a corrosion pit was observed on the sample after this test. Therefore, the cracking is presumed to be Hydrogen Embrittlement-Stress Corrosion Cracking（HE-SCC）
Worldwide attention has now focused on bioethanol production to combat global warming and to safeguard global energy. Lignocelluloses are expected to be utilized in future as fuel ethanol production because of competition between food and fuel production. One of the major problems in producing ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is high production cost and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is gaining recognition as a potential breakthrough for low-cost biomass processing. Basidiomycetes appear suitable for use in CBP because they can achieve the both events of lignocellulose breakdown and ethanol fermentation. We are developing CBP bioethanol production by using Flammulina velutipes from sorghums. It turns out the relationship between varietal characteristics of sorghums and ethanol conversion properties of F. velutipes, and the direction should be performed in the future became clear.
In-situ observation on the catalytic effect of Nb2O5 in MgH2 was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We prepared two kinds of samples, because we tried to observe the reaction from two kinds of viewpoints. MgH2 catalyzed with 1 mol% of Nb2O5 was prepared for an overall viewpoint on the desorption process of MgH2 with catalyst by conventional TEM. The dehydrogenation of the 1 mol% sample started at 150 °C and Mg nano-size particles were formed. However, Nb2O5 was not confirmed in diffraction patterns and images, because it was highly dispersed by ball-milled. So MgH2 catalyzed with 10 mol% of Nb2O5 was prepared for local viewpoint to focus the boundary between the catalyst and the Mg phase by high voltage electron micro scope (HVEM). The sample mixed in mortar was prepared for this, because it was difficult to find the boundary in the sample ball-milled. The high resolution images of the 10 mol% sample revealed that the dehydrogenation started from the interface of MgH2 and Nb2O5. The result suggested that the dehydrogenation could proceed with hydrogen diffusion from MgH2 phase to the interface between Mg and Nb2O5.
In this research, cellulose micro-crystals (CMC) were used to reinforce a bio-polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL). Mechanical properties were tested using nanoindentation. Electron microscopy imaging and a new technique called x-ray ultra microscopy and microtomography (XuM) were used to investigate the distribution of the filler in the matrix. We could demonstrate a clear correlation between the spatial distribution of CMC-PCL composites and their nanomechanical properties.
This work is devoted to a study of the conformational properties of alanine dipeptide. We have studied potential energy surfaces of alanine dipeptide molecule using density functional theoretical approach with 6-311G basis set. For this purpose potential energies of this molecule are calculated as a function of Ramachandran angles φ and ψ, which are important factors for the characterizations of polypeptide chains. These degrees of freedoms φ and ψ are important for the characterization of protein folding systems. Stable conformations, energy barriers and reaction coordinates of this important dipeptide molecule are calculated. Energy required for the transition of one conformation into other are also discussed.
The comparison between bentonite-alginate beads and bentonite-alginate films in Cd(II) removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The experimental Cd(II) adsorption data were fitted to adsorption isotherm and kinetic models. Results showed that both bentonite-alginate film and beads were fitted better to the Langmuir isotherm model, the calculated saturation adsorption capacity for bentonite-alginate film was 59.9 mg/g as compared to 17.9 mg/g for the beads. The kinetic studies indicated that both samples followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The bentonite- alginate film showed higher adsorption capacity, rate constant as well as initial adsorption rate. This investigation showed that the adsorption behavior of both samples, in terms of adsorption isotherm and kinetic models, did not deviate significantly. The bentonite-alginate film has better performance in Cd(II) removal, attributed to the larger surface area which is exposed to the Cd(II) solution.
In the past work of authors, a cold rolled type304 stainless steel pipe with shot peening was prepared. A crevice was created between the outside of the pipe and an O-ring, and the pipe was applied stress by press fitting another part. Cracking from a crevice corrosion pit was observed in a chloride environment, and it was presumed to be Hydrogen Embrittlement-Stress Corrosion Cracking（HE-SCC）. Provided that the crack is caused by HE-SCC､it is thought that hydrogen is generated by corrosion reaction and the SUS304 pipe absorbs it more than its critical level. Generally, the hydrogen distribution in the steel is analyzed in the condition that the hydrogen concentration of the environment is constant as the high-pressure hydrogen gas environment etc. In the case of HE-SCC described above, however, the hydrogen concentration is presumed to change with pitting growth, and there is no example of analysis in such condition.
In this work, cyclic corrosion tests were conducted using the samples with no press-fitting part. The hydrogen density at the initiation point of crevice corrosion and cracking was estimated by following technique. First, the amount of hydrogen diffused from the corrosion pit was measured using Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy（TDS ）, and the number of pits was measured. Then, the average hydrogen quantity in a pit was derived.
On the other hand, it is thought that hydrogen is generated by the hydrolysis of a metallic salt and the cathode reaction of the hydrogen ion in the pit. Therefore, the amount of the hydrogen is proportional to the quantity of corrosion amount. Then, assuming that pitting corrosion takes the form of half sphere shape and grows with time, the simulation model was made that the hydrogen absorbed and diffused from the pit surface with the development of corrosion. The profile of the hydrogen density in SUS304 from pit initiation till crack initiation was calculated based on this model. The calculated profile of the hydrogen density was compared with the amount of hydrogen measured by cyclic corrosion test. As a result, the hydrogen concentration at the crack starting point was derived 0.3ppm. At this density level, He-SCC can occur in high strength SUS304.