To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. protozoa. Although these parasites have been extensively studied in North America and Eurasia, knowledge on the diversity of Plasmodium, its vectors and avian hosts in Africa is scarce. In this study, we report on natural malarial infections in free-ranging sparrows (Passer domesticus) sampled at Giza Governorate, Egypt. Parasites were morphologically characterized as Plasmodium cathemerium based on the examination of thin blood smears from the avian host. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed that the parasite corresponded to lineage PADOM02. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this parasite is closely related to the lineages SERAU01 and PADOM09, both of which are attributed to P. cathemerium. Experimental infection of Culex pipiens complex was successful, with ookinetes first detected at 1-day post infection (dpi), oocysts at 4 dpi and sporozoites at 6 dpi. The massive infection of the salivary glands by sporozoites corroborates that Cx. pipiens complex is a competent vector of PADOM02. Our findings confirm that Plasmodium lineage PADOM02 infects sparrows in urban areas along the Nile River, Egypt, and corroborate that Cx. pipiens complex is a highly competent vector for these parasites. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that this lineage corresponds to the morphospecies P. cathemerium and not P. relictum as previously believed.
Depression is a global public health problem with highest rates in women in low income countries including Pakistan. Paediatricians may be a resource to help with maternal depression. Little is known in low income countries about the prevalence of depression and its social correlates in mothers of children attending paediatric clinics.
Using cross-sectional design consecutive women attending the paediatric clinic were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (n=185). Women scoring 12 or more (n=70) and a random sample of low scorers (n=16) were interviewed using the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) to confirm the diagnosis of depression, the Oslo scale was used to measure social stress and EQ-5D for health related quality of life.
The prevalence of maternal depression was 51%. The mean age of the sample was 26 years. Depressed mothers were more likely to be living in a joint family household, they were less educated and they and their husbands were less likely to be employed. The depressed mothers had more financial difficulties and they were more likely to sleep hungry during the last month due to financial problems. The depressed mothers had less social support and poorer quality of life compared to non depressed mothers.
Maternal depression in this health care setting is high and it is associated with social stress and poor social support. Paediatric appointments may be an opportunity for care and care delivery for maternal depression.
Studies have shown higher rate of various psychiatric disorders among individuals with substance abuse / dependence. There is little data in developing countries, such as Pakistan, on prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in this population and impact on treatment.
To assess the psychiatric co-morbidity among individuals with substance dependence and to determine its demographic associations in patients with substance dependence in Pakistan.
This was a descriptive study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Participants were 588 individuals with substance dependence admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan, mainly in male inpatient substance dependence unit. The patients were assessed for psychiatric co-morbidity using DSM IV criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The study was approved by the Institutional Research Committee. The results were obtained by using chi square test on SPSS 17.
Out of 588, 200 patients (34%) were found co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders along with substance dependence. Reason of first substance use and history of previous substance dependence were observed to be significantly associated with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, x2 (48, n = 549) = 112.396, p < 0.01 and x2 (18, n = 588) = 29.66, p = 0.041 respectively.
1. There was high rate of psychiatric co-morbidity among individuals with substance dependence in this sample.
2. Depression, personality disorders and anxiety disorders were the major co-morbid diagnosis among this population.
The relationship between feed intake at production levels and enteric CH4 production in ruminants consuming forage-based diets is well described and considered to be strongly linear. Unlike temperate grazing systems, the intake of ruminants in rain-fed tropical systems is typically below maintenance requirements for part of the year (dry seasons). The relationship between CH4 production and feed intake in animals fed well below maintenance is unexplored, but changes in key digestive parameters in animals fed at low levels suggest that this relationship may be altered. We conducted a study using Boran yearling steers (n 12; live weight: 162·3 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of moderate to severe undernutrition on apparent digestibility, rumen turnover and enteric CH4 production of cattle consuming a tropical forage diet. We concluded that while production of CH4 decreased (1133·3–65·0 g CH4/d; P < 0·0001), over the range of feeding from about 1·0 to 0·4 maintenance energy requirement, both CH4 yield (29·0−31·2 g CH4/kg DM intake; P < 0·001) and CH4 conversion factor (Ym 9·1–10·1 MJ CH4/MJ gross energy intake; P < 0·01) increased as intake fell and postulate that this may be attributable to changes in nutrient partitioning. We suggest there is a case for revising emission factors of ruminants where there are seasonal nutritional deficits and both environmental and financial benefits for improved feeding of animals under nutritional stress.
The personality disorders are defined according to the DSM-5 like “an enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's cultures. These patterns develop in adolescence and the beginning of adulthood, and are associated with significant distress or disability”. The personality disorders can be a risk factor for different processes of the psychiatric pathology like suicide. The personality disorders are classified in 3 groups according to the DSM-5:
– cluster A (strange subjects): paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal;
– cluster B (immature subjects): antisocial, bordeline, histrionic and narcissistic;
– cluster C (frightened subjects): avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive.
To describe the influence of personality disorders in suicide attempts.
Exhibition of clinical cases.
In this case report, we exhibit three clinical cases of suicide attempts which correspond to a type of personality disorder belonging to each of the three big groups of the DSM-5 classification, specifically the paranoid disorder of the cluster A, the disorder borderline of cluster B and the obsessive compulsive of cluster C.
The personality disorders have a clear relation with the suicide attempts, increasing this influence in some of them, especially the borderline personality disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychiatric patients tend to have severe metabolic alterations of multifactorial causes, lifestyle, diet, drug use and psychopharmacological treatment, especially antipsychotic drugs which act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, strokes, infections and complications of diseases basal negatively influencing its evolution and prognosis.
Rating the profile lipid and the prevalence of obesity in patients registered as disorder mental severe in treatment with antipsychotics.
A descriptive study was performed taking as variables to take into account levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, weight and size.
Of the 28 patients included in the study 7 refused to perform the corresponding measurements. Of the 21 remaining, 3 showed values higher than 150 mg/dl triglycerides and cholesterol figures higher than 200 mg/dl. Other 3 patients presented hypercholesterolemia without alteration of triglycerides and 2 hypertriglyceridemia without elevation of the cholesterol. Concerning the IMC, found that 7 patients presented overweight (BMI > 25 and < 30) and 5 patients obesity (BMI > 30). Of the 8 patients with lipid disorders, 2 had prescribed treatment with risperidone (oral or injectable) more quetiapine, 2 oral risperidone as monotherapy, risperidone1 more amisulpride, 1 quetiapine more aripiprazole, quetiapine 1 in monotherapyand 1 injection invega more oxcarbamacepina.
We found lipid alterations in a 38.1% of patients and a BMI greater than 25 in a 57.14% of 21 patients who agreed to the study. The most prescribed antipsychoticamong these patients were risperidone (5 patients) followed closely by quetiapine (4 patients).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Interest in neurofeedback therapies (NFTs) has grown exponentially in recent years, encouraged both by escalating public interest and the financial support of health care funding agencies. Given NFTs’ growing prevalence and anecdotally reported success in treating common effects of acquired brain injury (ABI), a systematic review of the efficacy of NFTs for the rehabilitation of ABI-related cognitive impairment is warranted.
Eligible studies included adult samples (18+ years) with ABI, the use of neurofeedback technology for therapeutic purposes (as opposed to assessment), the inclusion of a meaningful control group/condition, and clear cognitive–neuropsychological outcomes. Initial automated search identified n = 86 candidate articles, however, only n = 4 studies met the stated eligibility criteria.
Results were inconsistent across studies and cognitive domains. Methodological and theoretical limitations precluded robust and coherent conclusions with respect to the cognitive rehabilitative properties of NFTs. We take the results of these systematic analyses as a reflection of the state of the literature at this time. These results offer a constructive platform to further discuss a number of methodological, theoretical, and ethical considerations relating to current and future NFT–ABI research and clinical intervention.
Given the limited quantity and quality of the available research, there appears to be insufficient evidence to comment on the efficacy of NFTs within an ABI rehabilitation context at this time. It is imperative that future work increase the level of theoretical and methodological rigour if meaningful advancements are to be made understanding and evaluating NFT–ABI applications.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
Blood eosinophil count is associated with a variety of common complex outcomes in epidemiological observation. The aim of this study was to explore the causal association between determined blood eosinophil count and 20 common complex outcomes (10 metabolic, 6 cardiac, and 4 pulmonary). Through Mendelian randomization, we investigated genetic evidence for the genetically determined eosinophil in association with each outcomes using individual-level LifeLines cohort data (n = 13,301), where a weighted eosinophil genetic risk score comprising five eosinophil associated variants was created. We further examined the associations of the genetically determined eosinophil with those outcomes using summary statistics obtained from genome-wide association study consortia (6 consortia and 14 outcomes). Blood eosinophil count, by a 1-SD genetically increased, was not statistically associated with common complex outcomes in the LifeLines. Using the summary statistics, we showed that a higher genetically determined eosinophil count had a significant association with lower odds of obesity (odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.74, 0.89]) but not with the other traits and diseases. To conclude, an elevated eosinophil count is unlikely to be causally associated to higher risk of metabolic, cardiac, and pulmonary outcomes. Further studies with a stronger genetic risk score for eosinophil count may support these results.
Inflammation confounds the interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers resulting in estimates that may not reflect the true burden of deficiency. We aimed to assess and compare the micronutrient status of a cohort of Indonesian infants (n 230) at aged 6, 9 and 12 months by ignoring inflammation (unadjusted) and adjusting four micronutrient biomarkers for inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) using the following methods: (1) arithmetic correction factors with the use of a four-stage inflammation model; and (2) regression modelling. Prevalence of infants with any inflammation (CRP>5 mg/l and/or AGP>1 g/l) was about 25% at each age. Compared with unadjusted values, regression adjustment at 6, 9 and 12 months generated the lowest (P<0·001) geometric mean (GM) for serum ferritin (26·5, 14·7, 10·8 μg/l) and the highest GM for serum retinol-binding protein (0·95, 1·00, 1·01 μmol/l) and Zn (11·8, 11·0, 11·5 μmol/l). As a consequence, at 6, 9 and 12 months regression adjustment yielded the highest prevalence of Fe deficiency (20·3, 37·8, 59·5 %) and the lowest prevalence of vitamin A (26·4,16·6, 17·3 %) and Zn (16·9, 20·6, 11·0 %) deficiency, respectively. For serum Se, irrespective of adjustment, GM were low (regression: 0·73, 0·78, 0·81 μmol/l) with prevalence of deficiency >50 % across all ages. In conclusion, without inflammation adjustment, Fe deficiency was grossly under-estimated and vitamin A and Zn deficiency over-estimated, highlighting the importance of correcting for the influence of such, before implementing programmes to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. However, further work is needed to validate the proposed approaches with a particular focus on assessing the influence of varying degrees of inflammation (i.e. recurrent acute infections and low-grade chronic inflammation) on each affected nutrient biomarker.
Habrobracon hebetor (Say) is a parasitoid of various Lepidoptera including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), a key pest of different crops and vegetables. The development of both H. armigera and H. hebetor were simultaneously evaluated against a wide range of constant temperatures (10, 15, 17.5, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 35, 37.5 and 40 °C). Helicoverpa armigera completed its development from egg to adult within a temperature range of 17.5–37.5 °C and H. hebetor completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 15–40 °C. Based on the Ikemoto and Takai model the developmental threshold (To) and thermal constant (K) to complete the immature stages, of H. armigera were calculated as 11.6 °C and 513.6 DD, respectively, and 13 °C and 148 DD, respectively, for H. hebetor. Analytis/Briere-2 and Analytis/Briere-1 were adjudged the best non-linear models for prediction of phenology of H. armigera and H. hebetor, respectively and enabled estimation of the optimum (Topt) and maximum temperature (Tmax) for development with values of 34.8, 38.7, 36.3, and 43 °C for host and the parasitoid, respectively. Parasitisation by H. hebetor was maximal at 25 °C but occurred even at 40 °C. This study suggests although high temperature is limiting to insects, our estimates of the upper thermal limits for both species are higher than previously estimated. Some biological control of H. armigera by H. hebetor may persist in tropical areas, even with increasing temperatures due to climate change.
The Eastern Gangetic Plain is among the world's most intensively farmed regions, where rainfed and irrigated agriculture coexist. While the region and especially Bangladesh is a major producer of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), there is potential to further develop sustainable rice production systems. Specifically, there is scope to include a replacement crop for the short fallow between rice crops in the dominant cropping pattern of rainfed monsoon rice harvest followed by irrigated spring rice. The aim of the current research was to identify a suitable cool-season legume crop – pea (Pisum sativum L.) or lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris) – that could be grown in the brief period between rice crops. The study comprised four crop sequence experiments comparing legume cultivars differing in maturity grown in between both long and short duration rice cultivars. These experiments were done at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute regional station at Rajshahi over three cropping cycles. This was followed by an evaluation of pea vs. fallow between rice crops on three farmers’ fields in one cropping cycle. Here it is demonstrated that green pod vegetable pea is one of the best options to intensify the rainfed monsoon rice–fallow–spring irrigated rice cropping system, notwithstanding other remunerative rabi cropping options that could displace boro rice. The inclusion of an extra crop, pea as green pod vegetable, increased farm productivity by 1·4-fold over the dominant cropping sequence (rice–fallow–rice) and farm net income by fourfold. The study highlighted the advantages in total system productivity and monetary return of crop intensification with the inclusion of a pea crop between successive rice crops instead of a fallow period.
Dengue fever is an arthropod-borne viral infection that has become endemic in several parts of India including Delhi. We studied occurrence of co-infection with dengue viruses during an outbreak in New Delhi, India in 2014. For the present study, blood samples collected from symptomatic patients were analysed by RT–PCR. Eighty percent of the samples were positive for dengue virus. The result showed that DENV-1 (77%) was the predominant serotype followed by DENV-2 (60%). Concurrent infection with more than one serotype was identified in 43% of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis clustered DENV-1 strains with the American African and DENV-2 strains in Cosmopolitan genotypes. Four common amino-acid mutations were identified in the envelope gene of DENV-1 sequences (F337I, A369T, V380I and L402F) and one common mutation (N390S) in the DENV-2 sequences. Further analysis revealed purifying selection in both the serotypes. A significant number of patients were co-infected with DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes. Although we do not have direct evidence to demonstrate co-evolution of these two stereotypes, nonetheless their simultaneous occurrence does indicate that they are favoured by evolutionary forces. An ongoing surveillance and careful analysis of future outbreaks will strengthen the concept of co-evolution or otherwise. Whether the concurrent dengue viral infection is correlated with disease severity in a given population is another aspect to be pursued. This study is envisaged to be useful for future reference in the context of overall epidemiology.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
This paper concerns with the unsteady MHD flow of a second grade fluid between two parallel walls through porous media induced by rectified sine pulses shear stress. The analytical expressions for the velocity field and the adequate shear stress are determined by means of the Laplace transform technique and Fourier cosine and sine transforms and are written as a sum of steady state and transient solutions. The influence of side walls on the fluid motion, the distance between walls for which the velocity of the fluid in the middle of the channel is negligible, and the required time to reach the steady state are presented by graphical illustrations. As the second grade fluid parameter → 0 the problem reduces to the Newtonian fluids performing the same motion.
The cropping systems of the Eastern Gangetic Plains of Bangladesh, India and Nepal are based on rice. There is a scope to intensify such systems through diversification with lentil, the most popular food legume. Two strategies were evaluated to fit lentil into the short fallow between successive monsoonal (i.e., T. aman) and pre-monsoonal (aus) or irrigated rice (boro) crop. These were early-flowering sole-cropped lentil and relay-sown lentil into rice. Firstly, 18 early-flowering lentil lines at three contrasting sowing dates were tested over two seasons on a research station at Ishurdi in Bangladesh. Secondly, relay sowing was evaluated at the same location with six early-flowering lines and two control cultivars in two seasons. It was also assessed on ten farms in Western Bangladesh, comparing relay with sole cropping over 3 years. Flowering in the early-flowering lentil lines was consistently 9–17 days earlier, than the control cultivars, but they did not achieve an economic yield (<1·0 t/ha). Relay sowing with an existing cultivar produced an economic yield of lentil, which was comparable or higher than sole-cropped lentil in all situations. The relay-sown lentil matured in sufficient time to allow the land to be prepared for the succeeding rain-fed rice crop. It was concluded that the substitution of relay-sown lentil for fallow in the monsoonal rice–fallow–rain-fed rice cropping pattern is a useful option to intensify and diversify cropping in the Eastern Gangetic Plain.
The addition of a CdMgTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should improve its performance by reflecting both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cell’s current, and reduction of forward current will increase its voltage. To achieve electron reflection, conformal CMT layers were deposited at the back of CdTe cells, and a variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were performed. Oxidation of magnesium in the CMT layer was addressed by adding a CdTe capping layer. MgCl2 passivation was substituted for CdCl2 in some cases, but little difference was seen.
Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is a fatal disease of broiler chickens causing high mortality and heavy economic losses in various countries. More than 100 million birds have been affected by this destructive disease in less than two years worldwide. As it is a viral disease, the only solution is to vaccinate chickens. Different types of vaccines are being used against this disease in different areas of the world. Liver organ inactivated vaccines are more extensively used to control the disease initially. These vaccines have many drawbacks regarding their dose, un-predictable immune response and secondary bacterial infections. Following this, oil adjuvant vaccine was used to control the disease, however the handling stress and the formation of granuloma at the site of injection remains a problem. Consequently there is a need for cell culture adapted and attenuated vaccines, which can be administered through oral routes. A chicken embryo-adapted inactivated vaccine has shown good results but requires a continuous supply of specific, pathogen-free chicken embryos and a continuous life killing process. The continuous cell lines are a more promising solution for the production of cell culture-adapted and attenuated vaccines, which are safer, more economical and easy to administer. The following review discusses the development of modern HPS vaccines.