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Accurate and reproducible patient positioning is a critical step in radiotherapy for breast cancer. This has seen the use of permanent skin markings becoming standard practice in many centres. Permanent skin markings may have a negative impact on long-term cosmetic outcome, which may in turn, have psychological implications in terms of body image. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a semi-permanent tattooing device for the administration of skin marks for breast radiotherapy set-up.
Materials and methods
This was designed as a phase II double-blinded randomised-controlled study comparing our standard permanent tattoos with the Precision Plus Micropigmentation (PPMS) device method. Patients referred for radical breast radiotherapy were eligible for the study. Each study participant had three marks applied using a randomised combination of the standard permanent and PPMS methods and was blinded to the type of each mark. Follow up was at routine appointments until 24 months post radiotherapy. Participants and a blind assessor were invited to score the visibility of each tattoo at each follow-up using a Visual Analogue Scale. Tattoo scores at each time point and change in tattoo scores at 24 months were analysed by a general linear model using the patient as a fixed effect and the type of tattoo (standard or research) as covariate. A simple questionnaire was used to assess radiographer feedback on using the PPMS.
In total, 60 patients were recruited to the study, of which 55 were available for follow-up at 24 months. Semi-permanent tattoos were more visible at 24 months than the permanent tattoos. Semi-permanent tattoos demonstrated a greater degree of fade than the permanent tattoos at 24 months (final time point) post completion of radiotherapy. This was not statistically significant, although it was more apparent for the patient scores (p=0·071) than the blind assessor scores (p=0·27). No semi-permanent tattoos required re-marking before the end of radiotherapy and no adverse skin reactions were observed.
The PPMS presents a safe and feasible alternative to our permanent tattooing method. An extended period of follow-up is required to fully assess the extent of semi-permanent tattoo fade.
In this paper the thermoelectric properties–the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity and the power factor – of GaN and InGaN thin films grown by Metal Organic Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The Seebeck coefficient and power factor of InGaN decreases with increasing indium content, although the electrical conductivity shows an inverse behavior. P-type doped samples demonstrated the highest Seebeck coefficient (637 μV/K in GaN:Mg, 1200 μV/K in InGaN:Mg) but the lowest power factor (0.1x10-4 W/m-K for GaN:Mg, 0.4x10-4 W/m-K for InGaN:Mg). The Seebeck coefficient of the doped GaN thin films decreased linearly with log of the carrier concentration. GaN:Si exhibited a maximum power factor of 9.1x10-4 W/m-K with a carrier concentration of 1.6x1018 cm-3, and In0.1Ga0.9N exhibited a maximum power factor of 109x10-4 W/m-K with a carrier concentration of 1.2x1018 cm-3. The results also indicate that GaN and InGaN-based materials could potentially be useful materials for TE applications at high temperatures.
Competing models for the origin of the local component of the diffuse X-ray background span more than an order of magnitude in temperature. We propose to test these models with a new instrument, the GRating Array Diffuse EUV Spectrometer (GRADES), which is sensitive to diffuse emission in the 90 – 260 Å bandpass, and offers a peak spectral resolution of about λ/127.
We present the results of a recent spectroscopic investigation of the cool DO white dwarf HD 149499 B in the EUV and FUV ranges. Observations were performed with the spectrograph of the EUVE satellite and the Berkeley EUV/FUV spectrometer of the ORFEUS space experiment. The analysis of the ORFEUS spectrum, performed with a grid of LTE model atmospheres, yielded the basic parameters Teff = 49500 ± 500 K and log g = 7.97 ± 0.08. This result is confirmed by the EUVE spectra. The photospheric hydrogen Lyman lines in the FUV spectrum indicate the presence of hydrogen: log nH/nHe = −0.65 ± 0.12. The implications of this finding for the spectral evolution of white dwarfs are discussed. A check of the LTE assumption was performed by a comparison with NLTE atmospheres calculated for appropriate parameters. The interstellar hydrogen column towards the HD 149499 system amounts to NH = (7 ± 2) · 1018 cm−2.
ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer) is a 1 m normal incidence telescope for spectroscopic investigations of cosmic sources in the far and extreme ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument will be integrated into the freeflyer platform ASTRO-SPAS. ORFEUS-SPAS is scheduled with STS ENDEAVOUR in September 1992. We describe the telescope with its two spectrometers and their capabilities i.e. spectral range, resolution and overall sensitivity. The main classes of objects to be observed with the instrument are discussed and two examples of simulated spectra for the white dwarf HZ43 and an O9-star in the LMC are shown.
In this paper, it is shown that any connected, small category can be embedded in a semi-groupoid (a category in which there is at least one isomorphism between any two elements) in such a way that the embedding includes a homotopy equivalence of classifying spaces. This immediately gives a monoid whose classifying space is of the same homotopy type as that of the small category. This construction is essentially algorithmic, and furthermore, yields a finitely presented monoid whenever the small category is finitely presented. Some of these results are generalizations of ideas of McDuff.