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Decreases in Fe status have been reported in military women during initial training periods of 8–10 weeks. The present study aimed to characterise Fe status and associations with physical performance in female New Zealand Army recruits during a 16-week basic combat training (BCT) course. Fe status indicators – Hb, serum ferritin (sFer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin saturation (TS) and erythrocyte distribution width (RDW) – were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and end of BCT in seventy-six volunteers without Fe-deficiency non-anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb ≥120 g/l) or Fe-deficiency anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb <120 g/l) at baseline or a C-reactive protein >10 mg/l at baseline or end. A timed 2·4 km run followed by maximum press-ups were performed at baseline and midpoint (week 8) to assess physical performance. Changes in Fe status were investigated using paired t tests and associations between Fe status and physical performance evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. sFer (56·6 (sd 33·7) v. 38·4 (sd 23·8) µg/l) and TS (38·8 (sd 13·9) v. 34·4 (sd 11·5) %) decreased (P<0·001 and P=0·014, respectively), while sTfR (1·21 (sd 0·27) v. 1·39 (sd 0·35) mg/l) and RDW (12·8 (sd 0·6) v. 13·2 (sd 0·7) %) increased (P<0·001) from baseline to end. Hb (140·6 (sd 7·5) v. 142·9 (sd 7·9) g/l) increased (P=0·009) during BCT. At end, sTfR was positively (r 0·29, P=0·012) and TS inversely associated (r –0·32, P=0·005) with midpoint run time. There were no significant correlations between Fe status and press-ups. Storage and functional Fe parameters indicated a decline in Fe status in female recruits during BCT. Correlations between tissue-Fe indicators and run times suggest impaired aerobic fitness. Optimal Fe status appears paramount for enabling success in female recruits during military training.
Investigations into an outbreak of foodborne disease attempt to identify the source of illness as quickly as possible. Population-based reference values for food consumption can assist in investigation by providing comparison data for hypothesis generation and also strengthening the evidence associated with a food product through hypothesis testing. In 2014–2015 a national phone survey was conducted in Canada to collect data on food consumption patterns using a 3- or 7-day recall period. The resulting food consumption values over the two recall periods were compared. The majority of food products did not show a significant difference in the consumption over 3 days and 7 days. However, comparison of reference values from the 3-day recall period to data from an investigation into a Salmonella Infantis outbreak was shown to support the conclusion that chicken was the source of the outbreak whereas the reference values from a 7-day recall did not support this finding. Reference values from multiple recall periods can assist in the hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing phase of foodborne outbreak investigations.
The dynamics of two-dimensional (2-D) ideal fluid vortices is studied experimentally in the presence of an irrotational strain flow. Laboratory experiments are conducted using strongly magnetized pure electron plasmas, a technique which is made possible by the isomorphism between the drift–Poisson equations describing plasma dynamics transverse to the field and the 2-D Euler equations describing an ideal fluid. The electron plasma system provides an excellent opportunity to study the dynamics of a 2-D Euler fluid due to weak dissipation and weak 3-D effects, simple diagnosis and precise control. The plasma confinement apparatus used here was designed specifically to study vortex dynamics under the influence of external flow by applying boundary conditions in two dimensions. Additionally, vortex-in-cell simulations are carried out to complement the experimental results and to extend the parameter range of the studies. It is shown that the global dynamics of a quasi-flat vorticity profile is in good quantitative agreement with the theory of a piecewise-constant elliptical patch of vorticity, including the equilibria, dynamical orbits and stability properties. Deviations from the elliptical patch theory are observed for non-flat vorticity profiles; they include inviscid damping of the orbits and modified stability limits. The dependence of these phenomena on the flatness of the initial profile is discussed. The relationship of these results to other theoretical, numerical and experimental studies is also discussed.
In this paper it is shown that the ability to directly detect a daughter atom, using resonance ionization spectroscopy, in delayed time coincidence with the decay of a parent species promises to drastically reduce the background in low-level counting experiments. In addition, resonance ionization can also be used as an ion source for a mass spectrometer system that is capable of discriminating between isobars.
Silurian crinoids reached maximum abundance on shallow shelf bottoms of skeletal-rich carbonate. In-place crinoid preservation in the Wenlock Limestone of Dudley, England, provides a community model for these occurrences, showing a pattern among crinoids of high taxonomic diversity, conspecific clustering, relatively robust morphology, and numerical dominance of other invertebrates. Densities of about 40 crinoid individuals per m2 occupied a feeding level between 10 cm and 1 m above the bottom and may have effected trophic control over other fauna. Beneath the crinoids lived a second level of bryozoa, a third level of tabulates, and a sparse fauna of brachiopods and other solitary organisms. Crinoids also exercised significant biologic control of substrate. In contrast to the Dudley assemblage, Silurian communities of terrigenous, soft-bottom environments contained crinoids of low abundance, low taxonomic diversity, and small size. In the terrigenous communities, crinoids appear to have had no major effect on either trophic structure or substrate. High sedimentation rates limited the role of crinoids in such communities, and the dominant organisms were deposit feeders and solitary, low-level suspension feeders.
Understanding how the Chaco regional system operated requires examining the social networks maintained by great house communities during both the peak and decline ofChaco's influence. We used neutron activation analysis (NAA) of pottery, kiln wasters, and clays from three great house communities in southeast Utah (Bluff, Cottonwood Wash, and Comb Wash) to examine pottery production and the interaction networks of their residents. West of Comb Ridge, most gray ware jars or the materials they were made from were imported from east of Comb Ridge in both Chaco and post-Chaco times, while importation of painted white wares changed in the post-Chaco era as local production increased. This counters the expectation that painted pots are more likely to be exchanged than cooking jars. Kiln sherds and prepared clays are shown to be better identifiers of production area than raw clays, and paste color is confirmed as a useful clay source indicator in the Comb Ridge vicinity. Great house communities in the Comb Ridge area continued to exchange pots and/or ceramic raw materials in the post-Chaco era, but there is evidence for shifting social networks and intensified local production of white ware.
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), an analogue of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most used non-metallic materials in high technology applications related to thin film fabrications. Taking advantage of their unique properties such as electrically non-conductive, thermally conductive, and high hardness, it has been used in high-temperature electronic devices, multifunctional aerospace materials, and structures and electric and aerospace systems. The main goal of this project was to use BNNTs in the fabrication of nano epoxycomposites to enhance their thermal and mechanical properties to use it for applications in aerospace constituents. In order to accomplish this goal, BNNTs were functionalized with isopherone diisocyante (IPDC). Surface analysis techniques were employed to ensure the modification BNNTs and study the interface of the reinforced composites before and after the modification. Mechanical and thermal conductivity testing was performed in order to understand the quality of the composites. Three different nanocomposites were accomplished with hBN and BNNTs using two different epoxy polymers and three curing agents. The systems EPON 862/Curing Agent W/ (hBN or BNNTs) have Tgs and tan deltas higher compared with those fabricated at the same conditions without nanoparticles. The fabricated BN composites showed improved physical properties due to their particle dispersion and boron nitrite intermolecular interactions with the epoxy polymer.
This paper exploits the turbulent flow control method using streamwise travelling waves (Quadrio et al.J. Fluid Mech., vol. 627, 2009, pp. 161–178) to study the effect of Reynolds number on turbulent skin-friction drag reduction. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent channel flow subjected to the streamwise travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity have been performed at Reynolds numbers ranging from
to 1600. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the highest Reynolds number attempted with DNS for this type of flow control. The present DNS results confirm that the effectiveness of drag reduction deteriorates, and the maximum drag reduction achieved by travelling waves decreases significantly as the Reynolds number increases. The intensity of both the drag reduction and drag increase is reduced with the Reynolds number. Another important finding is that the value of the optimal control parameters changes, even in wall units, when the Reynolds number is increased. This trend is observed for the wall oscillation, stationary wave, and streamwise travelling wave cases. This implies that, when the control parameters used are close to optimal values found at a lower Reynolds number, the drag reduction deteriorates rapidly with increased Reynolds number. In this study, the effect of Reynolds number for the travelling wave is quantified using a scaling in the form
. No universal constant is found for the scaling parameter
. Instead, the scaling parameter
has a wide range of values depending on the flow control conditions. Further Reynolds number scaling issues are discussed. Turbulent statistics are analysed to explain a weaker drag reduction observed at high Reynolds numbers. The changes in the Stokes layer and also the mean and root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) velocity with the Reynolds number are also reported. The Reynolds shear stress analysis suggests an interesting possibility of a finite drag reduction at very high Reynolds numbers.
Acute doses of Ca rapidly increase serum Ca and reduce bone resorption concomitant with a reduction in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. The physiological response to a dose of Ca in milk and to a Ca salt may be different. The present study investigated Ca absorption patterns with increasing levels of fortification in milk, and the response to one dose of a Ca salt. A group of twenty-eight Asian women aged 20–45 years volunteered to attend the laboratory over several weeks. The fasted volunteers were randomised to one of three experimental drinks: 200 ml skimmed milk containing 250, 500 or 1000 mg Ca. A subgroup of seven volunteers also received a calcium gluconate/carbonate salt containing 1000 mg Ca in 200 ml water. Serial blood samples and urine were collected for 5 h from baseline. Different doses of Ca in milk resulted in a graded response in serum corrected Ca, PTH and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) but not ionised Ca. Serum Ca increased in response to all milk drinks and from 2 to 5 h the blood Ca levels were significantly different for the 250 and 1000 mg doses, as was the integrated response between the loads. The PTH response to the two higher doses was significantly more than following the 250 mg dose. The integrated response for CTx and urinary Ca between all three doses of Ca in milk was significantly different. A dose of Ca salt elicited a more immediate response reaching a plateau faster, and declining faster to baseline. Fortified milk is a safe matrix for delivering larger doses of Ca.
Fruit and vegetables are key elements of a cardioprotective diet, but benefits on plasma lipids, especially HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), are inconsistent both within and between studies. In the present study, we investigated whether four selected HDL-C-related polymorphisms (cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) Taq1B, APOA1 − 75G/A, hepatic lipase (LIPC) − 514C → T, and endothelial lipase (LIPG) I24582) modulate the plasma lipid response to a kiwifruit intervention. This is a retrospective analysis of data collected during a 12-week randomised controlled cross-over trial. A total of eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men completed a 4-week healthy diet run-in period before being randomised to one of two 4-week intervention sequences of two green kiwifruit/d plus healthy diet (kiwifruit intervention) or healthy diet alone (control intervention). The measurement of anthropometric parameters and collection of fasting blood samples were carried out at baseline 1 and after the run-in (baseline 2) and intervention periods. At baseline 2, B1/B1 homozygotes of the CETPTaq1B gene had significantly higher total cholesterol:HDL-C, TAG:HDL-C, and apoB:apoA1 ratios and small-dense LDL concentrations than B2 carriers. A significant CETP Taq1B genotype × intervention interaction was observed for the TAG:HDL-C ratio (P= 0·03). B1/B1 homozygotes had a significantly lower TAG:HDL-C ( − 0·23 (sd 0·58) mmol/l; P= 0·03) ratio after the kiwifruit intervention than after the control intervention, whereas the ratio of B2 carriers was not affected. The lipid response was not affected by other gene polymorphisms. In conclusion, the significant decrease in the TAG:HDL-C ratio in B1/B1 homozygotes suggests that regular inclusion of green kiwifruit as part of a healthy diet may improve the lipid profiles of hypercholesterolaemic men with this genotype.
The mouse whipworm Trichuris muris has long been used as a tractable model of human Trichuriasis. Here we look back at the history of T. muris research; from the definition of the species and determination of its life cycle, through to the complex immune responses that we study today. We highlight the key research papers that have developed our understanding of immune responses to this parasite, and reflect on how original concepts have been transformed, as our knowledge of immunology has grown. Although we have a good understanding of host–parasite interactions in the context of the underlying cellular immunology, there are still many aspects of the biology of the Trichuris parasite that remain undefined. We predict that advances in parasite biology will be key in the future development of new and improved treatments for Trichuriasis.
The unique composition of green kiwifruit has the potential to benefit CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming two green kiwifruits daily in conjunction with a healthy diet on plasma lipids and other metabolic markers and to examine response according to APOE genotype in hypercholesterolaemic men. After undergoing a 4-week healthy diet, eighty-five hypercholesterolaemic men (LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) >3·0 mmol/l and TAG < 3 mmol/l) completed an 8-week randomised controlled cross-over study of two 4-week intervention sequences of two green kiwifruits per d plus healthy diet (intervention) or healthy diet alone (control). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure (BP) and fasting blood samples (plasma lipids, serum apoA1 and apoB, insulin, glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)) were taken at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks. After the kiwifruit intervention, plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were significantly higher (mean difference 0·04; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·07 mmol/l; P= 0·004) and the total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio was significantly lower (mean difference − 0·15; 95 % CI − 0·24, − 0·05 mmol/l; P= 0·002) compared with the control. In carriers of the APOE4 allele, TAG decreased significantly (mean difference − 0·18; 95 % CI − 0·34, − 0·02 mmol/l; P= 0·03) with kiwifruit compared with control. There were no significant differences between the two interventions for plasma TC, LDL-C, insulin, glucose, hs-CRP and BP. The small but significant increase in HDL-C and decrease in TC:HDL-C ratio and TAG (in APOE4 carriers) suggest that the regular inclusion of green kiwifruit as part of a healthy diet may be beneficial in improving the lipid profiles of men with high cholesterol.
In this study, we have developed and characterized two previously unstudied alkoxysilane surface chemistries for use with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. We modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) using aminopropyl triethoxysilane and two analogous alkoxysilanes, aminopropyl dimethylethoxysilane and aminopropyl methyldiethoxysilane, to compare a mono- and dialkoxysilane, respectively, to a more commonly used trialkoxysilane as two new SPIO surface chemistries capable of forming ultrathin functional surface coatings. The ligand densities of the mono- and dialkoxysilane-modified SPIO produced in this study are consistent with near monolayers of ligands on the SPIO surface. We studied the chemical stability of the mono-, di-, and trialkoxysilane-modified SPIO in neutral and acidic media to evaluate the viability of these surface chemistries for use in long-term intracellular applications. The mono- and dialkoxysilane-modified SPIO demonstrate comparable chemical stability to the trialkoxysilane-modified SPIO, indicating that the mono- and dialkoxysilane are both viable new SPIO surface chemistries for future applications requiring minimally thick alkoxysilane surface coatings.
Spin polarized low energy electron microscopy (SPLEEM) has been developed for the high resolution imaging of surface magnetic structure. The existing LEEM ha.s been modified by the incorporation of a. GaAs-type spin polarized electron gun. Large image contrast arises due to the spin-dependent exchange scattering, whifle the st.in-orbit contribution vanishes uniquely for the normal incidence/exit geometry used here. Pixel by pixel image subtraction for incident electron beams of opposite polarization yields precisely the spatially resolved Bragg reflection asymmetry observed in spin polarized low energy electron diffraction. The shallow electron penetration depth arising from the strong coulombic interaction is advantageous for separating surface behavior from the normally overwhelning bulk. Therefore, the use of transversally polarizedI electron beams allows the determination of in-plane surface magnetization directions. Fnrthermore, the parallel illumination and detection of SPLEEM makes it possible to image quickly with a. resolution better than 500 Å in the present configuration. A useful and direct. comparison between surface magnetic, structural, and topological features is made possible by the augmentation of the unique imaging capabilities of conventional LEEM with the magnetic sensitivity of SPLEEM. In this manner, the magnetic domain structure of a Co (0001) surface and in-situ grown Co filmns on Mo(110) have been determined.