Rates of occurrence and degrees of imposex, and tissue concentrations of organotin compounds (tributyltin, TBT; dibutyltin, DBT; butyltin, MBT; triphenyltin, TPT; diphenyltin, DPT; and phenyltin, MPT) in the rock shell, Thais clavigera and T. bronni (Mollusca: Gastropoda) were investigated at 32 sites in Japan from May 1990 to October 1992. The rate of occurrence of imposex was 100% in both species, at almost all sites surveyed. Degrees of imposex indicated by relative penis length (RPL) index reflected the pollution levels not only of TBT, but also TPT. In heavily polluted areas, many individuals were found with oviducts which were blocked by vas deferens development, and capsule glands which were filled with aborted egg masses. These organisms were thought to be sterile.