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Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
A seroprevalence survey on measles, mumps, rubella and varicella was conducted on healthcare workers (HCWs) at Shimane University Hospital, Japan utilizing an enzyme immunoassay. Of 1811 HCWs tested, 91·8% were seropositive to measles, 92·1% to mumps, 89·5% to rubella and 96·3% to varicella. Sex-related differences in seroprevalence were found in rubella (males vs. females: 84·7 vs. 92·2%, P < 0·001). Moreover, males aged 30–39 years were most susceptible to rubella (22·4%), which may be attributed to the design of childhood immunization programmes in Japan. Individuals aged ⩽29 years were more susceptible to measles (14·3%) and mumps (10·9%), compared to other age groups. There were no significant sex- and age-related differences in varicella seroprevalence. The physician occupational group was more susceptible to rubella, but no significant occupational-related difference was observed in the other diseases. Susceptible subjects, with negative or equivocal serological results were given a vaccine which induced seroconversion in most vaccinees. Seroconversion occurred more frequently in the equivocal group than in the negative group. These findings provide a new insight for the seroprevalence survey of vaccine-preventable diseases in Japanese HCWs with special reference to vaccine efficacy.
The new species of Zanclea sango sp. nov. is described from Okinawajima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, south-western Japan. The new hydrozoan species is associated with at least three scleractinian corals (Pavona divaricata, P. venosa and Psammocora contigua). Zanclea sango sp. nov. is a polymorphic hydroid and the hydrorhiza grows between the coral skeleton and calicoblastic ectoderm. The hydrocaulus and hydrorhiza are surrounded by perisarc. Newly released medusae are almost spherical, with four perradial exumbrellar nematocyst pouches including stenoteles, and two long marginal tentacles with cnidophores containing macrobasic euryteles. Zanclea sango sp. nov. is allied to Zanclea gilii Boero et al., 2000 and Zanclea margaritae Pantos & Bythell, 2010, but it is distinguished by its cnidome, the presence of a perisarc around hydrorhiza, and lower host-specificity. According to a hypothetical Zanclea phylogeny, the ancestral species of Zanclea had an opportunistic association with some benthic organisms, such as algae or bivalves, and its hydrorhiza was covered by a perisarc. Later, some species established specific associations with benthic animals, after which the hydrorhiza lost the perisarc and became directly covered with host tissue. Among Zanclea inhabiting corals, the present species, with multiple coral host species and a perisarc around the hydrorhiza, seems to retain more ancestral character states than Z. gilii and Z. margaritae, which have specific coral host species and no perisarc around the hydrorhiza.
This study aimed to analyse vocal performance and to investigate the nature of the neoglottal sound source in patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
High-speed digital imaging analysis of neoglottal kinetics was performed in two patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy; laryngotopography, inverse filtering analysis and multiline kymography were also undertaken.
In case one, laryngotopography demonstrated two vibrating areas: one matched with the primary (i.e. fundamental) frequency (75 Hz) and the other with the secondary frequency (150 Hz) at the neoglottis. In case two, laryngotopography showed two vibrating areas matched with the fundamental frequency (172 Hz) at the neoglottis. The interaction between the two areas was considered to be the sound source in both patients. The waveform of the estimated volume flow at the neoglottis, obtained by inverse filtering analysis, corresponded well to the neoglottal vibration patterns derived by multiline kymography. These findings indicated that the specific sites identified at the neoglottis by the present method were likely to be the sound source in each patient.
High-speed digital imaging analysis is effective in locating the sites responsible for voice production in patients who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. This is the first study to clearly identify the neoglottal sound source in such patients, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
Three-dimensional organic field-effect transistors with multiple sub-micrometer channels are developed to exhibit high current density and high switching speed. The sub-micrometer channels are arranged perpendicularly to substrates and are defined by the height of a multi-columnar structure fabricated without using electron-beam-lithography technique. For devices with dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, extremely high current density exceeding 10 A/cm2 and fast switching within 200 ns are realized with an on-off ratio of 105. The unprecedented performance is beyond general requirements to control organic light-emitting diodes, so that even more extensive applications to higher-speed active-matrices and display-driving circuits can be realized with organic semiconductors.
The phage types and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 226 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from imported cases in Japan between 2001 and 2006 were investigated. Most (93·8%) had travelled to Asian countries, particularly South East Asia. Twenty-one phage types were identified with E1 (30·5%), UVS (15·9%) and B1 (9·3%) being the most common. The frequency of multidrug-resistant strains reached 37·0% in 2006 with phage types E1 and E9 predominating. Almost half (48·2%) of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and two isolates displayed high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Three mutations, two in gyrA and one in parC, were identified in both isolates.
The occultation of a 9.1 magnitude star by asteroid (22) Kalliope and its satellite Linus was successfully observed in Japan in 2006 November 7.826 UT. This was the first definite observation of an occultation of a satellite of an asteroid that was discovered previously by other means. As a result the position of the satellite relative to Kalliope was obtained to be d = 0.246 ± 0.011 (arcsec), and P = 313.8 ± 2.7 (deg), where d is the angular distance and P is the position angle. The derived size for Kalliope is (209 ± 40)km × (136 ± 26)km (with the major axis in position angle of (8 ± 17) deg), and that for Linus is (33 ± 3) km. From the observations, the occulted star is also found to be a close double star whose separation is about 0.7 mas in position angle of about 300 deg, and the magnitudes of the components are found to be almost the same (~9.9 mag).
A novel selective and bottom-up deposition process from supercritical CO2 is proposed and demonstrated. Supercritical CO2 fluids are dense media, and a deposition precursor dissolving wherein can easily condences in hollow/concave features. By combining this capillary condensation phenomenon with proper reaction chemistry, it was realized to deposit Ru an Cu in holes and trenches structures preferentially. The capillary condensation occurs better in the narrower features, we call this method “gtopography-sensitive” selective deposition technique.
Two patients who received supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy to treat laryngeal cancers, underwent intra-operative electromyography analysis. After the lesion was removed and the electrodes were inserted into the remaining intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the depth of anaesthesia was carefully reduced. Gentle tactile stimulations were applied to the pharynx to trigger the reflex movement of the remaining arytenoids. Recordings were made when reflex movement was achieved.
Case one: Electromyography (EMG) of the remaining arytenoid demonstrated clear phase differences indicating reciprocal activities between the adductor group (lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, interarytenoid muscle) and the abductor muscle (posterior cricoarytenoid muscle). Case two: EMG of the remaining arytenoid demonstrated reciprocal activities between the interarytenoid muscle and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Activity of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle was not evident because the muscle was excised during removal of the paraglottic space. Mobility of the arytenoid was attributed to interaction between the interarytenoid muscle and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Reciprocal interaction between the interarytenoid muscle and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle alone is also capable of maintaining post-operative laryngeal functions after supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.
Recently, we have developed Non-Contact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy (NC-SNDM) with a new height-control technique utilizing higher order nonlinear dielectric constant detection (ε(4) signal). In theoretically, NC-SNDM has quite high height sensitivity against the gap between tip and sample as well as STM technique and the simultaneous observation of the topography and ferroelectric polarization (local dipole moment) distribution with atomic resolution has been expected. To confirm such performance of NC-SNDM with atomic resolution, UHV-SNDM was developed and Si(111) cleaned surface was chosen as a specimen. As a result, we have succeeded in observing Si(111) 7×7 atomic structure. Moreover, distribution of tunneling current and lowest order nonlinear dielectric signal ε(3) could be observed simultaneously. To the best our knowledge, this is the first successful demonstration of the atomic resolution achievement in dielectric microscopy techniques.
A normally off-mode AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) using a p-type GaN gate was fabricated and their static properties were compared with those of HFET having a Schottky gate. HFET having a p-GaN gate contact shows a very low leakage current density of 18.2 μA/mm at VGS and VDS of 0 V and 20 V, respectively.
Background and objective: Continuous spinal analgesia (CSA) offers considerable pain relief, and has been used in various procedures such as for surgery and cancer pain control. In Japan, portable and disposable infusion kits are increasingly employed for continuous epidural analgesia and CSA. In CSA, the use of a microcatheter is expected to reduce the incidence of spinal headache previously encountered with larger catheters. However, the flow rate of disposable infusion kits is reduced when used in conjunction with a microcatheter.
Methods: This study aimed to investigate the influence of catheter length on the flow rate of two different devices: 20- or 91-cm 28-G microcatheters connected to balloon- or syringe-type infusion pumps were examined (50 mL, 1 mL h−1). There were four groups each of 10 experiments: Group A: balloon-type infuser, 91 cm catheter; Group B: balloon-type infuser, 20 cm catheter; Group C: syringe-type infuser, 91 cm catheter; Group D: syringe-type infuser, 20 cm catheter.
Results: The mean flow rate in Group A was significantly less than that in Group B and the mean flow rate in Group C was significantly less than Group D (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: These results indicated that the use of a shorter microcatheter achieves a better flow rate during CSA.
The stability of B atom near the Si(100)/SiO2 interface
during annealing is studied by using ab initio calculation
to investigate the atomic scale mechanism of B segregation
at the Si(100)/SiO2 interface. Contrary to the experimental
observations showing that B atoms segregate into SiO2, B
atoms are found to be stable in Si free of defects. But
authors can rephrase differently this sentence. On the other
hand, when an O vacancy exists in SiO2, the B atom is
trapped by the O vacancy and becomes quite stable in SiO2.
Hf and Zr incorporation from thermally annealed high-κ gate dielectric thin films (4-5 nm) candidates HfSixOy and ZrSixOy into Si are presented. The dielectric films were subjected either to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or standard furnace annealing in an N2 atmosphere. After annealing, the films were removed by chemical etching prior to depth profiling using both time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), and Heavy Ion Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (HI-RBS) combined with UV-ozone oxidation/etching cycles. As-deposited and annealed films were studied using monochromatic X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution TEM. A Zr incorporation depth after annealing of up to 20 nm into the Si substrate was observed. Depth profiling shows that, although most of the remnant Zr after annealing/etching is located at or near the surface of the Si substrate, incorporation into the substrate is also present. No significant Hf diffusion into Si was observed for either RTP or furnace-annealed films
Device modeling data and some early experiments suggests that fully depleted MOSFET devices where channel is controlled by two opposing gates or one gate that surrounds most or the entire channel, will provide better scaling than the classic devices with one gate on one side of the channel. However, formation of such devices requires complex, non-conventional and sometimes exotic geometry and processing, ranging from wafer bonding to selective lateral ‘tunnel’ epitaxy, to selectively wet-etched channels with triangular cross-section. Classic single-gate transistors have been recently demonstrated with reasonable performance at 20-15 nm of physical gate length. Double-gate transistors with their process integration complexity will likely become a viable alternative for smaller geometries. This paper will discuss various approaches to realization of those multi-gate fully depleted devices and their process integration challenges for sub-15 nm gates.
Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) (1, 2) is a useful tool to pre-screen metal barrier integrity for Si-based porous low-k dielectrics. Pore size of low-k, thickness of metal barrier Ta, positronium (Ps) leakage from PALS, trench sidewall morphology, electrical test from one level metal (1LM) pattern wafer and Cu diffusion analysis were all correlated. Macro-porous low-k (pore size >= 200A) and large scale meso-porous low-k (>50∼200A) encounter both Ps leakage and Cu diffusion into low-k dielectric in the 0.25μmL/0.3μmS structures when using SEMATECH in-house PVD Ta 250A as barrier layer. For small scale meso-porous (>20∼50A) and micro-porous (<=20A) low-k, no Ps leakage and no Cu diffusion into low-k were observed even with PVD Ta 50A, which is proved also owing to sidewall densification to seal all sidewall pores due to plasma etch and ash. For future technology, smaller pore size of porous Si-based low-k (=< 50A) will be preferential for dense low-k like trench sidewall to avoid metal barrier integrity due to coverage problems from sidewall pores.
High-quality short-period Si/SiGe strained-layer superlattices have been grown on bulk single-crystal SiGe substrates using a commercial low-temperature ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) reactor. These superlattices were characterized by high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and photoluminescence (PL). HRXRD, AES, and XTEM results confirm that the materials deposited are high crystal-quality superlattice layers with abrupt interfaces and excellent thickness and composition uniformity across superlattices of 5 periods. AFM images show similar surface RMS roughness of much less than 1 nm for both the top layer surface and the starting substrate surface, indicating very smooth surfaces. PL measurements further confirm material quality and composition, and show sharp, well-resolved near band-edge BE and FE PL and strong broad sub-gap PL perhaps related to direct-gap superlattice transitions. The materials grown here are very promising for applications of both high-speed electronic devices and high-efficiency optoelectronic devices.