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Surface morphology after the selective etching of the γ matrix was examined in Ni(γ)/Ni3Al(γ´) two-phase foils with various microstructures controlled by the 98 % cold rolling and subsequent heat treatment at 873, 1073 and 1273 K for 0.5 h. In the cold-rolled state, the elongated pancakeshape γ´ precipitates were distributed in the γ matrix, and this structure was almost the same after the heat treatment at 873 K though the recrystallization partly started. These γ´ pancakes were partitioned into the fine blocky particles of 10~100 nm in the edge after the heat treatment at 1073 K and the γ´ blocks significantly became larger at 1273 K. These foils were electrochemically etched in the electrolyte of distilled water with 1 wt.% (NH4)2SO4 and 1 wt.% citric acid at a constant potential of 1.75 V for 5 h. In this etching, the γ matrix was selectively dissolved and the γ´ precipitates were left behind, yielding rough and irregular surface. The surface morphologies corresponded to the γ/γ´ two-phase structures, thus demonstrating that the two-phase structure can be used as a template to make the surface area larger. The foil heattreated at 1073 K had a number of the fine γ´ particles with 10~100 nm in size densely dispersed on the surface. Such fine surface structure was expected to improve the catalytic activity of Ni3Al for the hydrogen production reaction.
The direct primary stands as one of the most significant and distinctive political reforms of the Progressive era in American history. In this book, the authors provide the most comprehensive treatment available on the topic and utilize new data on election outcomes, candidate backgrounds, incumbent performance and behavior, newspaper endorsements, and voters' preferences. They begin by studying whether primary elections have achieved the goals set by progressive reformers when they were first introduced over a century ago. They then evaluate the key roles these elections have played in the US electoral systems, such as injecting electoral competition into the regions that are dominated by one of the two major parties, helping select relatively qualified candidates for office, and, in some cases, holding incumbents accountable for their performance. They conclude with studying the degree to which primaries are responsible for the current, highly polarized environment. Anyone interested in US primary elections, US political history, or electoral institutions more generally should read this book.