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The mammary tissue is characterized by its capacity to adapt in response to a wide variety of changing conditions. This adaptation capacity is referred to as the plasticity of mammary tissue. In dairy ruminants, lactation is challenged by modifications that can either be induced on purpose, such as by modifying management practices, or occur involuntarily, when adverse environmental constraints arise. These modifications can elicit both immediate changes in milk yield and composition and carryover effects that persist after the end of the challenge. This review focuses on the current knowledge concerning the cellular mechanisms underlying mammary tissue plasticity. The main mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are changes in the activity and number of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Changes in the number of these cells result from variations in the rates of cell proliferation and death as well as changes in the rate MEC exfoliation. The number of MECs also depends on the number of resident adult mammary stem cells and their progenitors, which can regenerate the pools of the various mammary cells. Several challenges, including changes in milking frequency, changes in level of feed supply and hormonal manipulations, have been shown to modulate milk yield together with changes in mammary cell activity, turnover and exfoliation. Epigenetic changes may be an additional mechanism of adaptation. Indeed, changes in DNA methylation and reductions in milk yield have been observed during once-daily milking and during mastitis in dairy cows and may affect cell activity persistently. In contrast to what has been assumed for a long time, no carryover effect on milk yield were observed after feed supply challenges in dairy cows and modification of milking frequency in dairy goats, even though the number of mammary cells was affected. In addition, mammary tissue plasticity has been shown to be influenced by the stage of lactation, health status and genetic factors. In conclusion, the cellular mechanisms underlying mammary tissue plasticity are diverse, and the mammary tissue either does or does not show elastic properties (with no permanent deformation), in response to environmental changes.
The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks. Diploid and triploid siblings were run in parallel to examine ploidy effects. Growth performance, feed intake, nutrient utilisation and intestinal morphology were monitored. Fish initially given Diet Vstimulus (V-fish) showed 24 % higher growth rate and 23 % better feed efficiency compared with M-fish when later challenged with Diet Vchallenge. There was no difference in feed intake between nutritional histories, but increased nutrient retentions highlighted the improved utilisation of a V diet in V-fish. There were generally few significant effects of nutritional history or ploidy on enteritis scores in the distal intestine after the challenge phase as only V-triploids showed a significant increase (P<0·05) in total score. The data highlighted that the positive effects were most likely a result of nutritional programming and the ability to respond better when challenged later in life may be attributed to physiological and/or metabolic changes induced by the stimulus. This novel study showed the potential of nutritional programming to improve the use of plant raw material ingredients in feeds for Atlantic salmon.
A dual experimental and numerical top-down approach is applied to investigate the link between osteocyte morphology and mechanical perception of their environment at the progenitor and mature stages. The numerical model is based on explicit tissue morphology discretization to identify bone diffuse damage at the cellular scale. The in vitro experimental model presents a live allograft bone system where a patient progenitor or mature osteocytes were reseeded in fresh human donor cortical bone tissues subjected to mechanical loading. The live systems behaved mechanically as fresh bone and the cells spatially reorganized in vitro as in vivo. The system under mechanical load also showed an adaptation of the calcium membrane transport rate to the expected in vivo mechanical load detected by bone cells at different stages of differentiation.
The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food–microbe–host crosstalk.
Black liquor is a by-product of the paper mill Kraft process that deserves more valorization than its present use as low-grade fuel. In this work, SiC/C composite foams were prepared for the first time from concentrated emulsions by carbothermal reduction of bio-sourced precursors combining sodium silicate by lignin at 1400°C. The composition of the materials was determined by XRD, FTIR and Raman analyses. Their porous structure was characterized by SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and nitrogen sorption, while their thermal properties were measured by TGA and dynamic DSC. Concerning their heat transport properties, we found out that when the starting lignin content was increased, the final C/Si ratio, the specific surface area and the heat diffusivity increased as well. Its high values were attributed to a cooperative effect between radiative heat transfer and the presence of partially graphitized carbon.
The organometallic approach was successfully applied to synthesize water-soluble ruthenium nanoparticles displaying interesting catalytic properties in hydrogenation of unsaturated model-substrates. Nanocatalyst synthesis was performed by hydrogenation of the complex [Ru(COD)(COT)] in the presence of sulfonated diphosphines and cyclodextrins as protective agents providing very small ruthenium nanoparticles (ca. 1.2-1.5 nm) with narrow size distribution and high stability. Catalysis results in water evidenced a control of the surface properties of these novel ruthenium nanocatalysts at a supramolecular level.
In order to investigate further the interest of using the Chilean gene pool in potato breeding programmes, the genetic diversity and population structure of a collection of Solanum tuberosum L. genotypes including 350 worldwide varieties or breeders' lines (referred to as the modern group) and 30 Chiloé Island landraces were examined using simple sequence repeat markers. The close genetic proximity of the Chiloé Island landraces to the modern group was confirmed using several structure analysis methods: principal coordinate analysis; hierarchical clustering analysis; analysis of molecular variance; Bayesian model-based clustering analysis. The latter analysis, in particular, revealed no clear genetic structure between the modern group and the Chiloé Island landraces. The Chiloé Island germplasm appears to represent an interesting gene pool that could be exploited in potato breeding programmes using an association mapping approach.
The one pot-synthesis and use of monolithic biohybrid foams in a continuous flow device reported inhere presents the advantages of covalent stabilization of the enzymes, together with a low steric hindrance between proteins and substrates, an optimized mass transport due to the interconnected macroporous network and a rather simplicity in regard of the column in-situ synthetic path. Those features, concerning transesterification (biodiesel production) enzyme- based catalyzed reaction, provide high enzymatic activity addressed with bio-hybrid catalysts bearing unprecedented endurance of continuous catalysis for a two months period of time.
Natural samples of soil, sediment and natural water were collected in the “Parc National du Mercantour” in France. Soil and sediment samples were studied to better understand the behaviors of radionuclides (RNs) in different natural compartments. Considering 137Cs and 241Am activities in depth (measured by α- and γ-spectrometries), two types of sediment profiles can be distinguished depending on the origin (Chernobyl accident or atmospheric nuclear weapon tests). Due to difficulties in modeling the dispersion of those RNs in natural samples, even in a protected area, semi-synthetic studies were conducted. Eu(III) was used as an analogue of Am(III). Eu behavior in water was studied by EXAFS and compared to speciation diagrams drawn in similar chemical conditions. Eu is mainly complexed by carbonate and phosphate ions. The mean Eu-O distance (2.46 Å) obtained by EXAFS is in agreement with predominant solid species determined by speciation diagrams and previous published studies.
Low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many inflammatory markers than lean people do, and these are believed to play a role in causing insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. Blood concentrations of inflammatory markers are lowered following weight loss. In the hours following the consumption of a meal, there is an elevation in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the bloodstream, which is exaggerated in obese subjects and in type 2 diabetics. Both high-glucose and high-fat meals may induce postprandial inflammation, and this is exaggerated by a high meal content of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and partly ablated by inclusion of certain antioxidants or antioxidant-containing foods within the meal. Healthy eating patterns are associated with lower circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. Among the components of a healthy diet, whole grains, vegetables and fruits, and fish are all associated with lower inflammation. AGE are associated with enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. SFA and trans-MUFA are pro-inflammatory, while PUFA, especially long-chain n-3 PUFA, are anti-inflammatory. Hyperglycaemia induces both postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation. Vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids decrease the circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. Potential mechanisms are described and research gaps, which limit our understanding of the interaction between diet and postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation, are identified.
Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P < 0·0001). This was related to less frequent consumption and consumption of smaller amounts of vegetables and of foods prepared at home. Food security relied heavily on food expenses (P < 0·0001) and on the price of meat/fish (P = 0·026). Households with economically dependent adults (P = 0·021) and larger households (P < 0·0001) were the most vulnerable, whereas education (P = 0·030), social network (P = 0·054) and urban origin other than Ouagadougou (P = 0·040) played a positive role in food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons.
Indium phosphide (InP) nanowires (NWs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on various substrates including SrTiO3 (001), Si (001) and InP (111) at a growth temperature of 380°C. We used the Vapor Liquid Solid assisted method with Au as a metal catalyst. The composition of the catalyst particles and the crystalline structure of the nanowires were compared using reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope. It is found that InP nanowires grown onto InP and SrTiO3 substrates are structurally defects free with a wurtzite structure. On Si (001) substrates, the presence of stacking faults and cubic phase insertion along the growth direction is observed. The effect of the substrate on the composition of catalyst droplets and consequently on the crystalline quality of the nanowires is discussed for the conditions of nucleation and defect formation.
Based on the Lie-group-algebraic properties of the displacement set and intrinsic coordinate-free geometry, several novel 4-dof overconstrained hybrid parallel manipulators (HPMs) with uncoupled actuation of three spatial translations and one rotation (3T-1R) are proposed. In these HPMs, three limbs are those of Cartesian translational parallel mechanisms (CTPMs) and the fourth limb includes an Oldham-type constant velocity shaft coupling (CVSC). The Lie subgroup of Schoenflies (X) displacements of the displacement Lie group and its mechanical generators with nine categories of their general architectures are recalled. A comprehensive enumeration of all possible Oldham-type CVSC limbs is derived from X-motion generators. Their constant velocity (CV) transmissions are verified by group-algebraic approach. Then, combining one CTPM and one CVSC, we synthesize a lot of uncoupled 3T-1R overconstrained HPMs, which are classified into nine distinct classes of general architectures. In addition, all possible architectures with at least one hinged parallelogram or with one cylindrical pair are disclosed too. At last, related non-overconstrained HPMs are attained by the addition of one idle pair in each limb of the previous HPMs.
Heterodyne optical feedback on a class B laser is investigated for Scanning Near field Optical Microscopy (SNOM). All-fiberized set-up combining an Er-doped Distributed Feedback (DFB) fiber laser, a pair of pigtailed acousto-optics modulators (AOM) and a shear-force based scanning probe technique has been developed for the simultaneous observation of topography and evanescent light field on integrated optical devices. First demonstration of imaging using this technique is illustrated by characterizing the propagating modes into a rib waveguide at 1.54μm. Comparison between a theoretical model based on beam propagation mode (BPM) simulations and experimental measurements validates the results.
The diagnosis and treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease has undergone remarkable progress over the last 60 years. Unfortunately, this progress has been largely limited to the developed world. Yet every year approximately 90% of the more than 1,000,000 children who are born with congenital cardiac disease across the world receive either suboptimal care or are totally denied care.
While in the developed world the focus has changed from an effort to decrease post-operative mortality to now improving quality of life and decreasing morbidity, which is the focus of this Supplement, the rest of the world still needs to develop basic access to congenital cardiac care. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery [http://www.wspchs.org/] was established in 2006. The Vision of the World Society is that every child born anywhere in the world with a congenital heart defect should have access to appropriate medical and surgical care. The Mission of the World Society is to promote the highest quality comprehensive care to all patients with pediatric and/or congenital heart disease, from the fetus to the adult, regardless of the patient’s economic means, with emphasis on excellence in education, research and community service.
We present in this article an overview of the epidemiology of congenital cardiac disease, the current and future challenges to improve care in the developed and developing world, the impact of the globalization of cardiac surgery, and the role that the World Society should play. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery is in a unique position to influence and truly improve the global care of children and adults with congenital cardiac disease throughout the world [http://www.wspchs.org/].
Since the middle of the 90's, GaN epitaxy techniques have been developed, using either MOCVD or MBE growth methods. A low cost approach is presented aiming at satisfying thermal issues encountered on conventional substrates such as SiC, Sapphire and more recently Silicon. Domain of application are being covered with their associated challenges: RF and High Power applications. Stress engineering is one of the key parameters.