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Secondary copper deficiency in ruminant animals is induced by high dietary levels of molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe) or sulphur (S). Within the rumen, sulphur reacts with Mo to form a series of thiomolybdate molecules (TM) which may chelate copper. This reduces copper absorption or if TM is absorbed, inhibits copper metallo-enzyme activities. Parental administration of TM has resulted in an increase in Cu to the brain and an increase in Mo to the pituitaries (Haywood et al., 1998). This redistribution may alter neurological, endocrine and reproductive function. However, there are no reports on effects of endogenously produced TM on brain or pituitary trace element accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary Mo or Fe on copper status and mineral retention in the pituitary gland and ovary of growing lambs.
The availability of photometric and astrometric star counts on large fields well distributed in the Galaxy allows us to measure the characteristics of the thick disc population. We use a total of 19 data sets in UBV towards a dozen directions in order to measure the scale height, scale length, local density and metallicity of the intermediate population.
We have analyse star-count data in the direction of the Galactic Poles using a model of stellar population synthesis (Robin & Crézé (1986), Bienaymé, Robin & Crézé (1987)). The HR diagram for disc stars in the model is computed for a given star formation rate history and initial mass function (Haywood, 1994). In a paper submitted to A&A (Haywood et al.), we give a detailed investigation of the effects of these two functions on the simulated star-counts, and compare these with observed V, B-V data from V=5 to 22. We have obtained new constraints on the SFR, which we show has remained constant (to within a factor <3) since the disc formation, and on the IMF in the intermediate mass range (1-2 M⊙). Finally, we also obtain new constraint on the increase of vertical velocity dispersion with age. We state that if the disc does not containt any dynamically important dark mass, then this relation saturates at value smaller than 21 km.s−1.
We explore morphological, kinematic and chemical trends of boxy/peanut (b/p) bulges of Milky Way (MW)-type galaxies, to better understand the formation history of the MW’s bulge. We show, using N-body simulations with both a kinematically cold and a kinematically hot disc, that colder populations develop a more prominent bar and X-shaped peanut as compared to their hotter counterpart. Colder discs also exhibit lower line-of-sight velocities (when viewed edge-on) at the edges of the b/p compared to hot discs, in agreement with what is seen for the MW bulge. Furthermore, we explore an N-body model which has three co-spatial discs with metallicities which correspond to the stellar populations of the inner Milky Way, where the α-enhanced thick disc populations are massive and centrally concentrated. The metallicity trends seen in observations of the Bulge can be reproduced in the model without the need of adding any additional components, which hints to the disc origin of the MW’s bulge.
We investigate here the effect of the selection function on the metallicity distribution function (MDF) as well as on the vertical metallicity gradient by studying similar lines-of-sight using four different spectroscopic surveys (APOGEE, LAMOST, RAVE and Gaia-ESO) which have different targeting strategies and therefore different selection functions. We create mock fields for each survey using two stellar population synthesis models, GALAXIA and TRILEGAL. The effects of the selection function are studied in detail by applying the selection function to the two models and comparing the MDF as well as vertical metallicity gradients of the selected sources with that of the underlying sample. We find a negligible selection function effect on the MDF as well as on the vertical metallicity gradients for APOGEE, RAVE and LAMOST, and estimate a mean vertical metallicity gradient of -0.241±0.028 dex kpc−1.
To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in Milky Way-type galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. We find that the action of the stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of 10 in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion at the end of the bar formation phase. The star formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.
We test a model of stellar evolution synthesis by comparison with (V, B–V) counts at the pole. The history of the stellar birthrate and dynamical evolution in the disc is explicitly taken into account. The data span a large range of magnitudes from V = 7 to 22, and allow us to put new constraints on the evolution of the galactic disc.
Some results of the photometry multi-site observations of two δ Scuti stars, V624 Tau and HD 23194, are presented. The observations were carried out in the framework of a STEPHI network in 1999. We collected 343 hours of useful data and detected seven frequencies in V624 Tau and two frequencies in HD 23194.
Using Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions together with radial velocity data and individual ages estimated from isochones, the velocity ellipsoid has been determined as a function of age. On the basis of the available kinematic data two different samples were considered: a first one (7789 stars) for which only tangential velocities were calculated and a second one containing 3104 stars with available U, V and W velocity components and total velocities ≤ 65 km.s-1.
The main conclusions are: -Mixing is not complete at about 0.8-1 Gyr. -The shape of the velocity ellipsoid changes with time getting rounder from σu/σv/σ-w = 1/0.63/0.42 ± 0.04 at about 1 Gyr to1/0.7/0.62 ±0.04 at 4-5 Gyr. -The age-velocity-dispersion relation (from the sample with kinematical selection) rises to a maximum, thereafter remaining roughly constant; there is no dynamically significant evolution of the disk after about 4-5 Gyr. -Among the stars with solar metallicities and log(age) > 9.8 two groups are identified: one has typical thin disk characteristics, the other is older than 10 Gyr and lags the LSR at about 40 km.s-1 . -The variation of the tangential velocity with age(without selection on the tangential velocity) shows a discontinuity at about 10 Gyr, which may be attributed to stars typically of the thick disk populations for ages > 10 Gyr.
The Hipparcos catalogue provides an accurate and extensive sampling of the solar neighbourhood HR diagram. The morphology of this diagram depends on selection criteria of the catalogue such as the limiting magnitude, angular separation and on the characteristics of the stellar populations near the sun (space density, metallicity, star formation rate, etc). Since the Hipparcos data are so accurate, one needs to model precisely the different selection bias and, at the same time, parametrize models of the galactic stellar populations with sufficient flexibility that as much information as possible can be grasped from the catalogue.
Comparisons between our model and the Hipparcos catalogue will be presented elsewhere. Since the quantity of information contained in the Hipparcoscatalogue is so important, models ought to be complex, and external contraints, obtained prior to any general comparison with the model, are welcome.
A major factor that influences the distribution of the stars in the HR diagram is the metallicity. For the late type stars, the metallicity distribution can be best studied by re-analysing a volume-limited sample of stars from the catalogue.
One year before the first release of the first data from Gaia, how robust are our views of the Milky Way stellar populations? Recent results have shown that limits, differences and/or continuities between populations are not where we thought they were just a few years ago. The outer disk (> 10kpc) has properties essentially different from the inner (thin+thick) disk, while the bulge is best explained in terms of disk populations, with a negligible or inexistent classical bulge, suggesting that the Milky Way is a pure disk galaxy. Much less contingent than previously envisaged, the thick disk is probably the main phase of stellar mass creation in the MW, and the parent population of the thin disk. These results lead to fundamental changes in our views on the stellar mass growth of the Galaxy, secular mass redistribution in the disk, and imply a change of paradigm of the chemical evolution. I review these different advances, and discuss some of the key questions.
Present studies on the evolution of the Milky Way are driven and shaped by how we conceive its stellar populations, in an on going process started by W. Baade seventy years ago. Despite much progress and advances in our understanding of these populations, inspection of their main properties is however hardly indicative of the path the Milky Way has followed to build up its mass. This is not only a matter of (stellar) age measurement, but more so the consequence of how we interprete the structures that we see in our Galaxy, often through the filter of our definitions of stellar populations. The panorama presented in the following pages opens the possibility that the present “filter” is not fully adequate. I start these Lectures with a summary of the main properties of the disks, bulge, and halo, and then present some of the new directions in the interpretation of the structure and evolution of the disk(s), with emphasis on chemical evolution. I discuss recent results in our understanding of the bulge, its stellar components and chemical evolution. Finally, I present the ideas currently proposed to explain the formation of the Galactic stellar halo. I conclude by examining how deeply all these new results question our present definition of stellar populations.
The majority of extra-solar planets have been discovered (or confirmed after follow-up) through radial-velocity (RV) surveys. Using ground-based spectrographs such as High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Search (HARPS) and HARPS-North, it is now possible to detect planets that are only a few times the mass of the Earth. However, the presence of dark spots on the stellar surface produces RV signals that are very similar in amplitude to those caused by orbiting low-mass planets. Disentangling these signals has thus become the biggest challenge in the detection of Earth-mass planets using RV surveys. To do so, we use the star's lightcurve to model the RV variations produced by spots. Here we present this method and show the results of its application to CoRoT-7.
Since the discovery of the transiting Super-Earth CoRoT-7b, several investigations have been made of the number and precise masses of planets present in the system, but they all yield different results, owing to the star's high level of activity. Radial velocity (RV) variations induced by stellar activity therefore need to be modelled and removed to allow a reliable detection of all planets in the system. We re-observed CoRoT-7 in January 2012 with both HARPS and the CoRoT satellite, so that we now have the benefit of simultaneous RV and photometric data. We fitted the off-transit variations in the CoRoT lightcurve using a harmonic decomposition similar to that implemented in Queloz et al. (2009). This fit was then used to model the stellar RV contribution, according to the methods described by Aigrain et al. (2011). This model was incorporated into a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in order to make a precise determination of the orbits of CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c. We also assess the evidence for the presence of one or two additional planetary companions.
HPA is updating and consolidating its advice on radiation emergencies and recovery.
Current advice was published in 1997. Since 2007, the ICRP has issued a set of
recommendations to elaborate its guidance for emergency exposure and existing exposure
situations. It is expected that the European Basic Safety Standards, when published, will
also reflect the ICRP recommendations. The new ICRP guidance represents a marked change in
approach, with emphasis placed on optimisation of whole protection strategies using
reference levels of residual dose. These new concepts as well as the relevant lessons
identified following the Fukushima accident will be included in the new UK advice
document. The scope of the UK advice includes reactor and transport accidents as well as
releases from waste stores, reprocessing and defence activities. The revised advice will
consider the initiation of emergency countermeasures based on averted dose criteria and
optimisation of the subsequent protection strategy based on reference levels of residual
dose. The advice will illustrate that the type of protection strategy selected depends on
the contribution of different exposure pathways over time to projected dose, and this will
vary according to the scenarios considered as reasonably foreseeable. Due to the potential
impact of the advice, a wide range of stakeholders are being consulted. In particular,
feedback will be required on the potential for adapting current practices for sheltering
and stable iodine prophylaxis to situations involving longer duration releases or those
with a prolonged threat phase. The advice document will contain guidance for emergency
planning and response, criteria for the withdrawal of emergency countermeasures, factors
to consider during the transition to an existing exposure situation and the management of
long term contaminated areas. It is the first time that the whole spectrum of advice will
be presented in a single publication, which is expected to be published in 2013, following
a public consultation process.
Much of Alan Deyermond's work on sentimental romance concerned the various frontiers of the genre, be they generic or linguistic. In this article, I wish to foreground the material frontiers of Juan Rodríguez del Padrón's Siervo libre de amor (c. 1440) within its manuscript context as a participant text in a particular scriptum, ‘the unique presence that is the individual, concrete manuscript’ (Dagenais 1994: 129). The focus on the physical context of Siervo will permit me some reflections on generic relations and linguistic analogues. My approach is particularly informed by the lines pursued by Pedro M. Cátedra (1995), Emily Francomano (in press), and Barry Taylor (in press), but participates in the broader field of compilation studies. Cátedra and Francomano examine the manuscript as a register or matrix that assists the modern critic in understanding how the compiled works might have been read and used. In Cátedra's words, ‘El acto de la compilación, por la misma condición literaria de las piezas elencadas, no puede achacarse a un mero azar o a caprichosa economía codicológica’ (1995: 38). Taylor (in press), on the other hand, examines the manuscript as one of a series of material traces of works now considered incomplete. He studies the manuscript context as the final product in a series of processes of transmission in which various individuals participated – authors, compilers, scribes, rubricators, and so forth – in order to shed light on the reception and transmission of the works under consideration as complete or otherwise.