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CHDs are the most common type of birth defect. One in four newborns with a heart defect has a critical CHD. In Mexico, there is a lack of data available to determine its prevalence. Pulse oximetry screening programmes have been implemented worldwide, reporting opportunity areas in algorithm interpretation and data management. Our study aims to share preliminary results of a 3-year experience of a multicentre pulse oximetry screening programme that addresses critical challenges.
Materials and methods:
This retrospective study examined the reports of newborns screened from February 2016 to July 2019 from five hospitals. Two algorithms –the New Jersey and the American Academy of Pediatrics– were implemented over consecutive periods. The algorithms’ impact was assessed through the calculation of the false-positive rate in an eligible population.
A total of 8960 newborns were eligible for the study; from it, 32.27% were screened under the New Jersey and 67.72% under the American Academy of Pediatrics algorithm – false-positive rate: 1% (CI 95: ± 0.36%) and 0.71% (CI 95: ± 0.21%), respectively. Seventy-nine newborns were referred, six were diagnosed with critical CHD, and six with CHD. The critical CHD estimated prevalence was 6.69:10,000 newborns (CI 95: ± 5.36). Our results showed that the algorithm was not related to the observable false-positive rate reduction.
Other factors may play a role in decreasing the false-positive rate. Our experience implementing this programme was that a systematic screening process led to more confident results, newborn’s report interpretation, and follow-up.
Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex and severe chronic mental disease presenting deficits in an operational measure of sensorimotor gating and cognitive impairments. The history of delayed developmental milestones and the presence of minor physical abnormalities may represent indirect evidences of abnormal prenatal development. Premorbid cognitive, personality and social functioning deficits in patients severely affected are also reported. Among the several candidate risk genes potentially associated with SCZ via pleiotropic mechanisms and/or other genes specific to susceptibility for SCZ, the Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 gene (DISC1) is the most studied. Interestingly, the main binding partner and effector of DISC1 protein is the Nuclear-distribution gene E homolog like-1 (Ndel1), which is an oligopeptidase capable to degrade small peptides such as bradykinin (BK) and neurotensin (NT). Both neuropeptides were implicated in SCZ, and NT was also suggested to be an endogenous antipsychotic. DISC1 binding inhibits the Ndel1 enzyme activity competing with the peptide substrates, and the described translocation of DISC1 gene cosegregated with SCZ suggest a DISC1 and Ndel1 complex formation impairment with potential deregulation of the Ndel1 total activity. Other oligopeptidase, as Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE), is also able to cleave these peptides. Therefore, our group is focused on measuring the oligopeptidase activity not only in clinical samples to allow the comparison between patients and health controls (HCs), but we have also performed the same measurements in plasma and different brain regions of animal models aiming to have insights into what may be occurring in the human brain based on peripheral tissues measurements. A significant lower Ndel1 oligopeptidase activity (Gadelha et al., J Psych Res 2013) and significant higher ACE activity (Gadelha and Vendramine et al., submitted 2014) in the plasma of SCZ patients compared to HCs were observed. Moreover, a potential association of the ACE oligopeptidase activity with the cognitive/disorganization symptoms was observed in both SCZ patients and animal models. The evaluation of the activity of these oligopeptidases in patients and animal models treated with the same antipsychotics are currently ongoing in our laboratory. The results presented here support the potential involvement of Ndel1 and ACE in SCZ, and they may contribute to the discovery of molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and/or treatment follow-up of a severe chronic mental disease as SCZ, aiming to contribute to foster the translation of basic neurobiological and behavioral research to an improved integrative understanding of psychopathology for the development of a new and/or optimized treatments.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
With the ad hoc tribunals completing their mandates and the International Criminal Court under significant pressure, today's international criminal jurisdictions are at a critical juncture. Their legitimacy cannot be taken for granted. This multidisciplinary volume investigates key issues pertaining to legitimacy: criminal accountability, normative development, truth-discovery, complementarity, regionalism, and judicial cooperation. The volume sheds new light on previously unexplored areas, including the significance of redacted judgements, prosecutors' opening statements, rehabilitative processes of international convicts, victim expectations, court financing, and NGO activism. The book's original contributions will appeal to researchers, practitioners, advocates, and students of international criminal justice, accountability for war crimes and the rule of law.
Enhancement of the quality of laser wake-field accelerated (LWFA) electron beams implies the improvement and controllability of the properties of the wake waves generated by ultra-short pulse lasers in underdense plasmas. In this work we present a compendium of useful formulas giving relations between the laser and plasma target parameters allowing one to obtain basic dependences, e.g. the energy scaling of the electrons accelerated by the wake field excited in inhomogeneous media including multi-stage LWFA accelerators. Consideration of the effects of using the chirped laser pulse driver allows us to find the regimes where the chirp enhances the wake field amplitude. We present an analysis of the three-dimensional effects on the electron beam loading and on the unlimited LWFA acceleration in inhomogeneous plasmas. Using the conditions of electron trapping to the wake-field acceleration phase we analyse the multi-equal stage and multiuneven stage LWFA configurations. In the first configuration the energy of fast electrons is a linear function of the number of stages, and in the second case, the accelerated electron energy grows exponentially with the number of stages. The results of the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations presented here show the high quality electron acceleration in the triple stage injection–acceleration configuration.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.