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An animal's social behaviour both influences and changes in response to its parasites. Here we consider these bidirectional links between host social behaviours and parasite infection, both those that occur from ecological vs evolutionary processes. First, we review how social behaviours of individuals and groups influence ecological patterns of parasite transmission. We then discuss how parasite infection, in turn, can alter host social interactions by changing the behaviour of both infected and uninfected individuals. Together, these ecological feedbacks between social behaviour and parasite infection can result in important epidemiological consequences. Next, we consider the ways in which host social behaviours evolve in response to parasites, highlighting constraints that arise from the need for hosts to maintain benefits of sociality while minimizing fitness costs of parasites. Finally, we consider how host social behaviours shape the population genetic structure of parasites and the evolution of key parasite traits, such as virulence. Overall, these bidirectional relationships between host social behaviours and parasites are an important yet often underappreciated component of population-level disease dynamics and host–parasite coevolution.
In an empirical study on the classification of the psychoses, 302 patients were rated using the Longitudinal Psychopathology Schedule. The data were condensed by factor analysis, which yielded 10 factors - mania and schizomania, depression and suicidal activity, and 6 factors concerned with psychotic symptoms (verbal hallucinosis/passivity, delusion formation, defect symptoms, social decline, cycloid symptomatology and a factor loading depressive auditory hallucinations and visual hallucinations). Provisional diagnostic groups were obtained using DSM III. Discriminant function analyses showed that the only clearly distinct diagnostic group was bipolar disorder, and this was true for various definitions. Canonical variate analyses were performed using 3- and 4-criterion groups. These showed that a group corresponding approximately to cycloid psychosis also met criteria for being a distinct group. The most detailed examination pf the data, using 4-criterion groups and serial reclassification, suggested that the psychoses might fall into 5 groups - bipolar disorder, cycloid psychosis, depression, defect states and schizoaffective depression.
The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.
Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ. Multivariable logistic and non-parametric quantile regressions were conducted, as appropriate.
Hartford County, Connecticut, USA.
Latino adults (n 203), ≥21 years of age, with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, glycosylated Hb≥7 %, and without medical conditions limiting physical activity.
Participants’ education level, diabetes-related knowledge and English speaking were positively associated with NFP use. At the higher percentiles of diet quality score, NFP use was significantly associated with higher diet quality. Similarly, NFP users were more likely to consume a ‘healthy’ dietary pattern (P=0·003) and less likely to consume a ‘fried snack’ pattern (P=0·048) compared with NFP non-users.
The association between reported NFP use and diet quality was positive and significantly stronger among participants who reported consuming a healthier diet. While NFP use was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, not using NFP was associated with a less-healthy, fried snack pattern. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand whether improving NFP use could be an effective intervention to improve diet quality among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.
Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24–59 months.
A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score <−2) and overweight/obesity (BMI-for-age Z-score >+2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l).
Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu.
Mother–child pairs (n 305) recruited using convenience sampling.
Moderate or severe stunting was apparent in 20·3 % of children, 16·1 % were overweight/obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, P<0·01) than boys. Overweight/obesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group.
The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.
Marine-terminating outlet glaciers discharge most of the Greenland ice sheet's mass through frontal ablation and meltwater runoff. While calving can be estimated by in situ and remote sensing observations, submarine melting and subglacial meltwater transport are more challenging to quantify. Here we investigate the subglacial hydrology of Rink Isbræ, a fast-flowing West Greenland tidewater glacier, using time-lapse photography, modeled runoff estimates and daily satellite imagery from 2007 to 2011. We find that sediment plumes appear episodically at four distinct locations across the terminus, and last between 2 h and 17 d. This suggests short-term variability in discharge and the existence of persistent pathways. The seasonal onset of sediment plumes occurs before supraglacial lake drainages, shortly after the onset of runoff, and only after the wintertime ice mélange has begun disintegrating. Plumes were also visible after the cessation of runoff (23 ± 5 d), which is indicative of subglacial storage. The lack of either a seasonal velocity change or a correspondence between meltwater availability and plume occurrence suggests that the subglacial system persists in a state of inefficient drainage. Subglacial hydrology at tidewater glaciers is of critical importance in understanding dynamics at the ice front.
We present observations of an “EIT wave” associated with an X-class flare from 2012 July 6, the propagation of which was severely restricted by the magnetic structure of the solar corona surrounding the erupting active region. The “EIT wave” was observed by both SDO and STEREO-A, allowing a three-dimensional examination of how the propagation of the disturbance was affected both by a neighbouring coronal hole and a trans-equatorial loop system. In addition, the eruption was observed at the limb by the ground-based CoMP instrument, allowing the Doppler motion associated with the eruption and resulting coronal loop oscillation to be investigated in detail. This combination of data-sets provides a unique insight into the three-dimensional evolution of the “EIT wave” and its effects on the surrounding corona.
This work presents an analysis of UV spectroscopic observations from the IRIS satellite of an M1.0 class flare occurred on 12 June 2014 in active region NOAA 12087. Our analysis of the IRIS spectra and Slit-Jaw images revealed presence of a strongly redshifted chromospheric jet before the flare. We also found strong emission of the chromospheric lines, and studied the C II 1334.5 Å line emission distribution in details. A blueshift of the Fe XXI line across the flaring region corresponds to evaporation flows of the hot chromospheric plasma with a speed of 50 km/s. Although the enhancement of the C II line integrated redshift correlates with the flare X-ray emission, we classify the evaporation as of a “gentle” type because of its long time scale and subsonic velocities. Analysis of X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite showed that both, an injection of accelerated particles and a heat flux from the energy release site can explain the energetics of the observed event.
We review nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling of magnetic fields in active regions. The NLFFF model (in which the electric current density is parallel to the magnetic field) is often adopted to describe the coronal magnetic field, and numerical solutions to the model are constructed based on photospheric vector magnetogram boundary data. Comparative tests of NLFFF codes on sets of boundary data have revealed significant problems, in particular associated with the inconsistency of the model and the data. Nevertheless NLFFF modeling is often applied, in particular to flare-productive active regions. We examine the results, and discuss their reliability.
During late October 2014, active region NOAA 2192 caused an unusual high level of solar activity, within an otherwise weak solar cycle. While crossing the solar disk, during a period of 11 days, it was the source of 114 flares of GOES class C1.0 and larger, including 29 M- and 6 X-flares. Surprisingly, none of the major flares (GOES class M5.0 and larger) was accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, contrary to statistical tendencies found in the past. From modeling the coronal magnetic field of NOAA 2192 and its surrounding, we suspect that the cause of the confined character of the flares is the strong surrounding and overlying large-scale magnetic field. Furthermore, we find evidence for multiple magnetic reconnection processes within a single flare, during which electrons were accelerated to unusual high energies.
The proper characterisation of stellar winds is essential for the study of propagation of eruptive events (flares, coronal mass ejections) and the study of space weather events on exoplanets. Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the stellar winds surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters’ orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that the exoplanets studied here are immersed in a local stellar wind that is much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets (e.g., 5 orders of magnitude denser than the conditions experienced by the Earth). The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than the interplanetary medium surrounding the Earth). The characterisation of the host star's wind is also crucial for the study of how the wind interacts with exoplanets. For example, we compute the exoplanetary radio emission that is released in the wind-exoplanet interaction. For the hot-Jupiters studied here, we find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy. These fluxes could become orders of magnitude higher when stellar eruptions impact exoplanets, increasing the potential of detecting exoplanetary radio emission.
Coronal mass ejections are the most spectacular form of solar activity and they play a key role in driving space weather at the Earth. These eruptions are associated with active regions and occur throughout an active region's entire lifetime. All coronal mass ejection models invoke the presence of a twisted magnetic field configuration known as a magnetic flux rope either before or after eruption onset. The observational identification of magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere using remote sensing data represents a challenging task, but theoretical models have led to the understanding that there are signatures that reveal their presence. The range of coronal mass ejection models are helping build a more complete picture of both the trigger and drivers of these eruptions.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a new instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been constructed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is a 600-night radial-velocity survey targeting 300 M dwarfs with sufficient precision to detect terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s−1. The wavelength calibration will be done with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps, and with Fabry-Pérot etalons.
Slow magnetoacoustic waves were first detected in hot (>6 MK) flare loops by the SOHO/SUMER spectrometer as Doppler shift oscillations in Fe xix and Fe xxi lines. Recently, such longitudinal waves have been found by SDO/AIA in the 94 and 131 Å channels. Wang et al. (2015) reported the first AIA event revealing signatures in agreement with a fundamental standing slow-mode wave, and found quantitative evidence for thermal conduction suppression from the temperature and density perturbations in the hot loop plasma of ≳ 9 MK. The present study extends the work of Wang et al. (2015) by using an alternative approach. We determine the polytropic index directly based on the polytropic assumption instead of invoking the linear approximation. The same results are obtained as in the linear approximation, indicating that the nonlinearity effect is negligible. We find that the flare loop cools slower (by a factor of 2–4) than expected from the classical Spitzer conductive cooling, approximately consistent with the result of conduction suppression obtained from the wave analysis. The modified Spitzer cooling timescales based on the nonlocal conduction approximation are consistent with the observed, suggesting that nonlocal conduction may account for the observed conduction suppression in this event. In addition, the conduction suppression mechanism predicts that larger flares may tend to be hotter than expected by the EM-T relation derived by Shibata & Yokoyama (2002).
A small flare ribbon above a sunspot umbra in active region 12205 was observed on November 7, 2014, at 12:00 UT in the blue imaging channel of the 1.5-m GREGOR telescope, using a 0.1 nm Ca II H interference filter. Context observations from SDO/AIA, Hinode/SOT, and IRIS show that the ribbon is a part of a larger one that extends through the neighboring positive polarities and also participates in several other flares within the active region. A 140 second long time series of Ca II H images was reconstructed by means of the Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution method, giving the respective spatial and temporal resolutions of 0”.1 and 1 s. Light curves and horizontal velocities of small-scale bright knots in the observed flare ribbon were measured. Some knots are stationary but three move along the ribbon with speeds of 7–11 km s−1. Two of them move in the opposite direction and exhibit highly correlated intensity changes, providing evidence for the presence of slipping reconnection at small spatial scales.
Accumulation is a key parameter governing the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Several studies have documented the spatial variability of accumulation over wide spatial scales, primarily using point data, remote sensing or modeling. Direct measurements of spatially extensive, detailed profiles of accumulation in Greenland, however, are rare. We used 400 MHz ground-penetrating radar along the 1009 km route of the Greenland Inland Traverse from Thule to Summit during April and May of 2011, to image continuous internal reflecting horizons. We dated these horizons using ice-core chemistry at each end of the traverse. Using density profiles measured along the traverse, we determined the depth to the horizons and the corresponding water-equivalent accumulation rates. The measured accumulation rates vary from ~0.1 m w.e. a–1 in the interior to ~0.7 m w.e. a–1 near the coast, and correspond broadly with existing published model results, though there are some excursions. Comparison of our recent accumulation rates with those collected along a similar route in the 1950s shows a ~10% increase in accumulation rates over the past 52 years along most of the traverse route. This implies that the increased water vapor capacity of warmer air is increasing accumulation in the interior of Greenland.
Mass loss from mountain glaciers contributes to sea-level rise and reduces freshwater availability in glacier-fed river basins, with negative effects on hydropower generation, agriculture and the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we determine the volume of lower Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada, from ground-penetrating radar surveys in 2008–10, and compare our volume estimate with previous estimates from 1966 and 1984. The long-term record of mass-balance estimates on Peyto Glacier highlights Peyto’s importance as an ‘index’ glacier for the region. We calculate a mean volume of (3.39 ± 0.30) × 107 m3 for the glacier snout for the period 2008–10. Glacier volume decreased linearly from 1966 to 2010. If this trend persists, the glacier snout will disappear by ~2019 and Peyto Glacier will have retreated by ~1 km. Our results agree with modelling studies, which suggest that Peyto Glacier and other nearby glaciers along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains will likely lose 80–90% of their present-day volume by 2100.
Zirconium is of interest in the development of high-density diffusion barriers in nuclear reactor applications because of its low thermal neutron absorption cross section and good thermal and mechanical properties. It is used in these applications to protect the low enriched fuel from interacting directly with the cladding material to prevent swelling and cracking of the fuel. In this work, we investigated the use of plasma spraying as a method to produce high quality, dense Zr barrier coatings over large surface areas. A thin sheet of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel (SS) was used as the substrate material. Both sides of the SS sheet were coated, one side at a time. A transfer arc (TA) current between a torch and the substrate was used to vary the substrate temperature to explore the effect of temperature and time on the film grain size, interface quality, and film porosity. The films were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and EDS-SEM Although the film quality did improved with temperature, at the elevated substrate temperatures used in this study, metal atoms from the substrate diffused into and, at the highest temperature and longest time, through the Zr coatings.
Tidewater glaciers deposit sediment at their terminus, thereby reducing the relative water depth. Reduced water depth can lead to increased glacier stability through decreased rates of iceberg calving, glacier thinning and submarine melting. Here we investigate sedimentation processes at the termini of Kronebreen and Kongsvegen, Svalbard. We mapped the fjord floor bathymetry in August 2009 and calculate sedimentation rates based on our bathymetry and that from a similar study in 2005. A grounding-line fan is developing near the current position of the subglacial stream. An older, abandoned grounding-line fan that likely formed between ∼1987 and 2001 is degrading near the middle of the ice front. Our findings indicate that sediment gravity flows reduce the height of the sediment mound forming at the glacier terminus. The future impact of glacimarine sedimentation processes on glacier stability will depend on the net balance between the observed gravity flows and sediment deposition.
To determine which terms receivers of mental health services wish to be known by (service user, patient, client, user, survivor) according to the professional consulted (psychiatrist, nurse, psychologist, social worker, occupational therapist). We conducted a questionnaire study to assess terms by like or dislike and by rank order. There were 336 participants from local catchment area secondary care community and in-patient settings in east Hertfordshire.
Patient is the preferred term when consulted by psychiatrists and nurses, but it is equally preferable to client for social workers and occupational therapists. Service user is disliked more than liked overall, particularly by those who consulted a health professional, but not by those who consulted a social worker. A significant minority wish to be regarded as a survivor or user.
National and local mental health services should adopt evidence-based terminology in referring to ‘patient’ or, in some groups, ‘patient or client’ in preference to ‘service user’.