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There is a growing knowledge base in understanding the differences and similarities between women and men, as well as the diversities among women and sexualities. Although genetic and biological characteristics define human beings conventionally as women and men, their experiences are contextualized in multiple dimensions in terms of gender, sexuality, class, age, ethnicity, and other social dimensions. Beyond the biological and genetic basis of gender differences, gender intersects with culture and other social locations which affect the socialization and development of women across their life span. This handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date resource to understand the intersectionality of gender differences, to dispel myths, and to examine gender-relevant as well as culturally relevant implications and appropriate interventions. Featuring a truly international mix of contributors, and incorporating cross-cultural research and comparative perspectives, this handbook will inform mainstream psychology of the international literature on the psychology of women and gender.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Children with medical complexity (CMC) comprise less than 5% of the pediatric population and over 40% of pediatric spending, yet receive poorer quality health care compared with other children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recently identified shared decision making (SDM) as a key quality indicator for CMC, but there is no consensus model for SDM in CMC. Objective: To create a model of SDM from perspectives of parents of CMC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Interviews with parents of CMC explored SDM preferences and experiences. Eligible parents were ≥18 years old, English-speaking or Spanish-speaking, with a CMC <12 years old. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by 3 independent coders for shared themes using grounded theory. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Interviews were with 31 parents [26 English speakers, median parent age 33 years (SD 11), median child age 3 years (SD 3.6)] in inpatient and outpatient settings. We identified specific, unique components of SDM that affect decision quality, the alignment of a decision with the parent’s preferences and values. Themes included: concerns about uncertainty of the child’s life trajectory, conflict during parent-provider communication, health system factors such as provider schedule; parent agency, and the influence of the source of information. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our findings provide specific components of SDM unique to CMC that can inform future research and interventions to support SDM for parents and providers of CMC.
Maternal cardiac disease complicates up to 4% of pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal death. The anesthetic management of affected obstetric patients can be challenging and requires a thorough understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology and the physiological effects of pregnancy. The normal physiological changes of pregnancy result in a hyperdynamic cardiovascular system. These changes may significantly compromise the parturient with cardiac disease and affect anesthetic management for labor and delivery. Obstetric patients with cardiac disease require an early anesthesia consultation to allow appropriate anesthetic management to be determined. Vaginal delivery with a shortened second stage is usually preferred although there are some important exceptions. Cesarean delivery may be indicated in some patients with cardiac disease. Congenital heart disease (CHD) leads the cardiac causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Postpartum monitoring should occur in a high dependency unit.
The liquid lining in small human airways can become unstable and form liquid plugs that close off the airways. Direct numerical simulations are carried out on an airway model to study this airway instability and the flow-induced stresses on the airway walls. The equations governing the fluid motion and the interfacial boundary conditions are solved using the finite-volume method coupled with the sharp interface method for the free surface. The dynamics of the closure process is simulated for a viscous Newtonian film with constant surface tension and a passive core gas phase. In addition, a special case is examined that considers the core dynamics so that comparisons can be made with the experiments of Bian et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 647, 2010, p. 391). The computed flow fields and stress distributions are consistent with the experimental findings. Within the short time span of the closure process, there are large fluctuations in the wall shear stress. Furthermore, dramatic velocity changes in the film during closure indicate a steep normal stress gradient on the airway wall. The computational results show that the wall shear stress, normal stress and their gradients during closure can be high enough to injure airway epithelial cells.
We describe how students explore materials science concepts using animated interactive spreadsheets. An engaging pedagogy is created in the classroom using spreadsheets in a way that initially camouflages mathematical complexity, which can later be revealed and taught. Use of off-the-shelf spreadsheet software, including freeware makes these spreadsheets universally available.
We report structural studies of large-scale wurtzite GaN nanowires fabricated by direct reaction of Ga vapor and NH3. This recently reported growth technique  demonstrates processing of GaN one-dimensional structures as thin as 26 nm and up to 500 μm in length. This method is both interesting and attractive in that fabrication is carried out without the assistance of template materials as required by other methods. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to characterize the nanowires, while x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data provide supporting structural/compositional analysis. Our structural investigation reveals the presence of thin hexagonal platelets, which we believe play a critical role in the nucleation, growth, and orientation of the wires. In particular, our findings indicate that most of the wires grow along the  direction, normal to the platelet edges.
We describe a new approach to deposition of Parylene N thin films. It utilizes a small scale, sonic speed, Jet Vapor DepositionTM (JVDTM) process technology in place of the conventional larger scale, slow flow, Gorham apparatus. It employs a simple but powerful strategy to promote radical polymerization: exposure of the growing film, during deposition, to a high flux of atomic hydrogen. We believe that H atoms have two effects: they clean oxygen from the substrate, and they promote crosslinking in the Parylene film by abstraction of H atoms from the Parylene ring or side groups. With “H atom assisted JVD” Parylene N deposits and adheres even on warm substrates; it has reduced index of refraction and dielectric constant.
As MOSFET dimensions are aggressively scaled, minimizing the thermal budget becomes critical for limiting the diffusion of channel profiles. Unfortunately, high quality dielectrics with low deposition temperatures have not been readily available. Typical room temperature dielectrics are porous and electrically leaky. A promising technique for low temperature dielectric deposition is Jet Vapor Deposition (JVD).  Two coaxial quartz nozzles spray the process gases to the substrate surface at super-sonic speeds while a microwave cavity generates a plasma in the nozzle.  We have successfully deposited silicon nitride films using SiH4/He and N2/He gas mixtures. These are the first reported JVD results on 200 mm wafers.
We report high quality epitaxial growth of GaN film by pulsed laser deposition technique. In this method, a KrF pulsed excimer laser was used for ablation of a polycrystalline, stoichiometric GaN target. The ablated material was deposited on a substrate kept at a distance of ∼ 7 cm from the target surface and in an NH3 background pressure of 10−5 Torr and temperature of 750°C. The films (∼0.5 μm thick) grown on AIN buffered sapphire showed a x-ray diffraction rocking curve FWHM of 4–6 arc minutes. The ion channeling minimum yield in the surface region was ∼3% indicating a high degree of crystallinity. The optical band gap was found to be 3.4 eV. The epitaxial films were shiny, and the surface RMS roughness was ∼ 5–15 nm. The electrical resistivity of these films was in the range of 10−2–102 Ω-cm with a mobility in excess of 60 cm2V-1s−1 and carrier concentration of 1017–1019cm−3.
Heavy ion irradiations of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes and total ionization dose of gallium nitride nanowires were investigated. Post irradiation analyses of samples were performed with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy.
Many materials science concepts can be developed into animated, interactive spreadsheets to create engaging discovery learning tools. These Excel spreadsheets do not require programming expertise. Learning how to create and use these didactically useful spreadsheets is simple and new examples can be quickly created by teachers.