To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Functional changes in the brain during ageing can alter learning and memory, gait and balance – in some cases leading to early cognitive decline, disability or injurious falls among older adults. Dietary interventions with strawberry (SB) have been associated with improvements in neuronal, psychomotor and cognitive functions in rodent models of ageing. We hypothesised that dietary supplementation with SB would improve mobility and cognition among older adults. In this study, twenty-two men and fifteen women, between the ages of 60 and 75 years, were recruited into a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they consumed either freeze-dried SB (24 g/d, equivalent to two cups of fresh SB) or a SB placebo for 90 d. Participants completed a battery of balance, gait and cognitive tests at baseline and again at 45 and 90 d of intervention. Significant supplement group by study visit interactions were observed on tests of learning and memory. Participants in the SB group showed significantly shorter latencies in a virtual spatial navigation task (P = 0·020, ηp2 = 0·106) and increased word recognition in the California Verbal Learning test (P = 0·014, ηp2 = 0·159) across study visits relative to controls. However, no improvement in gait or balance was observed. These findings show that the addition of SB to the diets of healthy, older adults can improve some aspects of cognition, but not gait or balance, although more studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up are needed to confirm this finding.
We have found a class of circular radio objects in the Evolutionary Map of the Universe Pilot Survey, using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The objects appear in radio images as circular edge-brightened discs, about one arcmin diameter, that are unlike other objects previously reported in the literature. We explore several possible mechanisms that might cause these objects, but none seems to be a compelling explanation.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Introduction: Little is known about how Royal College emergency medicine (RCEM) residency programs are selecting their residents. This creates uncertainty regarding alignment between our current selection processes and known best practices and results in a process that is difficult to navigate for prospective candidates. We seek to describe the current selection processes of Canadian RCEM programs. Methods: An online survey was distributed to all RCEM program directors and assistant directors. The survey instrument included 22 questions consisting of both open-ended (free text) and closed-ended (Likert scale) elements. Questions sought qualitative and quantitative data from the following 6 domains; paper application, letters of reference, elective selection, interview, rank order, and selection process evaluation. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: We received responses from 13/14 programs for an aggregate response rate of 92.9%. A candidate's letter of reference was identified as the single most important item from the paper application (38.5%). Having a high level of familiarity with the applicant was considered to be the most important characteristic of a reference letter author (46.2%). Respondents found that providing a percentile rank of the applicant was useful when reviewing candidate reference letters. Once the interview stage is reached, 76.9% of programs stated that the interview was weighted at least as heavily as the paper application; 53.8% weighted the interview more heavily. Once final candidate scores are established for both the paper application and the interview, 100% of programs indicated that further adjustment is made to the rank order list. Only 1/13 programs reported ever having completed a formal evaluation of their selection process. Conclusion: The information gained from this study helps to characterize the landscape of the RCEM residency selection process. We identified significant heterogeneity between programs with respect to which application elements were most valued. Canadian emergency medicine residency programs should re-evaluate their selection processes to achieve improved consistency and better alignment with selection best practices.
We characterized the impact of removal of the ESBL designation from microbiology reports on inpatient antibiotic prescribing. Definitive prescribing of carbapenems decreased from 48.4% to 16.1% (P = .01) and β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination increased from 19.4% to 61.3% (P = .002). Our findings confirm the importance of collaboration between microbiology and antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories.
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30 kg/m2). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D) = 16 and = 25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age.
When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14–1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85–1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91–1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05–1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in women and 23 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in men.
There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression.
Community advisory boards (CABs) are a valuable strategy for engaging and partnering with communities in research. Eighty-nine percent of Clinical and Translational Science Awardees (CTSA) responding to a 2011 survey reported having a CAB. CTSAs’ experiences with CABs are valuable for informing future practice. This study was conducted to describe common CAB implementation practices among CTSAs; document perceived benefits, challenges, and contributions; and examine their progress toward desirable outcomes. A cross-CTSA collaborative team collected survey data from respondents representing academic and/or community members affiliated with CTSAs with CABs. Data representing 44 CTSAs with CABs were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A majority of respondents reported practices reflecting respect for CAB members’ expertise and input such as compensation (75%), advisory purview beyond their CTSA’s Community Engagement program (88%), and influence over CAB operations. Three-quarters provide members with orientation and training on roles and responsibilities and 89% reported evaluating their CAB. Almost all respondents indicated their CTSA incorporates the feedback of their CABs to some degree; over half do so a lot or completely. This study profiles practices that inform CTSAs implementing a CAB and provide an evaluative benchmark for those with existing CABs.
Objectives: Insomnia is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction. Evidence points to the role of nocturnal light exposure in disrupted sleep patterns, particularly blue light emitted through smartphones and computers used before bedtime. This study aimed to test whether blocking nocturnal blue light improves neuropsychological function in individuals with insomnia symptoms. Methods: This study used a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were randomly assigned to a 1-week intervention with amber lenses worn in wrap-around frames (to block blue light) or a 1-week intervention with clear lenses (control) and switched conditions after a 4-week washout period. Neuropsychological function was evaluated with tests from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery at three time points: (1) baseline (BL), (2) following the amber lenses intervention, and (3) following the clear lenses intervention. Within-subjects general linear models contrasted neuropsychological test performance following the amber lenses and clear lenses conditions with BL performance. Results: Fourteen participants (mean(standard deviation, SD): age = 46.5(11.4)) with symptoms of insomnia completed the protocol. Compared with BL, individuals performed better on the List Sorting Working Memory task after the amber lenses intervention, but similarly after the clear lenses intervention (F = 5.16; p = .014; η2 = 0.301). A similar pattern emerged on the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed test (F = 7.65; p = 0.002; η2 = 0.370). Consideration of intellectual ability indicated that treatment with amber lenses “normalized” performance on each test from approximately 1 SD below expected performance to expected performance. Conclusions: Using a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, we demonstrated improvement in processing speed and working memory with a nocturnal blue light blocking intervention among individuals with insomnia symptoms. (JINS, 2019, 25, 668–677)
The road to legalization of Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) across Canada has largely focused on legislative details such as eligibility and establishment of regulatory clinical practice standards. Details on how to implement high-quality, person-centered MAID programs at the institutional level are lacking. This study seeks to understand what improvement opportunities exist in the delivery of the MAID process from the family caregiver perspective.
This multi-methods study design used structured surveys, focus groups, and unstructured e-mail/phone conversations to gather experiential feedback from family caregivers of patients who underwent MAID between July 2016 and June 2017 at a large academic hospital in Toronto, Canada. Data were combined and a qualitative, descriptive approach used to derive themes within family perspectives.
Improvement themes identified through the narrative data (48% response rate) were grouped in two categories: operational and experiential aspects of MAID. Operational themes included: process clarity, scheduling challenges and the 10-day period of reflection. Experiential themes included clinician objection/judgment, patient and family privacy, and bereavement resources.
Significance of results
To our knowledge, this is the first time that family caregivers’ perspectives on the quality of the MAID process have been explored. Although practice standards have been made available to ensure all legislated components of the MAID process are completed, detailed guidance for how to best implement patient and family centered MAID programs at the institutional level remain limited. This study provides guidance for ways in which we can enhance the quality of MAID from the perspective of family caregivers.
Background: Despite the global impact of bipolar disorder (BD), treatment success is limited. Challenges include syndromal and subsyndromal mood instability, comorbid anxiety, and uncertainty around mechanisms to target. The Oxford Mood Action Psychology Programme (OxMAPP) offered a novel approach within a cognitive behavioural framework, via mental imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT). Aims: This clinical audit evaluated referral rates, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction with the OxMAPP service. Method: Eleven outpatients with BD received ImCT in addition to standard psychiatric care. Mood data were collected weekly from 6 months pre-treatment to 6 months post-treatment via routine mood monitoring. Anxiety was measured weekly from start of treatment until 1 month post-treatment. Patient feedback was provided via questionnaire. Results: Referral and treatment uptake rates indicated acceptability to referrers and patients. From pre- to post-treatment, there was (i) a significant reduction in the duration of depressive episode relapses, and (ii) a non-significant trend towards a reduction in the number of episodes, with small to medium effect size. There was a large effect size for the reduction in weekly anxiety symptoms from assessment to 1 month follow-up. Patient feedback indicated high levels of satisfaction with ImCT, and underscored the importance of the mental imagery focus. Conclusions: This clinical audit provides preliminary evidence that ImCT can help improve depressive and anxiety symptoms in BD as part of integrated clinical care, with high patient satisfaction and acceptability. Formal assessment designs are needed to further test the feasibility and efficacy of the new ImCT treatment on anxiety and mood instability.