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Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is a novel concept under scrutiny for a definite inclusion in the psychiatric taxonomy, after showing correlations with overt expressions of psychopathology. This study aims to assist the scientific dialogue concerning IAD while presenting comparative data on adolescent psychopathology before and during a major economic crisis that has affected Greece from 2010 onwards.
This is a cross-sectional study of a high school student population, aged 12–18, on IAD which follows-up a 2006 survey, and is carried out 5 years later at the same school classes. A comparison on psychopathological symptoms between the two samples is carried out to confirm any underlying correlations with IAD while providing some first insight on any effects of the economic crisis on adolescent psyche.
Results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population paralleling the increase in Internet availability at home. Adolescents affected with IAD present with more psychopathological symptoms. A comparison between the 2006 and 2011 samples reveals lower rates of general psychopathology but similar burden of reported symptoms.
Those findings are discussed in the framework of adolescent coping to adversity, individual reactions to major crises, as well as the general debate regarding the value of IAD as a distinct diagnosis. The effects of the economic crisis may have triggered an adaptive response in the adolescent population although IAD as a distinct nosological entity is clearly linked to more symptoms of overt psychopathology. Directions are offered for further research in countries affected by crises.
Gender is known to modulate the clinical course and severity of bipolar disorder (BD). Although cognitive abnormalities are an established feature of BD, there is limited information regarding whether gender also influences the pattern and severity of cognitive impairment.
We evaluated the performance of 86 remitted patients with BD, type 1, (BD-I) (36 male and 50 female) and 46 healthy participants (21 male and 25 female) on tasks of general intellectual ability, memory encoding, recognition and retrieval, response inhibition and executive function (abstraction and perseveration). The impact of illness severity in patients was assessed using the global assessment of functioning (GAF).
We found a gender effect and an interaction between diagnosis and gender on immediate memory, implicating encoding and retrieval processes, both showing male BD-I patients being disadvantaged compared with female patients and healthy controls. Immediate memory correlated with GAF scores and this association was statistically significant for male BD-I patients.
Our findings suggest that gender differences in BD-I are associated with memory function, particularly processes relating to encoding and retrieval, and may contribute to poor functional outcome particularly in men.
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