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Despite prenatal diagnosis, prenatal intervention, and immediate postnatal intervention, patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact or highly restrictive atrial septum have the highest risk for mortality. Charts for all infants diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome from 2009 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed and compared, including pulmonary vein Doppler patterns on fetal echocardiogram and evidence of pulmonary lymphangiectasia on fetal MRI. Of the 81 newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, we defined two groups. Group 1 patients had an adequate atrial septal communication (n = 69), while Group 2 met criteria for intact/restrictive septum (n = 12). No patient in Group 1 had a type C pulmonary vein Doppler pattern, while no patient in Group 2 had a type A pulmonary vein Doppler pattern. The two patients with pulmonary lymphangiectasia had type C pulmonary vein Doppler pattern and an intact atrial septum and did not survive. Survival to discharge for Group 1 was 83% compared to 58% for Group 2 (p = 0.116). Survival to stage 2 palliation was 71% for Group 1 compared to 50% for Group 2 (p = 0.186). Only 4 of the initial 12 patients from Group 2 are alive, which is an overall survival of 33%. Our experience supports previous evidence that fetal echocardiography can identify those patients with the greatest likelihood for postnatal intervention as well as those at highest risk for mortality. Fetal MRI is a novel imaging modality that may help providers separate patients at highest risk for mortality, regardless of pulmonary vein Doppler pattern.
Particulate matter (PM) specimens from a traffic site were sampled on Teflon filters using a low volume sampler. The sampling campaign ran over a one-year period with sampling frequency of twice a week for both PM2.5 and PM10. X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, which are not commonly used in PM analysis, have been utilized successfully to identify crystalline phases present, including secondary pollutants. XRD data confirmed results obtained by X-ray fluorescence, positive matrix factorization modeling, and scanning electron microscopy. PM2.5 consisted mainly of secondary sulfates, like Mascagnite [(NH4)2SO4], Koktaite [(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2·H2O], and Gypsum [CaSO4·2H2O]. For PM10, it was found that the major phases are mostly originating from natural sources, such as dust storms and sea salts, in addition to secondary compounds, such as sodium nitrate. The main phases identified were Calcite, Quartz, Gypsum, Halite, and Palygorskite.
Novel commercially available software has enabled registration of both CT and MRI images to rapidly fuse with X-ray fluoroscopic imaging. We describe our initial experience performing cardiac catheterisations with the guidance of 3D imaging overlay using the VesselNavigator system (Philips Healthcare, Best, NL). A total of 33 patients with CHD were included in our study. Demographic, advanced imaging, and catheterisation data were collected between 1 December, 2016 and 31 January, 2019. We report successful use of this technology in both diagnostic and interventional cases such as placing stents and percutaneous valves, performing angioplasties, occlusion of collaterals, and guidance for lymphatic interventions. In addition, radiation exposure was markedly decreased when comparing our 10–15-year-old coarctation of the aorta stent angioplasty cohort to cases without the use of overlay technology and the most recently published national radiation dose benchmarks. No complications were encountered due to the application of overlay technology. 3D CT or MRI overlay for CHD intervention with rapid registration is feasible and aids decisions regarding access and planned angiographic angles. Operators found intraprocedural overlay fusion registration using placed vessel guidewires to be more accurate than attempts using bony structures.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging pathogen of global importance. We attempted to gain an insight into the organisation, distribution and mutational load of the virus strains reported from different parts of the world. We describe transmission dynamics and genetic characterisation of CHIKV across the globe during the last 65 years from 1952 to 2017. The evolutionary pattern of CHIKV was analysed using the E1 protein gene through phylogenetic, Bayesian and Network methods with a dataset of 265 sequences from various countries. The time to most recent common ancestor of the virus was estimated to be 491 years ago with an evolutionary rate of 2.78 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year. Genetic characterisation of CHIKV strains was carried out in terms of variable sites, selection pressure and epitope mapping. The neutral selection pressure on the E1 gene of the virus suggested a stochastic process of evolution. We identified six potential epitope peptides in the E1 protein showing substantial interaction with human MHC-I and MHC-II alleles. The present study augments global epidemiological and population dynamics of CHIKV warranting undertaking of appropriate control measures. The identification of epitopic peptides can be useful in the development of epitope-based vaccine strategies against this re-emerging viral pathogen.
Heating coils utilize the concept of resistive heating to convert electrical energy into thermal energy. Uniform heating of the target area is the key performance indicator for heating coil design. Highly uniform distribution of temperature can be achieved by using a dense metal distribution in the area under consideration, however, this increases the cost of production significantly. A low-cost and efficient heating coil should have excellent temperature uniformity while having minimum metal consumption. In this work, space-filling fractal curves, such as Peano curve, Hilbert curve and Moore curve of various orders, have been studied as geometries for heating coils. In order to compare them in an effective way, the area of the geometries has been held constant at 30 mm × 30 mm and a constant power of 2 W has been maintained across all the geometries. Further, the thickness of the metal coils and their widths have been kept constant for all geometries. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results show Hilbert and Moore curves of order-4, and Peano curve of order-3 outperform the typical double-spiral heater in terms of temperature uniformity and metal coil length.
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which are inherently complaint capacitors, are emerging as pseudo-muscular actuators with a wide range of applications. In order to achieve high stretchability for large DEA actuation, carbon nanotube (CNT) and other 1D materials-based electrodes are used to maintain conductance at large strains. These electrodes are typically fabricated using spray coating or filter transfer method and resemble a perforated electrode under high magnification. Hence, there can be a loss of field and stray capacitance when multiple layers of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based electrodes are used. This study investigates the effect of microscopic perforations on the nature of electric fields and on the capacitance of multi-layered CNT-based DEA structures with various dimensions and geometric properties of the electrodes. It has been found that the capacitance decreases with increase in the perforations however its effect is limited for a reasonable coverage. The change in normalized is found to be negligible (∼5%) for an electrode coverage area of over 90%, however, the maximum output work reduces by 18.2%. This analysis is important to develop robust and reliable CNT-based DEA structures, without using excessive CNTs which can lead to increased mechanical stiffness of the electrodes.
Early laryngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy or surgery has a high cure rate. This study evaluated the patterns of treatment failure and long-term results of early laryngeal cancers treated with definitive radiotherapy.
From January 2002 to December 2014, a total of 242 patients with early-stage laryngeal cancers were treated with radical radiotherapy.
All patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (92 per cent male and 8 per cent female). Median follow-up was 4.5 years. The majority of patients were smokers (57.4 per cent). Local failure was seen in 12.5 per cent of stage I patients and 22.8 per cent of stage II patients. The 5-year overall survival and disease specific survival were 84 per cent and 91 per cent, respectively.
In summary, radiotherapy is a suitable treatment modality for patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer, with an overall locoregional control rate of 84 per cent. Patients who fail radiotherapy may still undergo salvage laryngectomy.
Frascati international research criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are controversial; some investigators have argued that Frascati criteria are too liberal, resulting in a high false positive rate. Meyer et al. recommended more conservative revisions to HAND criteria, including exploring other commonly used methodologies for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV including the global deficit score (GDS). This study compares NCI classifications by Frascati, Meyer, and GDS methods, in relation to neuroimaging markers of brain integrity in HIV.
Two hundred forty-one people living with HIV (PLWH) without current substance use disorder or severe (confounding) comorbid conditions underwent comprehensive neurocognitive testing and brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Participants were classified using Frascati criteria versus Meyer criteria: concordant unimpaired [Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un)], concordant impaired [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Imp)], or discordant [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un)] which were impaired via Frascati criteria but unimpaired via Meyer criteria. To investigate the GDS versus Meyer criteria, the same groupings were utilized using GDS criteria instead of Frascati criteria.
When examining Frascati versus Meyer criteria, discordant Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter, greater sulcal cerebrospinal fluid volume, and greater evidence of neuroinflammation (i.e., choline) than concordant Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. GDS versus Meyer comparisons indicated that discordant GDS(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter and lower levels of energy metabolism (i.e., creatine) than concordant GDS(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. In both sets of analyses, the discordant group did not differ from the concordant impaired group on any neuroimaging measure.
The Meyer criteria failed to capture a substantial portion of PLWH with brain abnormalities. These findings support continued use of Frascati or GDS criteria to detect HIV-associated CNS dysfunction.
In the present study, an effective secondary selection of transgressive variants from a homozygous population of Pusa Sugandh 3 (PS3) has led to the development of basmati variant SKUA 494. SKUA 494 exhibited a grain yield (7.9 t/ha) with superiority of 21.5% over its progenitor (6.5 t/ha). Besides, the genotype revealed an earliness of about 13 and 15 days for flowering and maturity, respectively. Hulling, milling and head rice recovery traits of SKUA 494 were comparatively better over the controls PS3 and Pusa Basmati 1509. No significant differences in the cooking quality were observed in SKUA 494 over its parental line. Quality traits of SKUA 494 revealed an intermediate score for alkali spreading value, besides similar values for gel consistency and amylose content in comparison to PS3. On the basis of stability variables, stability index and overall mean for most of the traits, SKUA 494 depicted stable performance across the locations and over the years. Molecular analysis based on simple sequence repeat markers revealed polymorphism at locus flanking the quantitative trait loci for days to heading (Hd6) between SKUA 494 and its parent (PS3). Based on overall superiority in the performance and adaptability of SKUA 494, the variety has been recommended to farmers for general cultivation under temperate ecology.
The effect of cooling rate on the phase composition of gas atomized Raney type catalysts was studied using the Ni-75 at.% Al composition. The resulting particles were sieved into 3 standard size fractions and analysed using XRD with Rietveld refinement: as expected the three phases, Al₃Ni₂, Al₃Ni, and Al-Al₃Ni eutectic were identified. Differing phase compositions in the 3 size ranges were identified offering a possible explanation for varying catalytic activity with cooling rate, the higher cooling rates experienced by the smaller droplets allow less time for the peritectic conversion of Al₃Ni₂ to Al₃Ni to proceed. This in turn results in a more Al-rich residual liquid, increasing the volume fraction of eutectic. This was further confirmed when analysing the microstructure using SEM backscatter imaging. Al₃Ni₂ was found to be encased in a shell of Al₃Ni characteristic of peritectic reactions. The remainder of the alloy was found to consist of Al-Al₃Ni eutectic. The SEM backscatter imaging also indicated that the larger particles displayed and a more globular structure than smaller particles. Similar Raney type Ni-75 at.% Al doped with 1.5 at.% Cr were synthesised using the same method and sieved into the same 3 standard size fractions. It was found that the Cr doped alloys exhibited a more dendritic character than the undoped samples in the corresponding size fraction, although the material still displayed an increasingly dendritic character with increasing cooling rate. The phase composition found by Rietveld refinement also followed a similar trend to the undoped samples with decreasing amounts of Al₃Ni formed at the higher cooling rates. However, significant amounts of an additional phase, Al₁₃Cr₂, were also observed. Rietveld refinement found that a larger amount of Al₁₃Cr₂ was present than could be accounted for by the addition of 1.5 at.% Cr . This can be explained by the substitution of Ni onto the Cr lattice, as confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Al₁₃Cr₂ was found to be located mostly at the boundary of the Al₃Ni and Al-Al₃Ni eutectic phases during elemental mapping and quantitative image analysis of backscattered electron micrographs. This indicates that precipitation of Al₁₃Cr₂ is towards the end of the solidification process. The relatively large amounts of the Al-rich Al₁₃Cr₂ may explain the enhanced catalytic activity observed following leaching of Cr-doped Raney catalysts.
To verify dose delivery and quality assurance of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer.
The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) H&N phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and films, were imaged with computed tomography scan and the reconstructed image was transferred to pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS). On TPS, the planning target volume (PTV), secondary target volume (STV) and organ at risk (OAR) were delineated manually and a treatment plan was made. The dose constraints were determined for the concerned organs according to IROC-H prescription. The treatment plan was optimised using adoptive convolution algorithm to improve dose homogeneity and conformity. The dose calculation was performed using C.C Convolution algorithm and a Varian True Beam linear accelerator was used to deliver the treatment plan to the H&N phantom. The delivered radiation dose to the phantom was measured through TLDs and GafChromic external beam radiotherapy 2 (EBT2) films. The dosimetric performance of the VMAT delivery was studied by analysing percent dose difference, isodose line profile and gamma analysis of the TPS-computed dose and linac-delivered doses.
The percent dose difference of 3.8% was observed between the planned and measured doses of TLDs and a 1.5-mm distance to agreement (DTA) was observed by comparing isodose line profiles. Passed the gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm was with good percentages.
The dosimetric performance of VMAT delivery for a challenging H&N radiotherapy can be verified using TLDs and films embedded in an anthropomorphic H&N phantom.
This work explores the uplift history of the best exposed marine terraces in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula (eastern Al Hajar Mountains). A multidisciplinary approach was employed, including a topographic survey, 14C dating, thin section studies, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Six distinctive marine terraces with widths ranging from tenth of meters to kilometers and elevations from 5 to ~400 m were studied. These terraces record an along-strike heterogeneous uplift history, while they show temporally variable uplift rates ranging between 0.9 to 6.7 mm/yr, which correlates well with other published uplift rates of marine terraces of the eastern Arabian Peninsula. We attribute the variable uplift along strike of the terraces, to a combination of uplift mechanisms: (1) during early to mid-Miocene along deep-rooted reverse faults that bound large crustal-scale blocks, (2) Pliocene or post-Pliocene uplift on the outer wall of the forebulge of the lower Arabian Plate as it bends to enter the Zagros-Makran subduction zone, and (3) a possible slowdown of subduction for the past ~40 ka.
Ternary lead chalcogenides, such as PbSxSe1-x, offer the possibility of room-temperature infrared detection with engineered cut-off wavelengths within the important 3-5 micron mid-wave infrared (MWIR) wavelength range. We present growth and characterization of aqueous spray-deposited thin films of PbSSe. Complexing agents in the aqueous medium suppress unwanted homogeneous reactions so that growth occurs only by the heterogeneous reaction on the hydrophilic substrate. The strongly-adherent films are smooth with a mirror-like finish. The films comprise densely packed grains with tens of nm dimensions and a total film thickness of ∼400-500 nm. Measured optical constants reveal absorption out to at least 4.5 μm wavelength and a ∼0.3 eV bandgap intermediate between those of PbS and PbSe. The semiconducting films are p-type with resistivity ∼1 and 85 Ohm-cm at 300 and 80 K, respectively. Sharp x-ray diffraction peaks identify the films as Clausthalite-Galena solid-state solution with a lattice constant that indicates an even mixture of PbS and PbSe. The photoconductive response is observed at both nitrogen and room temperature up to at least 2 kHz chopping frequency.
Self-assembled TiO2 films deposited by aqueous-spray deposition were investigated to evaluate morphology, crystalline phase, and infrared optical constants. The Anatase nano-crystalline film had ∼10 nm characteristic surface roughness sparsely punctuated by defects of not more than 200 nm amplitude. The film is highly transparent throughout the visible to wavelengths of 12 μm. The indirect band gap was determined to be 3.2 eV. Important for long-wave infrared applications is that dispersion in this region is weak compared with the more commonly used dielectric SiO2 for planar structures. An example application to a metal-insulator-metal resonant absorber is presented. The low-cost, large-area, atmospheric-pressure, chemical spray deposition method allows conformal fabrication on flexible substrates for long-wave infrared photonics.
Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis. We also evaluated the effects of blue light exposure in larval stage on various age and mass at metamorphosis and the mediatory role of cuticular melanin in carryover effects of larval stressors across metamorphosis. We found that larvae exposed to blue light decreased melanin contents in their exoskeleton with smaller mass and delayed metamorphosis than insects reared without blue light exposure. Across metamorphosis, lower melanotic encapsulation response and higher susceptibility to Beauveria bassiana was detected in adults that had been exposed to blue light at their larval stage, thereby constituting the first evidence that blue light impaired adult immune function in B. dorsalis as a carryover effect of larval exposure.
Spatial confinement effects on plasma parameters and surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg are studied by introducing a metallic blocker as well as argon (Ar) gas at different pressures. Nd: YAG laser at various fluences ranging from 7 to 28 J/cm2 was employed to generate Mg plasma. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6, 8, and 10 mm from the target surface; whereas spatial confinement offered by environmental gas is explored under four different pressures of 5, 10, 20, and 50 Torr. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis revealed that both plasma parameters, that is, excitation temperature and electron number density initially are strongly dependent upon both pressures of environmental gases and distances of blockers. The maximum electron temperature of Mg plasma is achieved at Ar gas pressure of 20 Torr, whereas maximum electron number density is achieved at 50 Torr. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the significant enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Mg plasma. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 8335 K and 2.4 × 1016 cm−3, respectively, whereas these values are enhanced to 12,200 K and 4 × 1016 cm−3 in the presence of blocker. Physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Mg plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg. It reveals the formation of ripples and channels that become more distinct in the presence of blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters for surface structuring.
Stigmatization of individuals with mental illnesses is widespread and serves as a major barrier to treatment. Specific alterations in mental health literacy about a disorder and its perceived treatability can change this social attitude. Assessing awareness of bipolar disorder is important as the WHO ranked bipolar disorder as the sixth cause of disability.
To assess mental health literacy (knowledge, attitudes and beliefs) in bipolar disorder among Saudi population.
Cross sectional study is currently conducted. We are using valid reliable questionnaire assessing the level of awareness, knowledge, attitude and behavior toward bipolar disorder. It is distributed to adult Saudi citizen (> 17 years of age) in malls, university and hospitals in Riyadh. People who are known to have psychiatric disorder and their caregivers or who works as psychiatrists and psychologists are excluded.
There are 200 samples collected, and 14 were excluded according to exclusion criteria. Fifty-two percent of our preliminary sample has heard about bipolar disorder, and more than half of them believe that neurotransmitter disturbances, substance use and psychological trauma are more likely to be causes of bipolar. In contrast, 49% of the sample did not choose psychiatric medication as effective treatment for bipolar, whereas more than half of them chose praying.
It is a first-of-its-kind research study in Saudi Arabia determining the current mental health literacy of bipolar disorder in Saudi Arabia. We are aiming to increase the sample size to reach 1000 participants. Further study will be needed to investigate possible interventions to improve such problem.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Natural language processing (NLP) techniques can be used to make inferences about peoples’ mental states from what they write on Facebook, Twitter and other social media. These inferences can then be used to create online pathways to direct people to health information and assistance and also to generate personalized interventions. Regrettably, the computational methods used to collect, process and utilize online writing data, as well as the evaluations of these techniques, are still dispersed in the literature. This paper provides a taxonomy of data sources and techniques that have been used for mental health support and intervention. Specifically, we review how social media and other data sources have been used to detect emotions and identify people who may be in need of psychological assistance; the computational techniques used in labeling and diagnosis; and finally, we discuss ways to generate and personalize mental health interventions. The overarching aim of this scoping review is to highlight areas of research where NLP has been applied in the mental health literature and to help develop a common language that draws together the fields of mental health, human-computer interaction and NLP.