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To determine whether electronically available comorbidities and laboratory values on admission are risk factors for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) across multiple institutions and whether they could be used to improve risk adjustment.
All patients at least 18 years of age admitted to 3 hospitals in Maryland between January 1, 2016, and January 1, 2018.
Comorbid conditions were assigned using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. Multivariable log-binomial regression was conducted for each hospital using significant covariates (P < .10) in a bivariate analysis. Standardized infection ratios (SIRs) were computed using current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) risk adjustment methodology and with the addition of Elixhauser score and individual comorbidities.
At hospital 1, 314 of 48,057 patient admissions (0.65%) had a HO-CDI; 41 of 8,791 patient admissions (0.47%) at community hospital 2 had a HO-CDI; and 75 of 29,211 patient admissions (0.26%) at community hospital 3 had a HO-CDI. In multivariable regression, Elixhauser score was a significant risk factor for HO-CDI at all hospitals when controlling for age, antibiotic use, and antacid use. Abnormal leukocyte level at hospital admission was a significant risk factor at hospital 1 and hospital 2. When Elixhauser score was included in the risk adjustment model, it was statistically significant (P < .01). Compared with the current CDC SIR methodology, the SIR of hospital 1 decreased by 2%, whereas the SIRs of hospitals 2 and 3 increased by 2% and 6%, respectively, but the rankings did not change.
Electronically available patient comorbidities are important risk factors for HO-CDI and may improve risk-adjustment methodology.
It is unclear if mild-to-moderate dehydration independently affects mood without confounders like heat exposure or exercise. This study examined the acute effect of cellular dehydration on mood. Forty-nine adults (55 % female, age 39 (sd 8) years) were assigned to counterbalanced, crossover trials. Intracellular dehydration was induced with 2-h (0·1 ml/kg per min) 3 % hypertonic saline (HYPER) infusion or 0·9 % isotonic saline (ISO) as a control. Plasma osmolality increased in HYPER (pre 285 (sd 3), post 305 (sd 4) mmol/kg; P < 0·05) but remained unchanged in ISO (pre 285 (sd 3), post 288 (sd 3) mmol/kg; P > 0·05). Mood was assessed with the short version of the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). The POMS sub-scale (confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia) increased in HYPER compared with ISO (P < 0·05). Total mood disturbance score (TMD) assessed by POMS increased from 10·3 (sd 0·9) to 16·6 (sd 1·7) in HYPER (P < 0·01), but not in ISO (P > 0·05). When TMD was stratified by sex, the increase in the HYPER trial was significant in females (P < 0·01) but not in males (P > 0·05). Following infusion, thirst and copeptin (surrogate for vasopressin) were also higher in females than in males (21·3 (sd 2·0), 14·1 (sd 1·4) pmol/l; P < 0·01) during HYPER. In conclusion, cellular dehydration acutely degraded specific aspects of mood mainly in women. The mechanisms underlying sex differences may be related to elevated thirst and vasopressin.
When a poorly conducting drop that is surrounded by a more conducting exterior fluid is subjected to an electric field, the drop can deform into an oblate shape at low field strengths. Such drops become unstable at high field strengths and display two types of dynamics, dimpling and equatorial streaming, the physics of which is currently not understood. If the drop is more viscous, dimples form and grow at the poles of the drop and eventually the discocyte-shaped drop breaks up to form a torus. If the exterior fluid is more viscous, the drop deforms into a lens and sheds rings from the equator that subsequently break into a number of smaller droplets. A theoretical explanation as to why dimple- and lens-shaped drops occur, and the mechanisms for the onset of these instabilities, are provided by determining steady-state solutions by simulation and inferring their stability from bifurcation analysis. For large drop viscosities, electric shear stress is shown to play a dominant role and to result in dimpling. For small drop viscosities, equatorial normal stresses (electric, hydrodynamic and capillary) become unbounded and lead to the lens shape.
Clinical trial participation among US Hispanics remains low, despite a significant effort by research institutions nationwide. ResearchMatch, a national online platform, has matched 113,372 individuals interested in participating in research with studies conducted by 8778 researchers. To increase accessibility to Spanish speakers, we translated the ResearchMatch platform into Spanish by implementing tenets of health literacy and respecting linguistic and cultural diversity across the US Hispanic population. We describe this multiphase process, preliminary results, and lessons learned.
Translation of the ResearchMatch site consisted of several activities including: (1) improving the English language site’s reading level, removing jargon, and using plain language; (2) obtaining a professional Spanish translation of the site and incorporating iterative revisions by a panel of bilingual community members from diverse Hispanic backgrounds; (3) technical development and launch; and (4) initial promotion.
The Spanish language version was launched in August 2018, after 11 months of development. Community input improved the initial translation, and early registration and use by researchers demonstrate the utility of Spanish ResearchMatch in engaging Hispanics. Over 12,500 volunteers in ResearchMatch self-identify as Hispanic (8.5%). From August 2018 to March 2020, 162 volunteers registered through the Spanish language version of ResearchMatch, and over 500 new and existing volunteers have registered a preference to receive messages about studies in Spanish.
By applying the principles of health literacy and cultural competence, we developed a Spanish language translation of ResearchMatch. Our multiphase approach to translation included key principles of community engagement that should prove informative to other multilingual web-based platforms.
Lack of participation in clinical trials (CTs) is a major barrier for the evaluation of new pharmaceuticals and devices. Here we report the results of the analysis of a dataset from ResearchMatch, an online clinical registry, using supervised machine learning approaches and a deep learning approach to discover characteristics of individuals more likely to show an interest in participating in CTs.
We trained six supervised machine learning classifiers (Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier (KNC), Adaboost Classifier (ABC) and a Random Forest Classifier (RFC)), as well as a deep learning method, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), using a dataset of 841,377 instances and 20 features, including demographic data, geographic constraints, medical conditions and ResearchMatch visit history. Our outcome variable consisted of responses showing specific participant interest when presented with specific clinical trial opportunity invitations (‘yes’ or ‘no’). Furthermore, we created four subsets from this dataset based on top self-reported medical conditions and gender, which were separately analysed.
The deep learning model outperformed the machine learning classifiers, achieving an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8105.
The results show sufficient evidence that there are meaningful correlations amongst predictor variables and outcome variable in the datasets analysed using the supervised machine learning classifiers. These approaches show promise in identifying individuals who may be more likely to participate when offered an opportunity for a clinical trial.
We now know that in Classical Athens there were as many as 200 occupations. This essay shows that not all occupations enjoyed an equal amount of status and prestige. Four occupations are studied: actors, especially those in the Associations of Dionysiac Artists, philosophers, doctors, and sculptors. These occupations required extensive training and acquired some features associated with modern professions.
The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium, about 60 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported CTSA hubs at academic health care institutions nationwide, is charged with improving the clinical and translational research enterprise. Together with the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), the Consortium implemented Common Metrics and a shared performance improvement framework.
Initial implementation across hubs was assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods over a 19-month period. The primary outcome was implementation of three Common Metrics and the performance improvement framework. Challenges and facilitators were elicited.
Among 59 hubs with data, all began implementing Common Metrics, but about one-third had completed all activities for three metrics within the study period. The vast majority of hubs computed metric results and undertook activities to understand performance. Differences in completion appeared in developing and carrying out performance improvement plans. Seven key factors affected progress: hub size and resources, hub prior experience with performance management, alignment of local context with needs of the Common Metrics implementation, hub authority in the local institutional structure, hub engagement (including CTSA Principal Investigator involvement), stakeholder engagement, and attending training and coaching.
Implementing Common Metrics and performance improvement in a large network of research-focused organizations proved feasible but required substantial time and resources. Considerable heterogeneity across hubs in data systems, existing processes and personnel, organizational structures, and local priorities of home institutions created disparate experiences across hubs. Future metric-based performance management initiatives across heterogeneous local contexts should anticipate and account for these types of differences.
To model the potential impact and equity impact of fortifying rice on nutritional adequacy of different subpopulations in Nepal.
Using 24-h dietary recall data and a household consumption survey, we estimated: rice intakes; probability of adequacy (PA) of eight micronutrients commonly fortified in rice (vitamin A, niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), thiamin (B1), folate (B9), Fe and Zn) plus riboflavin (B2), vitamin C and Ca and mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of these micronutrients. We modelled: no fortification; fortification of purchased rice, averaged across all households and in rice-buying households only. We compared adequacy increases between population subgroups.
(i) Dhanusha and Mahottari districts of Nepal (24-h recall) and (ii) all agro-ecological zones of Nepal (consumption data).
(i) Pregnant women (n 128), mothers-in-law and male household heads; (ii) households (n 4360).
Unfortified diets were especially inadequate in vitamins B12, A, B9, Zn and Fe. Fortification of purchased rice in rice-purchasing households increased PA > 0·9 for thiamin, niacin, B6, folate and Zn, but B12 and Fe remained inadequate even after fortification (PA range 0·3–0·9). Pregnant women’s increases exceeded men’s for thiamin, niacin, B6, folate and MPA; men had larger gains in vitamin A, B12 and Zn. Adequacy improved more in the hills (coefficient 0·08 (95 % CI 0·05, 0·10)) and mountains (coefficient 0·07 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·14)) but less in rural areas (coefficient −0·05 (95 % CI −0·09, −0·01)).
Consumption of purchased fortified rice improves adequacy and gender equity of nutrient intake, especially in non-rice-growing areas.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Traumatic interpersonal experiences are associated with higher rates of chronic pain, increased pain severity and poorer functioning. The objective of this ongoing project is to obtain prevalence rates for various forms of interpersonal trauma among individuals with chronic pain, and to explore the potential mediating effect of heightened sensory and social sensitivity on the experience of pain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients at Michigan Medicine between the ages of 18 and 65 complete an online survey. Patients are being recruited through a tertiary-care, outpatient pain clinic, as well as through an online health research portal. We aim to recruit 700 participants; we currently have 59.6% of our goal (n = 417). Participants also have the option to be included in a registry from which we can recruit for future studies. Approximately 85% of our participants have agreed to be in the registry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary data show that, of the 263 (63.4%) participants for whom data on chronic pain is available, 167 (63.5%) report chronic or persistent pain over the previous 3 months. Of these, 54% reported some form of childhood abuse or neglect. Approximately 41% reported four or more adverse childhood experiences. Additionally, of the 122 participants (73%) who were in a current romantic relationship, 20% reported some form of physical violence victimization from their romantic partner. We anticipate that interpersonal trauma will be associated with poorer perceptions of social relationships, higher sensory sensitivity, and higher perceived stress. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The PASE Project parent study will be used to better understand prevalence rates for various forms of interpersonal trauma in our chronic pain population. Future analyses and studies will explore alternative pathways linking interpersonal trauma to the experience of pain through sensory and social sensitivity, which will inform interventions aimed at reducing pain among patients with a history of trauma.
Variations of circadian activity profiles and sleep patterns are altered in various neurospsychiatric disorders. In this context, changes in heart rate (HR), -variability (HRV) and related parameters have been reported, too. However, data situation is presently heterogeneous and nonstandard-ized. As long-term evaluation may provide more valuable information, applicability and data us-ability of a new data acquisition system was tested in patients with major depression.
The course of a depressive episode in inpatients was assessed by standard psychometric in-struments. ECG and motor activity were recorded continuously with a new wearable sensor sys-tem (EP04106001.3) consisting of a textile with three electrodes for 1-lead ECG recordings, and an electronic module (2D-accelerometer, microcontroller, memory, rechargeable batteries, Bluetooth unit) to be attached to the waistband of standard underpants.
ECG signal quality highly depended on physical activity, but sufficient data quality was obtained during sleep. From the accelerometer signal, time in bed and movement time were identifiable. Preliminary data of patients (n=15) versus healthy controls (n=9) showed a reduction of HRV in several time domain parameters, high frequency (HF) power, and daytime activity (24h/day, mean 8 weeks).
This first pilot study demonstrates alterations of physiological parameters potentially relevant for depression, with continuous monitoring of inpatient treatment period. Facing long-term monitoring the device proved to be robust and safe and might provide a psychobiological profile of the clini-cal course of depression, useful for evaluation of disorder and therapy.
This work is part of the European research project ‘MyHeart’ (6th framework, IST 507816).
Neuropsychological testing reveals a pattern of impairment among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which implicates the orbitofrontal region. Studies of neuropsychological function in OCD differ regarding performance deficits on classical tests of frontal executive function. In some studies, OCD patients did not demonstrate impaired performance on tests of executive function. However, other researchers have documented performance deficits among OCD patients on measures of executive function. Patients with OCD also exhibit performance deficits on tests of visual/spatial memory and verbal memory. Again, in some studies, OCD patients did not demonstrate impaired performance on tests of memory function. How can we account for the conflicting findings? One possibility is that performance deficits on tests of cognitive function are associated with comorbid conditions. In prior work, we observed that OCD patients who did poorly on executive function tasks obtained high scores on a measure of schizotypal personality. A second possibility is that executive function deficits among patients with OCD are associated with comorbid depressive symptoms.
In the present study, a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to patients with OCD and matched healthy control subjects. We also administered dimensional measures of schizotypal personality and depression to patients with OCD and controls. We conducted analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), with scores on measures of schizotypal personality and depression used as covariates.
OCD patients demonstrated performance deficits on measures of delayed memory, response inhibition, alternation learning, and obtained significantly higher scores on measures of disinhibition, impulsivity, and temporolimbic symptoms; however, OCD patients did not exhibit impaired performance on tests of executive function and verbal fluency, and did not report a significantly greater number of dysexecutive symptoms, when coexistent depressive and schizotypal symptoms were taken into account.
Findings are consistent with the contention that dysfunction of an orbitofrontal-limbic network underlies OCD.
Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of violence. The successful identification of the illness specific factors that contribute to that risk could lead to the development of novel therapeutic risk management strategies.
To identify cognitive and emotion processing deficits that are linked to violence risk in schizophrenia.
Fifty male patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and thirty-nine healthy controls were assessed across a range of intellectual, executive, emotion and social processing domains. Lifetime propensity to violence was quantified in terms of frequency, severity and victim outcome.
General intellectual ability and memory were not significantly associated with violence propensity. Violent patients showed significantly poorer response inhibition, after accounting for relevant clinical variables. A greater lifetime propensity to violence was associated with an attentional bias towards anger, a heightened sensitivity to the recognition of fear, with poorer complex Theory of Mind performance.
Our results allow us to propose a hypothetical model of the risk of violence in schizophrenia. We suggest that heightened sensitivity to environmental negative emotional cues and poorer understanding of complex social situations, combined with a poorer ability both to quickly process but also inhibit pre-potent responses, results in a greater propensity to violence in schizophrenia. We propose that this model sits alongside risk associated with other factors such as illicit drug use. These findings need replication but could have implications for more effective treatment and management of patients with schizophrenia.
Aberrant activity of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is a common theme across pharmacologic treatment efficacy prediction studies. The functioning of the SCC in psychotherapeutic interventions is relatively understudied, as are functional differences among SCC subdivisions. We conducted functional connectivity analyses (rsFC) on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, collected before and after a course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), using seeds from three SCC subdivisions.
Resting-state data were collected from unmedicated patients with current MDD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 > 16) before and after 14-sessions of CBT monotherapy. Treatment outcome was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), anterior subcallosal cingulate (aSCC), and Brodmann’s area 25 (BA25) masks were used as seeds in connectivity analyses that assessed baseline rsFC and symptom severity, changes in connectivity related to symptom improvement after CBT, and prediction of treatment outcomes using whole-brain baseline connectivity.
Pretreatment BDI negatively correlated with pretreatment rACC ~ dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and aSCC ~ lateral prefrontal cortex rsFC. In a region-of-interest longitudinal analysis, rsFC between these regions increased post-treatment (p < 0.05FDR). In whole-brain analyses, BA25 ~ paracentral lobule and rACC ~ paracentral lobule connectivities decreased post-treatment. Whole-brain baseline rsFC with SCC did not predict clinical improvement.
rsFC features of rACC and aSCC, but not BA25, correlated inversely with baseline depression severity, and increased following CBT. Subdivisions of SCC involved in top-down emotion regulation may be more involved in cognitive interventions, while BA25 may be more informative for interventions targeting bottom-up processing. Results emphasize the importance of subdividing the SCC in connectivity analyses.
Many institutions are attempting to implement patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Because PROs often change clinical workflows significantly for patients and providers, implementation choices can have major impact. While various implementation guides exist, a stepwise list of decision points covering the full implementation process and drawing explicitly on a sociotechnical conceptual framework does not exist.
To facilitate real-world implementation of PROs in electronic health records (EHRs) for use in clinical practice, members of the EHR Access to Seamless Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Consortium developed structured PRO implementation planning tools. Each institution pilot tested the tools. Joint meetings led to the identification of critical sociotechnical success factors.
Three tools were developed and tested: (1) a PRO Planning Guide summarizes the empirical knowledge and guidance about PRO implementation in routine clinical care; (2) a Decision Log allows decision tracking; and (3) an Implementation Plan Template simplifies creation of a sharable implementation plan. Seven lessons learned during implementation underscore the iterative nature of planning and the importance of the clinician champion, as well as the need to understand aims, manage implementation barriers, minimize disruption, provide ample discussion time, and continuously engage key stakeholders.
Highly structured planning tools, informed by a sociotechnical perspective, enabled the construction of clear, clinic-specific plans. By developing and testing three reusable tools (freely available for immediate use), our project addressed the need for consolidated guidance and created new materials for PRO implementation planning. We identified seven important lessons that, while common to technology implementation, are especially critical in PRO implementation.