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Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Cyathostomins are the most prevalent equine intestinal parasites and resistance has been reported in these nematodes against all 3 licensed anthelmintic classes. Strategies need to be developed that are less dependent upon drugs and more reliant on management-based control. To develop these we need to understand natural transmission patterns better. Here, we analysed longitudinal fecal egg count (FEC) data from 5 pony populations used for conservation purposes. We tested how egg excretion varied amongst populations and individuals, and how this was affected by age and climate. There was evidence for consistency in FECs over time at the individual level; this was generally weak and accounted for <10% of the total variance. Animals <5 years old had higher FECs and there was profound seasonal variation in FECs, with highest levels recorded in spring/summer. Effects of monthly temperature and rainfall explained most, but not all, of the observed seasonal variation and associations between climate measures and FECs were stronger in younger versus adult animals. One population was occasionally treated with anthelmintics and analysis of this population suggested that treatment substantially altered the seasonal dynamics. This paper highlights the variability in strongyle egg excretion amongst individuals and the factors involved in this variation.
The Lower Permian of the Haushi basin, Interior Oman (Al Khlata Formation to Saiwan Formation/lower Gharif member) records climate change from glaciation, through marine sedimentation in the Haushi sea, to subtropical desert. To investigate the palaeoclimatic evolution of the Haushi Sea we used O, C, and Sr isotopes from 31 brachiopod shells of eight species collected bed by bed within the type-section of the Saiwan Formation. We assessed diagenesis by scanning electron microscopy of ultrastructure, cathodoluminescence, and geochemistry, and rejected fifteen shells not meeting specific preservation criteria. Spiriferids and spiriferinids show better preservation of the fibrous secondary layer than do orthotetids and productids and are therefore more suitable for isotopic analysis. δ18O of −3·7 to −3·1℅ from brachiopods at the base of the Saiwan Formation are probably related to glacial meltwater. Above this, an increase in δ18O may indicate ice accumulation elsewhere in Gondwana or more probably that the Haushi sea was an evaporating embayment of the Neotethys Ocean. δ13C varies little and is within the range of published data: its trend towards heavier values is consistent with increasing aridity and oligotrophy. Saiwan Sr isotope signatures are less radiogenic than those of the Sakmarian LOWESS seawater curve, which is based on extrapolation between few data points. In the scenario of evaporation in a restricted Haushi basin, the variation in Sr isotope composition may reflect a fluvial component.
The prenatal diet can program an individual's cardiovascular system towards later higher resting blood pressure and kidney dysfunction, but the extent to which these programmed responses are directly determined by the timing of maternal nutritional manipulation is unknown. In the present study we examined whether maternal nutrient restriction targeted over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. days 28–80 of gestation, resulted in altered blood pressure or kidney development in the juvenile offspring. This was undertaken in 6-month-old sheep born to mothers fed control (100–150 % of the recommended metabolisable energy (ME) intake for that stage of gestation) or nutrient-restricted (NR; 50 % ME; n 6) diets between days 28 and 80 of gestation. Controls were additionally grouped according to normal (>3, n 7) or low body condition score (LBCS; <2, n 6), thereby enabling us to examine the effect of maternal body composition on later cardiovascular function. From day 80 to term (approximately 147 d) all sheep were fed to 100 % ME. Offspring were weaned at 12 weeks and pasture-reared until 6 months of age when cardiovascular function was determined. Both LBCS and NR sheep tended to have lower resting systolic (control, 85 (SE 2); LBCS, 77 (SE 3); NR, 77 (SE 3) mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure relative to controls. Total nephron count was markedly lower in both LBCS and NR relative to controls (LBCS, 59 (SE 6); NR, 56 (SE 12) %). Our data suggest that maternal body composition around conception is as important as the level of nutrient intake during early pregnancy in programming later cardiovascular health.
The present study examined the ontogeny of mitochondrial protein abundance in adipose tissue and lungs over the first month of life in the sheep and the extent to which this may be altered by maternal undernutrition during the final month of gestation. The ontogeny of uncoupling protein (UCP), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and cytochrome c abundance were determined in adipose tissue and lungs sampled from near-term fetuses and young sheep aged 4 h, 1, 7 and 30 d. In adipose tissue, the abundance of UCP1, VDAC and cytochrome c all peaked at 1 d of age and then decreased by 30 d of age, at which stage the brown adipose tissue-specific UCP1 was no longer detectable but UCP2 was clearly abundant. For the lungs, however, UCP2 and VDAC abundance both peaked 7 d after birth and then decreased by 30 d of age. During postnatal development, therefore, a marked change in mitochondrial protein abundance occurs within both adipose tissue and lungs. Maternal nutrient restriction had no effect on lamb growth or tissue weights at 30 d of age but was associated with increased abundance of UCP2 and VDAC but not cytochrome c in both adipose tissue and lungs. These mitochondrial adaptations within both adipose tissue and the lungs of offspring born to previously nutrient-restricted mothers may compromise adipose tissue and lung function during periods of environmental stress.
Leptin is a 16 kDa hormone which has been shown to have a major physiological role in the control of energy balance. Leptin is produced primarily in white adipose tissue, although there is evidence for its production in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the placenta. BAT is critically important for the initiation of non-shivering thermogenesis in the newborn through the BAT-specific uncoupling protein (UCP), UCP1. This factor is particularly important in lambs in which levels of UCP1 peak at birth, concomitant with a rapid decline in plasma leptin levels. Our studies have examined the effect of acute and chronic administration of leptin to neonatal lambs, investigating effects on colonic temperature, UCP1 and thermogenic potential of BAT. Administration of leptin in sequential physiological doses of 10, 100 and 100 µg to neonatal lambs caused a modest increase in colonic temperature which was not observed in weight-matched vehicle-treated controls. This increase in colonic temperature was not mediated by an increase in either abundance or thermogenic potential of UCP1, as previously shown in adult rodents. UCP1 mRNA levels were 30 % lower in leptin-treated lambs, which is also contradictory to findings in adult rodents. Leptin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent rise in plasma leptin, with levels at the end of the study being almost twenty times greater in leptin-treated animals. To determine whether these findings in neonatal lambs were transient due to the complex milieu of hormones present after birth, we examined the effect of chronic leptin treatment over 6 d. Pairs of lambs were treated daily, from the second to seventh day of life with 100 µg leptin or vehicle. Colonic temperatures of leptin- and vehicle-treated animals remained similar throughout the study. UCP1 abundance was significantly lower in the leptin-treated animals, suggesting that the drop in UCP1 mRNA seen in the previous study had been translated to protein levels. In conclusion, the decline in plasma leptin levels at birth may be a signal to initiate enteral feeding. In lambs, the rapid loss of UCP1 mRNA, which occurs within the first few days of life, appears to be accelerated by leptin administration, possibly stimulating the development of white adipose tissue and generation of body heat through mechanisms other than non-shivering thermogenesis by UCP1 in BAT.
We examined the effect of time after birth and β3-adrenergic agonist (Zeneca D7114) administration on uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) abundance and thermoregulation in the lamb. Forty twin lambs, all born normally at term, were maintained at a cold ambient temperature of between 3 and 8 °C. At 0.5, 1.75, 5.25, 11.25 and 23.25 h after birth eight sets of twins were fed 20 ml of formula milk ± 10 mg kg-1 of β3-adrenergic agonist, and 45 min after feeding brown adipose tissue (BAT) was sampled. Colonic temperature was measured and BAT analysed for UCP1 abundance, GDP-binding to mitochondrial protein (i.e. thermogenic activity) and catecholamine content. Colonic temperature declined between 1.25 and 6 h from 40.2 °C to 39.2 °C and then increased to 39.8 °C at 12 h, but increased after feeding at all ages. UCP1 abundance increased from 1.25 h after birth, to peak at 2 h after birth in controls, compared with 6 h after birth in β3-adrenergic agonist-treated lambs. The level of GDP-binding to mitochondrial protein did not change significantly with age but was increased by β3-adrenergic agonist treatment. The noradrenaline (norepinephrine) content of BAT increased between 1.25 and 12 h after birth, irrespective of β3-adrenergic agonist administration. The total weight of perirenal BAT plus its lipid, protein and mitochondrial protein content declined over the first 6 h of life. UCP1 development continues over the first 24 h of neonatal life, and can be manipulated by β3-adrenergic agonist administration. This may represent one method of improving thermoregulation in newborn lambs. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 65-70.
Selective action at limbic cortical dopamine D2-like receptors could mediate atypical antipsychotic efficacy with few extrapyramidal side-effects.
To test the hypothesis that quetiapine has ‘limbic selective’ D2/D3 receptor occupancy in vivo.
The high-affinity D2/D3 ligand [123I]-epidepride and single photon emission tomography were used to estimate D2/D3 specific binding and an index of relative percentage D2/D3 occupancy in striatal and temporal cortical regions for quetiapine-treated patients (n=6). Quetiapine-, and previously studied typical-antipsychotic- and clozapine-treated patients were compared.
Mean (s.d.) relative percentage D2/D3 receptor occupancy by quetiapine was 32.0% (14.6) in striatum and 60.1% (17.2) in temporal cortex (mean daily dose 450 mg: range 300–700 mg/day). Quetiapine treatment resulted in limbic selective D2/D3 blockade similar to clozapine and significantly higher than typical antipsychotics.
Preliminary data suggest that limbic selective D2/D3 receptor blockade is important for atypical drug action.
Nearly a decade ago, “yellow giants” were introduced as a new class of low-amplitude radial-velocity variable stars. In this report we discuss new results for 12 spectral type K and early-M giants based on long-term monitoring using both the hydrogen-fluoride and iodine-cell techniques. We compare these results with those of published data for 3 additional stars (ϒ Cephei, β Geminorum, and β Ophiuchi), and discuss possible implications for the underlying physical mechanism(s).
The aim of the study was to measure the impact of Schistosoma
japonicum and Trichuris suis infections in young growing
pigs fed low- or high-protein diets. Thirty-two pigs, 6–10 weeks
old, were randomly allocated to 2 groups receiving either
a high- or a low-protein diet. After 11 weeks half of the pigs from
each group were infected with 1500 S. japonicum
cercariae and 4000 T. suis eggs. The weight of the pigs was
measured throughout the study, and blood and faecal samples
were collected every second week from the time of infection. At the time
of infection the low-protein pigs had significantly
lower mean body weights, haemoglobin and albumin levels compared with
the high-protein pigs, and this pattern
continued throughout the study. The serum albumin concentration was
further significantly reduced in the infected low-protein pigs compared
the non-infected low-protein pigs. Significantly more S. japonicum
worms as well as faecal and
tissue eggs were found in the low-protein pigs compared with the
high-protein pigs. No differences between the 2 diet
groups were observed in T. suis establishment rates or faecal
egg excretion. We conclude that this low-protein diet increased
the establishment rates of S. japonicum, favoured larger
deposits of S. japonicum eggs in the liver and faecal egg excretion,
reduced weight gains and caused anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia in young
growing pigs as compared with a high-protein diet.
The International Mineralogical Association's approved amphibole nomenclature has been revised in order to simplify it, make it more consistent with divisions generally at 50%, define prefixes and modifiers more precisely and include new amphibole species discovered and named since 1978, when the previous scheme was approved. The same reference axes form the basis of the new scheme and most names are little changed but compound species names like tremolitic hornblende (now magnesiohornblende) are abolished and also crossite (now glaucophane or ferroglaucophane or magnesioriebeckite or riebeckite), tirodite (now manganocummingtonite) and dannemorite (now manganogrunerite). The 50% rule has been broken only to retain tremolite and actinolite as in the 1978 scheme so the sodic calcic amphibole range has therefore been expanded. Alkali amphiboles are now sodic amphiboles. The use of hyphens is defined. New amphibole names approved since 1978 include nyböite, leakeite, kornite, ungarettiite, sadanagaite and cannilloite. All abandoned names are listed. The formulae and source of the amphibole end member names are listed and procedures outlined to calculate Fe3+ and Fe2+ when not determined by analysis.
Effects of high magnetic field and tensile stress on martensitic transformation behavior and microstructure at 4 K have been studied in Fe-31Ni-0.4C and Fe-27Ni-0.8C shape memory alloys. It was found that the critical magnetic field to induce martensitic transformation is between 7.5 T and 10 T. In the case of Fe-27Ni-0.8C, martensitic transformation is stress-induced at lower level of stress in magnetic field than in the case when no magnetic Field is applied. The amount of martensite formed by increasing the magnetic field under constant stress is larger than that formed by increasing the stress in the constant magnetic field.
The decomposition and crystallization above the glass temperature of the bulk metallic glass Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 and the crystallization during solidification of the melt were investigated by means of different analytical methods, including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Field Ion Microscopy with Atom Probe (FIM/AP).
Dependent on the thermal history these phase transitions lead to different phases and different microstructures of the alloy. During annealing above the glass tremperature the decomposition of the alloy into two supercooled liquid phases is observed by the formation of nanosized precipitates, which differ from the matrix by their Be and Ti contents. This decomposition retards significantly the subsequent crystallization, however it does not inhibit the formation of the phases which crystallize if the decomposition is bypassed by appropriate heat treatment. By stepwise crystallization a nanosized microstructure is formed consisting of three metastable phases and of stable Zr2Cu. This microstructure differ significantly from the crystalline equilibrium microstructure resulting from slow cooling of the melt. Crystallization of the amorphous alloy by very fast heating causes totally different microstructures.
The effect of heating and cooling on the long-range order transformation in stoichiometric CuAu is investigated by several complementary measuring methods. Measurements of heat flow, resistometry and acoustic emission are done dynamically by linear heating/cooling. It is shown that measuring dynamically yields the expected effect of undercooling, which decreases with decreasing cooling rate. The dependence of undercooling on cooling rate is compared with the concept of continuous cooling for glass forming. A small influence of heating rate on disordering temperature is reported (retro-effect).